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The Rothschilds in Caricature

Alfred Rubens

<plain_text><page sequence="1">The Rothschilds in Caricature* ALFRED RUBENS, F.S.A. F.R.Hist.S. This paper is concerned with the five sons of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, of Frankfort (1744-1812), and their descendants. The third son, Nathan Mayer (1777-1836), founder of the English house, was the first member of the family to attract the caricaturist's attention with the appearance in 1817 of Richard Dighton's 'A View from the Royal Exchange' (No. 1), republished in 1824 in an album entitled City Characters. It is typical of Dighton's work, a rather flattering portrait with the merest suggestion of caricature, the kind of portrait which brought him many private commissions like the Rothschild wedding group of 18301 and the portrait of Lionel Rothschild (No. 24). For other caricaturists Nathan was a delight with his squat, heavy figure, his coarse features, and his curious ill-fitting clothes, invariably black in colour, which retained the influence of the Frankfort ghetto. They also poked fun at his peculiar English. The caricaturist's portrait may usefully be compared with the description of Nathan given by two contem? porary writers. The first comes from Von Puckler-Muskau, the amiable German prince who toured Europe in the years 1826?1828. 'How could I leave the City', he writes, 'without visiting the true "Lion",?the sover? eign,?in a word Rothschild?' T found him in a poor obscure-looking place (his residence is in another part of the town)'. After des? cribing his conversation with Rothschild he continues, 'all this was said in a language quite peculiar to himself, half English, half German, ?the English part with a broad German accent, but with the imposing confidence of a man who feels such trifles to be beneath his attention. This truly original language struck me as very characteristic of a man who is unquestionably a person of genius, and of a certain sort of greatness of character'. On another occasion the prince drove out to have dinner with Rothschild at his country house at Stamford Hill, where the other guests were members of his family and some directors of the East India Company. He found it 'diverting to hear him explain to us the pictures around his dining room, (all portraits of the sovereigns of Europe, presented through their ministers,) and talk of the originals as his very good friends, and, in a certain sense, his equals'. He goes on, 'it shows great prudence in Mr. Rothschild to have accepted neither title nor order, and thus to have preserved a far more respectable independence. He doubtless owes much to the good advice of his extremely amiable and judicious wife, who excels him in tact and knowledge of the world, though not perhaps in acuteness and talents for business'.2 The second description comes from an American visitor to London who 'was struck with the regal air of a man, who was leaning against one of the columns, with his face towards the courtyard giving audience to a crowd of suppliants. He was a very common looking person, with heavy features, flabby pendent lips, and a projected fish eye. His figure, which was stout, awkward and ungainly, was enveloped in the loose folds of an ample surtout. Yet there was something commanding in his air and manner, and the deferential respect which seemed voluntarily rendered him by those who approached him, showed that he was no ordinary person'.3 A typical caricature portrait of Nathan is 'A Pillar of the Exchange' (No. 11), published in 1829, which shows him standing beside his favourite column in the Royal Exchange. His attachment to this particular position was well known and produced the following item in The Observer of 1 December 1833: 'Curious Scene in the Royal Exchange.? A strong sensation was created in the Royal * Paper delivered before the Society on 4 Novem? ber 1968. i Catalogue 1956 Exhibition 285. 2 H. L. H. von Puckler-Muskau, Tour in Germany, Holland and England in the years 1826, 1827 &amp; 1828, London 1832, pp. 62-65, 165-167. 3 Trans. XIII, p. 339. 76</page><page sequence="2">The Rothschilds in Caricature 77 Exchange on Tuesday in consequence of Mr. N. M. Rothschild, the eminent capitalist, being prevented from taking his usual station, with his back leaning against one of the pillars of the building at the south-east corner of the Royal Exchange. A Mr. Rose, of Trinity Square, placed himself in this spot just as Mr. Rothschild entered the 'Change to conduct his transactions in the Foreign Exchanges. In vain did Mr. Rothschild courteously remonstrate with the intruder? in vain did the Exchange porters exert themselves?Mr. Rose would not stir from the pillar, and Mr. Rothschild was ultimately compel]ed to retreat to the benches in the rear. Mr. Hume is not more attached to his place by a certain pillar in the House of Commons than Mr. Rothschild is to his accustomed station in the Exchange, and he was so excited by being displaced that it was some time before he could compose himself and commence business. We believe that some time ago a similar attempt was made to oust Mr. Rothschild from his pillar'. Nathan's favourite column was in the south? east corner of the Royal Exchange, a position reserved for the Jewish brokers and known as Jews' Walk.4 Nathan himself did not become one of the 12 sworn Jewish brokers licensed by the Corporation of London but his wife's father, Levy Barent Cohen, and two of her brothers, Joseph and Benjamin Cohen, were on the register, while another brother in-law, Moses Montefiore, with whom he was closely concerned in business, was admitted in 1815.5 Nathan, having commenced business in the City of London in 1805, had become by the end of the Napoleonic wars the outstanding financier of the day yet he managed to avoid the unwelcome attentions of the caricaturists until much later, when already, according to one popular writer, he was 'the first monied man in the world and the first also in support of all public charities'. Tom, a character invented by the same writer, takes his country cousin, Jerry, to visit the Royal Exchange and points out Nathan Rothschild: 'the second gentleman you perceive, dressed in black, from the statue is a sufficient instance of what may be accomplished by an industrious clever man in England'.6 There is an illustration of the scene with portraits after Dighton (No. 2). Other caricaturists were less flattering. 'A King bestowing favors on a great man's friend' (No. 3), published in 1824, shows Nathan as a crooked financier making miserly contributions to the Jewish poor. Nathan, in fact, only the previous year, in 1823, had, as a Warden of the Great Synagogue, prepared a scheme for improving the condition of the Jewish poor7 but his offer of a loan of ?500 to start it off was certainly not over-generous and the caricature may have been commissioned by a member of the synagogue. Jewish beggars were much in evidence at this time and they used to line up in St. Swithin's Lane waiting for Nathan to return to New Court from the Royal Exchange.8 The coachman in this caricature, a certain King, was the guard of the Royal Mail coach, 'a taciturn giant', who acted as Nathan's factotum.9 A different side of Nathan's communal activities is illustrated by 'The Wise Men of the East' (No. 14), which refers to the promi? nent part he took in promoting the Jewish Emancipation Bill of 1830, introduced in the House of Commons by Robert Grant. The formation of the Alliance Assurance Company by Nathan Rothschild and Moses Montefiore in 1824 was responsible for a particularly virulent caricature, 'A New Court Fire Screen' (No. 4). Although the company was capitalised at ?5m.?an enormous sum at that time?there was a very favourable response and the shares immediately rose to a premium. The company started business on 4 The sign 'Jew's Walk', was acquired by Moses Montefiore when the Royal Exchange was rebuilt in 1842. (Catalogue 1956 Exhibition 398.) After Nathan's death the three sons who conducted the English business continued to occupy the same position on the Royal Exchange (City Men and City Manners, London, 1852, p. 99). 5 Guildhall Records. List of Brokers 1787-1815. Misc. Ill, p. 85. 6 Pierce Egan, Life in London, London, 1821, pp. 84, 283. 7 G. Roth, History of the Great Synagogue, London, 1950, p. 236. 8 City Men and City Manners, London, 1852, p. 170. 9 Wolf's Essays, p. 273.</page><page sequence="3">78 Alfred Rubens 23 March 1824 in temporary offices at 4 New Court, which Moses Montefiore had just vacated. Benjamin Gompertz (1779-1865), another brother-in-law of Rothschild, was the first actuary. The Alliance was bound to meet opposition from vested interests, particularly as it intended to compete for the very profitable marine insurance which by a charter of 1720 was a monopoly shared among the Royal Exchange Assurance, the London Assurance, and Lloyds. One way of denigrating the pro? moters was to show them speaking French. A benevolent-looking Nathan as 'Foreman of the Alliance' (No. 5) may have been his own response to the previous caricature. One of Nathan's early transactions with the British Government concerned the transfer of currency for the payment of Wellington's troops on the Continent during the Napoleonic wars. This earned him the gratitude and friendship of John Charles Herries (1778? 1855), who became Commissary-in-Chief in 1811. Their relationship was well known and suspect1 o, so much so that when Herries was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1827 there was great opposition and he was obliged to resign the following year and accept the minor post of Master of the Mint. In a letter dated 19 January 1828 to his brother Karl, Nathan commented: Consols have gone up because of our Ministers. Our friend Herries is broges [upset] because he has been given a poor job?he is broges, but I cannot help him. He must be patient, and perhaps he will get another job. Praise be to God that we have good news, as Russia will wait, through Wellington everybody is for sholem [peace] which does not surprise me, for our King in his speeches is nothing but sholem aleichemM In 'The Jew and the Doctor or secret influence behind the curtain' (No. 8) Nathan is seen handing Herries bags of gold. The title is taken from a farce, The Jew and the Doctor, by Thomas Dibdin, first produced in 1798. The caricature refers to a speech made by Mr. Duncombe in the House of Commons, in the course of which he said that in addition to the secret influence behind the Crown (Sir William Knighton, physician and Keeper of the Privy Purse to George IV) 'there was another being of a more substantial form who boasted to be the arbiter of peace and war, who possessed an unbounded credit in financial affairs and upon whom frequently depended the fate of nations and he trusted that the Duke of Wellington and the Secretary for the Home Dept. would not allow the finances of this great country to be controlled any longer by a Jew, or the distri? bution of the patronage of the Crown operated upon by the prescriptions of a physician'.12 The caricature also refers to a loan of ?50,000 which Wellington, through Herries, authorised Rothschild to make to Dom Miguel (1802 1866), who proclaimed himself King of Portu? gal in 1828. 'New Scene for the old farce of the Jew and the Doctor' (No. 9) and 'An untoward event' (No. 7) refer to the same situation. 'The Man wot knows how to drive a bargain' (No. 12) seems to suggest that Nathan was involved in an attempt to buy, or perhaps to bribe, a newspaper13 but nothing is known about this nor of Brookman, whose name appears on the caricature. 'The Protocol-Society in an uproar' (No. 15) shows Nathan at the Conference of London which was called to settle the Belgian question. In June 1831 the Belgian deputies refused to accept the decision of the Conference to allot Luxemburg and Limburg to Holland, and Nathan was consulted by the Conference in connection with a proposal to offer Holland a monetary consideration as an alternative.14 'Plucking the goose or Belgium supported by her friends and allies' (No. 16), published after the combined fleets of England and France moved against Holland, places Nathan in the forefront. The Belgian question created a financial crisis, the effect of which on the House of Rothschild is referred to in 'Die Kr?hwinkler . . .' (No. 22). 10 The Greville Diary, ed. P. W. Wilson, London, 1927, 1, p. 206. 11 Count Corti, House of Rothschild, London, 1928, 1, pp. 403-404. 12 The Times, 19 February 1828. 13 For Nathan's relations with The Times see The History of the Times, London, 1939, ii, p. 15. 14 Corti, op. cit. II, p. 31.</page><page sequence="4">The Rothschilds in Caricature 79 In January 1833 Jean-Pierre Dantan came to England and modelled a number of charges (caricature-statuettes), including a particularly vicious one of Nathan Rothschild called 'Rothschild sur ses tremors.' This was probably never offered for sale and was replaced by a second, a lithograph of which was published with the title 'Plutus' or 'Stock Exchange* (No. 19). There is believed to be a third figure showing Nathan standing by his favourite column on the Royal Exchange. Dantan's second visit to London, which was in 1834, was suddenly terminated owing to police action and this fact suggests that he was wanted for black? mail as the result of a complaint either from Nathan or from one of his other victims.i5 Blackmail was a profitable sideline for some caricaturists and many public men from the King downwards paid out money to suppress publication of certain caricatures. Nathan Rothschild is unlikely to have escaped and it is significant that there is nothing to illustrate his activities during the Napoleonic war when he carried through Government contracts of considerable magnitude. Even the later carica? tures are fairly mild, apart from the one vicious statuette by Dantan. The list below includes every known engraved caricature in which he appears, omitting copies and different states. 16 Their number alone is some indication of the enormous public interest he aroused over a period of barely 20 years. They appeared during a time when caricature in England was still an important feature of daily life and the chief pictorial record of daily events. Prints, priced from 6d. upwards, were in popular demand and the reading public was swelled by the crowds which gathered in front of the print shops to gaze at the latest publications. They were also bought by collectors to be brought out for an evening's entertainment or were hired out for the same purpose. Thus they exercised a powerful influence on public opinion. By the 1830s caricature in England was in decline and few of the Rothschild caricatures published after Nathan's death call for com? ment. Vanity Fair, which was started in 1868, contains portraits of most of the English Rothschilds (Nos. 26, 28, 29, 33, 35-38). None, however, was published to link them with the purchase of the Khedive's shares in the Suez Canal Company, and they do not figure in Tenniel's cartoon of Disraeli, 'Mos6 in Egitto,' which appeared in Punch in Decem? ber 1875. There is a weak caricature from another magazine of Lionel Rothschild as Croesus (No. 25). On the Continent caricature continued to flourish. Nathan's brother, Karl, founder of the Naples branch, who did most of the travel? ling for the family and acted as its courier, is shown as a commercial traveller in a German caricature dated 1825 (No. 21). James, the head of the French house, is seen in a sheet from the Paris La Caricature (No. 23) playing see-saw with Gabriel Ouvrard, his great business rival. The most significant Continental caricature of the Rothschilds is 'Die Generalpumpe' (No. 27). Whether it was published in the 1840s or 1860s, it is probably the earliest pictorial propaganda in support of the myth of Jewish world power. It may have been designed for use as a poster and seems to be based on a seventeenth-century prototype, popular in folk art, 'Le grand diable d'argent.'1? It set the pattern for the flood of antisemitic caricatures inspired by the 1848 revolutions in Europe, Jewish emancipation, the Dreyfus trial, and two world wars.18 Many of them contain references to the Rothschilds but are of in? sufficient Rothschild interest to merit attention here. 15 J. Seligman, Figures of Fun, London, 1957, pp. 76-77. 16 No. 15209 in the British Museum catalogue has a figure incorrectly identified as Nathan Roths? child and is not included here. 17 J. F. Champfleury, Histoire de Vimagerie popu? l?re, Paris, 1869, p. 209. 18 Many examples are reproduced in E. Fuchs, Die Juden in der karikatur, Munich, 1921.</page><page sequence="5">80 Alfred Rubens LIST AND DESCRIPTION OF CARICATURES* (See Plates I-XXIII) 1. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD (1777-1836) 'Drawn, Etchd. Pubd. by Richard Dighton October 1817. A View from the Royal Exchange'. Etching. B.M. 12906. Rubens 233. There is a German version with the title 'Seyd umschlungen millionen. W[under] sc.' 2. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'The Royal Exchange. Tom pointing out to Jerry a few of the primest features of Life in London. Drawn and engraved by I. R. &amp; G. Cruickshank. Pubd. by Sher? wood, Neely &amp; Jones, April 1821'. Aquatint. From Pierce Egan, Life in London, London 1821. B.M. 14340. Nathan Rothschild and Moses Monte? fiore in the foreground; Tom and Jerry in conversation with a bearded Jew. 3. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'Designed by an Amateur. Published by B. Webster, 78 Drury Lane, June 7 1824. Drawn and Etched by T. Jones, 24 Crown Court Russel Street. A King bestowing favors on a great man's friends?Scene near the Bank'. Etching. B.M. 14667. Rubens 234. Nathan Rothschild, standing in the basket of a balloon marked 'cash bags', supported by a bull and bear, outside the Stock Exchange, is saying, T am going to receive my dividends', and is waving two flags marked 'Those who give to the poor lend to the Lord' and 'charity covers a multitude of sins'. A coachman (King), walking in front, is saying, 'I am in two minutes before my time to-day?I must see if you are all booked on my way-bill', and carries a bill marked 'Moses 1/ Aaron 1 /- Jacob 1 /- Cohen 1 /- Levy 1 / Solomon 1/- Nathan 1/- Abram 1/-'. A number of Jewish beggars are waiting. One remarks: 'O! look down from Heaven, and behold that we are become a mockery and derision to be buffeted and re? proached'; another: 'O! Lord have mercy upon us for we are overwhelmed with contempt overwhelmed is our souls with the scorn of those who are at ease and with the contempt of the proud*. A reflection on Rothschild's attitude towards the Jewish poor. 4. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'Pro bono Publico. Designed by an Amateur?and Pubd. for him by H. Fores, 16 Panton St. Hay Market. A New Court Fire Screen' (1824). Etching. B.M. 14666. Rubens 299. A satire in connection with the formation of the Alliance British and Foreign Life and Fire Assurance Co. (now the Alliance Assurance Co.). The scene is outside the offices of the company. Over the entrance is written 'No persons will be admitted but those with empty heads and full pocketts', and 'Hollow Alliance Fire and Life Preserving Office' is inscribed on the frieze, which is surmounted by busts o the sovereigns of Russia, Prussia, Naples France, and Austria. Above is a notice: 'Persons insured in this office will be sup? plied gratis with a box of veritable German paste which if applied according to the directions of Prince H. &amp; Co. will prevent fire.?N.B. should any person obtain fraudulently a box of the above miraculous paste without being insured in this office it will have the contrary effect and consume the house on the first appearance of the New Moon', and at the sides: 'no holli days except Dog days and the fifth o November' and 'office hours from sun? rise to moonshine'. A horse coach marked 'Spanish fly?in eighteen hours from Manchester', loaded with bags of gold, is drawn up at the 'English porter's lodge', the passengers exclaiming 'Are we in time * Much of the information is based on the British Museum Catalogue of Satires.</page><page sequence="6">The Rothschilds in Caricature 81 porter?'; the porter replies, 'No! all full at a premium'. Another porter emerging from the 'German porter's lodge' exclaims 'No! No! open your toor Jno. Ox dere is yet blenty of room to take in our guntry friends.' On the steps of the main entrance to the building, Rothschild is seen in conversation with Moses Montefiore and Benjamin Gompertz. Rothschild carries a paper under his arm marked 'New Court Guide' and is saying 'Ma fois c'est entre nous', to which Montefiore replies 'Movine c'est bien fait pour mon beau frere'? 'Moses on mount fore'. Gompertz, whose back only is seen, has a paper protruding from his pocket marked 'Factotum, F.R.S.' He is saying 'Experience makes wise men wiser'. In the foreground three Jewish brokers in top hats and long coats are congratulating themselves on their good fortune. 5. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'A.C. (Crowquill) delt. foreman of the alliance.' Etching (? 1824). Rubens 235. Rothschild carrying an axe and dressed as a fireman of the period, with the badge of the Alliance Assurance on his arm. 6. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'Beauties of Brighton. A. Crowquill Esqr. Del. Etched by G. Cruikshank. Lon? don? Pubd. March 1st. 1826 by S. Knights Sweetings Alley Ryl. X'change'. Etching. B.M. 15156. Rubens 236. Various well-known characters, includ? ing the Duke of York, Mrs. Coutts, and Talleyrand, are parading in front of the Pavilion, Brighton. Near the centre of the picture the easily recognisable figure of Rothschild can be seen walking with his wife. 7. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'An untoward event or a tory triumph (Engraved by) Shortshanks (Sey? mour). London, Published by Thos. Mc? Lean, 26 Haymarket'. Etching (Feb. 1828). Rubens 246. B.M. 15515. An attack on the administration of the Duke of Wellington, who is being carried on a chair by four men, his legs being supported by Lord Londonderry. Peel walks in front, followed by Herries, who says to Rothschild: 'Ah my good R?child lend a hand, for he's quite a dead weight'. Rothschild replies: 'No, No we'll not put our shoulders to it. He's no Daniel.' An old Jew behind him remarks: 'No, No take care of de monish'. The scene is watched by Pat, Sandy, and John Bull. 8. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'The Jew and the Doctor; or, secret influence behind the curtain !! (Vide Times Feby. 19th 1828). Pub. Feby. 1828 by J. Fairburn Broadway Ludgate Hill London'. Etching. Engraved by G. or R. Cruik shank. B.M. 15522. Rubens 238. Rothschild, on the extreme left of the engraving, is descending on wings holding a bag of 'gold' in each hand towards Herries and saying 'Si help me Cot! de Sinking Job will go to de bottom of de melting pot if you don't stick out Herry! You b?te know dat I and only I am de Incorporial?never mind. I gave de Don Miggel and all de oder Dons de monish! plesh my hearts!' The Duke of Wellington is handing the King, George IV, a glass of brandy, while Lady Conyngham feels his pulse. A masked figure (Sir Wm. Knighton) is pounding up the English aristocracy in the royal crown, the Devil at his side remarking, 'This is devilish good fun'. 9. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'New scene for the old farce of the jew and the doctor. Pubd. March 1828 by Tregear Cheapside'. Etching. Engraved by R. or G. Cruik shank. Rubens 239. B.M. 15523. The Duke of Wellington, fiddling on a shield with a sword marked 'Waterloo', is</page><page sequence="7">82 Alfred Rubens seated on a coffin on which is written 'Hie jacit the constitution'. Behind him are two large bottles, 'Physic for Church and Physic for State'. On the left Rothschild with a beard, carrying a sack of 'Old Rags', is saying, 'By cot dat doctor is von tarn Jew?he wants my perquist?you know fat I do for you?you give me de monish for dat fiddle?blesh moine heats!!!.' Knighton, holding a mask before his face, says: 'This masque I wore too long There is no doubt Until at last the public found me out Then pay me what you know to be my due And may the devil take the Jew &amp; you.' 10. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'The great humming top spinning a loan. (Engraved by) A. C (Crowquill) Etching (1829). British Museum. B.M. 15920 Rothschild's head and shoulders emerge from a spinning top, on the front of which he is standing full-face distributing coins to four suppliants, three of whom wear crowns and royal robes. 11. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD (Engraved by) 'Thos. Jones. A Pillar of the Exchange. London, pubd. Feby. 1829 by F. V. Webster, Bookseller &amp;c. at his Histrionic Repository 11 Broad Ct. Long Acre'. Rubens 240. B.M. 14822. 12. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'Pub. by J. Fairburn Broadway Ludgate Hill July 14 1829. A. Sharpshooter fee. The man wot knows how to drive a bargain.' Etching. Rubens 241. Rothschild as a dealer in old clothes, wearing two hats, one of which is labelled 'Policy &amp; Assurance', and carrying a sack marked 'French Rentes ?20,000'. Under his arm are papers endorsed 'Brookman versus Rothschild?Newspapers bought up'. 13. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'The Hue and cry; or john bull be? tween two Knaves, Stools, and the Heads of Police called in to rescue him from Pickpockets. Dedicated to holders of Foreign Bonds in general'. Etching (1829) (by Sharpshooter). B.M. 15894. Rubens 242. John Bull is lying prostrate on the ground; standing over him is the Duke of Wellington in policeman's uniform, assisted by another policeman (Peel) carrying 'Memorial of British Bond holders'. Behind them is Dom Miguel, represented as the King of Hearts, bearing a label 'chosen by the nation'. On the right is the Brazilian Emperor, Dom Pedro I, represented as the King of Diamonds, with a label 'The nation chosen by him'. Rothschild, who is standing behind him, is saying: 'If you pay them you'll want more monies?and that is not convenient just now'. The Devil behind remarks: 'Tell him to call it political expediency?you know well how easily John Bull is humbug'd'. A reference to the failure of the Brazilian Government to meet the interest on the Portuguese loan issued by Rothschild in 1823. 14. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'The wise men of the east and the marquiss of west' Lithograph (1830). Rubens 244. Part of 'McLean's Monthly Sheet of Caricatures No. 55'. Robert Grant is saying to Rothschild: 61 did all I could to procure you the power of legislating for a religion you mock at, but the narrow-minded House threw out the Bill'. Rothschild replies: 'Ah well, never mind; have you any Spanish to Sell, I'll give you 48 for it'. A Jew behind Rothschild whispers in his ear: 'Dat's right, we can easily run it up to 50'. Another Jew exclaims: 'Mine Cot, beards will not be de fashion yet, den!' A satire on the abortive Jewish Emanci? pation Bill of 1830.</page><page sequence="8">The Rothschilds in Caricature 83 15. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'Pubd. by S.W. Fores, 41 Piccadilly 1831. The protocol-society in an Uproar, or the Conferees Confounded. (A sketch in Downing Street.)' Etching. B.M. 16743. Rubens 245. Rothschild, on the extreme left of the print, is saying 'Your potecols are no use; help mi Cot, shentlemen, if you don't make everyting out for me, I will lend you no more monish?vat am I to do vit your ponds'. Talleyrand sitting on the left smiles up at Palmerston. 16. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'PLUCKING the GOOSE, or BEL? GIUM supported by her FRIENDS and ALLIES. J.W.W. delt.' Etching (1831). The scene is a quay on the River Scheldt with ships flying the Union Jack in the background. On the left is a fortress flying the Dutch flag, while the Belgian flag is seen on buildings to the right. A goose (Belgium), wearing a cap of liberty, is having its feathers plucked by two priests, a French naval officer and Nathan Roths? child, who is closely followed by a British naval officer. Nathan, with a document marked 'Loan of 48 million' protruding from his pocket, is saying 'cot tam you and your Pelgian Ponds! I could not find a shingle flat to puy them; upon my shoul, they are not worth as much as Spanish ponds'. A treaty for the separation of Holland and Belgium was concluded by the Con? ference of London on 15 November 1831 but King William of Holland refused to ratify it and retained possession of Ant? werp, whereupon the combined fleets of England and France sailed against Holland and a French army besieged Antwerp. The Dutch garrison surrendered on 23 Decem? ber and the French troops withdrew, although the Dutch refused to hand over two forts which controlled the navigation of the Scheldt. 17. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'No. 1. City politics?jew-dish-us cakeman Who's for a slice ? who's for a slice ??all hot ! all hot ! Take care you don't burn your fingers, Plenty of cakes but none like I make.' Lithograph c. 1835. Rubens 250. In the possession of the Jewish Theological Semi? nary of New York. Rothschild standing by a column with a paper marked 'Spanish' protruding from his pocket. A partially cut cake marked 'Loan' rests on a trolley in front of him. In 1835 Nathan Mayer Rothschild made a loan of 15 million francs to the Spanish Government without consulting his broth? ers. Great difficulty was experienced in obtaining repayment and the affair created much ill feeling within the family besides disrupting their relations with Spain. (Corti II, pp. 120 ff.) 18. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'No. 2. City politics?jew-dish-us cakeman. dat rice cake sold very well -1 hope it vill agree wid my customers -1 vill make anoder.' Lithograph c. 1835. Rubens 251. In the possession of the Jewish Theologi? cal Seminary of New York. A portrait similar to the last. Rothschild is standing carrying a cake trolley under his right arm. 19. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'Plutus and Apollo Pub. by T. Bird, 1 Wells St. Oxford St. G. E. Madeley Lith. 3 Wellington St. Strand'. Lithograph 1833(?). Rubens 252. 'Stock Exchange' represented by Roths? child and 'Opera House' by Paganini from statuettes by Jean-Pierre Dantan. 20. NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD 'The shadow of a great man' Pub? lished as the Act directs by J. Knight. Sweetings Alley August 6th 1836. Stan didge and Lemon Litho (from a silhouette by Edouart)'.</page><page sequence="9">84 Alfred Rubens Lithograph. Published in the month following his death, shows N. M. Rothschild standing in front of a column in the Royal Exchange holding in his hand four keys (for his four brothers). 21 KARL MAYER ROTHSCHILD (1788-1855) 'Der musterreiter [The Commercial Traveller] G. Geissler inv. I. Nussbeig sc. 1825'. Etching. Pedlar on horseback laden with goods and bearing a placard labelled 'Blau schild' riding on a road signposted from Switzerland to Italy. There is another version of this carica? ture entitled 'Carl unversch?mt als reisen? der voyageur' published by J. H. M?ller, Coblenz. 22. HOUSE OF ROTHSCHILD 'Die Kr?hwinkler suchen die papiere in die h?he zu treiben*. Etching (1830-1831). Rubens 243. Nathan Mayer and three of his brothers (? Amschel, Solomon, and James) are blowing into the air, by means of bellows, a number of documents marked 'Engl. Fonds a 3%, Franz?sische Renten a 5%, Rothschild Loose', etc. Nathan is holding his hat in his hand, one of the brothers has fallen on the ground. 23. JAMES MAYER ROTHSCHILD (1792 1868) From La Caricature, No. 67. 'Lith de Delaporte'. Lithograph c. 1831. The scene is an amusement fair. On the left 'Ouvr' (Ouvrard) and 'Rodsch' (Rothschild) are on a see-saw 'jouant au tape-cul de la Bourse.' Next to them are 'Per' (Pereire) in a sack marked 'TR' and 'Mill' (?) also in a sack 'courant apres une condamnation'. In the centre stands Casimer Perier, French Premier in 1831 (d. 1832). Emil Pereire (1806-80) was at first closely associated with the Roths? childs but later, as founder of the Credit Mobilier, became their bitter enemy. The weekly La Caricature was started by Charles Philipon on 30 November 1830. 24 LIONEL NATHAN DE ROTHSCHILD (1808-1879). Eldest son of Nathan Mayer. First Jewish M.P., 1858. Water-colour drawing by Richard Dighton, c. 1840. 25. LIONEL NATHAN DE ROTHSCHILD 'People of the period?Baron Lionel De Rothschild (the modern Croesus). Gillot sc.' Wood engraving. From The Period, 9 July 1870. Queen Victoria, William I of Prussia, the Pope, Louis Napoleon, and other potentates paying homage to Rothschild, who is seated on a throne made of money? bags and backed by 'The Golden Calf. 26. LIONEL NATHAN DE ROTHSCHILD 'Baron lionel' Chromo-lithograph by 'Ape' (Carlo Pellegrini) from Vanity Fair, 22 September 1877. Rubens 446. From the text: 'Baron Lionel, especially, has the tastes which best cause the offence of enormous wealth to be forgotten. He is a great lover of art, a splendid entertainer of men and women and liberal in the dis? pensation of gifts to the deserving. He is nine-and-sixty years of age and he has refused a baronetcy'. 27. 'Die generalpumpe'19 (Moneylender-in chief) . Lithograph (1868-9?), 40 X 53 cms. A figure representing the House of Rothschild. It has a beard and heavy Semitic features and wears a hat made from six documents labelled 'Preussich 19 I am grateful to Dr. Aubrey Newman and Mr. Joseph W. Scott for their help in interpreting this print and to Mr. Paul Wallraf for German translation.</page><page sequence="10">The Rothschilds in Caricature 85 Engl. Anleihe' (Anglo-Prussian Loan), etc. On its waistcoat is a label 'Alter Welts gerichts-Executor' (instrument of world justice). Its body is a terrestrial globe on which are marked 'Petersbourg,' 'Berlin' and 'Wien'; the navel is 'ein Louis D'Or' and is marked 'Erd Achse' (axis of the earth). It stands jackbooted in a sack of coins and coins pour from its pockets to: (from left to right) Mehemet Ali(?) and Ibrahim Pasha (?) feeding a Turk with a long spoon; a seated male figure with a hook nose, in civilian dress and wearing spectacles; his legs, one of which has an ornamental garter, rest on two customs barriers, marked 'Verbotenen Einfuhr' (no entry) and 'Gebotene Einfuhr oder Neue Einkont Steuer' (no entry except on payment of taxes). Under his chair is a bulldog and a shield carrying the English royal coat of arms. He carries on his shoulders a royal couple above whom is inscribed 'Eduard und Kunigunde Kuni? gunde und Eduard' (Edward and his Viking queen) (?Edward Prince of Wales and Princess Alexandra); Thiers talking to the Emperor Louis Philippe, beneath whom are soldiers and cannon lining the banks of the Rhine; General Espartero supporting a girl wearing a crown (Isa? bella), beneath whom is a group marked 'R?ckstandiger Sold' (unpaid wages). The right hand of the figure is held by an Oriental and a German (?), the left hand by an Italian (?) and an Austrian (?). In 1839 Mehemet Ali (1769-1849), Louis Philippe's protege*, decisively de? feated the Turks. He was then presented with an ultimatum by the quadruple alliance of Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, and following the defeat of his son, Ibrahim (1789-1848), at Acre he was forced at the end of 1840 to make peace with Turkey. Louis Philippe's Minister, Louis Adolphe Thiers (1797 1877), prepared for war and Le National urged a march on the Rhine but Louis Philippe was determined to maintain peace and Thiers resigned in October 1840. The Spanish General Baldomero Espar tero (1792-1879) defeated the Garlists in 1840 and supported the cause of Isabella (1830-1904), who was declared Queen of Spain in 1843. Although the main events referred to in this caricature occurred during 1840, the presence of Edward Prince of Wales and Princess Alexandra, who were married in 1863, indicates a much later date. The figure supporting them bears a slight resemblance to the 14th Earl of Derby (1799-1869), Knight of the Garter, who was Prime Minister when the Jewish Emancipation Bill of 1858 was passed and whose final administration ended in February 1868. Alternatively, it may represent a member of the English Roths? child family. If the caricature was issued as late as 1869 it can be regarded as a product of the antisemitic movement started in that year when the North German States first granted civil rights to the Jews.20 Fuchs dates it 1845 but gives no explanation^ 28. ROTHSCHILD, MAYER AMSCHEL (1818-1874). Fourth son of Nathan Mayer. 'Statesmen No. 85. The winner of the Race'. Chromo-lithograph by 'Ape' (Carlo Pellegrini) from Vanity Fair, 27 May 1871. Rubens 447. From the text: 'The doors of Parliament had scarcely been opened to all native born Englishmen, without respect of creeds, when he strove for and obtained a seat in the House of Commons where, like all his family, he supports the cause of the Liberal party as being the most nearly allied to that of progress. He is, moreover, ?and it is by this that he is and will be best known?the sporting member of the great house ... for years he has striven at the Derby . . . and this year, to the gratifi? cation of all, he has at last succeeded in 20 Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, London, 1967, p. 36. 21 E. Fuchs, Die Juden in der Karikatur, Munich, 1921, p. 228 and pi. facing p. 120.</page><page sequence="11">86 Alfred Rubens establishing himself as the winner of the race.' 29. ALFRED CHARLES DE ROTHS? CHILD (1842-1918). Second son of Lionel Nathan. 'Alfred'. Chromo-lithograph by 'Spy' (Sir Leslie Ward) from Vanity Fair, 31 May 1884. Rubens 441. From the text: 'In the intervals of leisure he also appears upon the Turf, where he is very popular. It is his function to represent the great house in Society and he does it with much thoroughness. He it is who receives the Princes, interviews the Ambassadors, and gives the splendid entertainment to which the chosen smart people of London delight to resort. On these occasions he makes himself the slave and servant of his guests, lavishes upon them all the luxuries that wealth can supply and sends them away always grateful if sometimes envious. He knows and is known by everybody in London; he is a Director of the Bank of England, a shrewd critic, yet amiable, generous and cheery; he is very rich; and he is a bachelor.' 30. ALFRED CHARLES DE ROTHS? CHILD 'A quiet morning in the T?te Gallery. The Curator trying to expound to one of the Trustees the spiritual fineness of Mr. William Rothenstein's "Jews mourning in a Synagogue".'22 Drawing signed 'Max 1907' (Max Beerbohm). T?te Gallery. 31. LEOPOLD DE ROTHSCHILD (1845 1917). Third son of Lionel Nathan. 'Racing and Sporting'. Chromolitho? graph by 'Spy' (Sir Leslie Ward) from Vanity Fair, 13 December 1884. Rubens 445. From the text: 'The youngest son of the late Baron Lionel Rothschild ... he be? longs to the Jockey Club and the Turf Club, he has a house at Newmarket and he is the racing and sporting member of the great house of Rothschild ... he once won the Derby with Sir Bevys.9 32. LEOPOLD DE ROTHSCHILD Lithograph by 'Spy' (Leslie Ward) 2 March 1889. 33. NATHAN MAYER, 1st LORD ROTHS? CHILD (1840-1915). Eldest son of Lionel Nathan. The first Jewish peer. 'Natty'. Chromo-lithograph by 'Lib' (Prosperi) from Vanity Fair, 9 June 1888. Rubens 440. From the text: 'Those who know him well appreciate him, but he requires to be very well known to be appreciated, for his manner is always uncertain and rarely caressing. He married his first cousin, is a Liberal-Unionist and a strong supporter of Lord Hartington in politics, believes England to be, for present purposes, the finest country in the world, is fond of country pursuits and is known as "Natty".' 34. 1st LORD ROTHSCHILD 'Famous City Men No. 1'. Lithograph by Phil May from the St. Stephens Review, 25 October 1890. 35. FERDINAND JAMES DE ROTHS? CHILD (1838-1898). Second son of Anselm Solomon Rothschild, of Vienna. Became a naturalised Englishman. Liberal Unionist M.P. for Aylesbury. Built Wad desdon. 'Ferdy'. Chromo-lithograph by 'Hay' from Vanity Fair, 15 June 1889. 22 William Rothenstein (1872-1945) painted several scenes of Jewish life based on the Machzike Hadass Synagogue in Spitalfields, London. 'Jews Mourning in a Synagogue' was exhibited in the 1906 Jewish Exhibition at the Whitechapel Art Gallery and subsequently presented to the T?te Gallery in the name of the Jewish community to commemorate the exhibition. Rothenstein's brief flirtation with the Jewish community was satirised by Max Beerbohm in a series entitled 'The Mosaic Conscience' (R. Speaight, William Rothenstein, London, 1962, pp. 162-6).</page><page sequence="12">PLATE I ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ii ? 2 M ? &gt;</page><page sequence="13">PLATE II ^ 22 'N 'S CM .. .</page><page sequence="14">PLATE III ! '-Cl^^^-.^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^</page><page sequence="15">PLATE IV</page><page sequence="16">PLATE V</page><page sequence="17">PLATE VI</page><page sequence="18">PLATE VII</page><page sequence="19">PLATE VIII ^^^^ ^ ~" '^ '</page><page sequence="20">PLATE IX</page><page sequence="21">PLATE X ^^^^^^^^^ l'i,,, | , IMW^^I^ ^1 ^ &lt; S</page><page sequence="22">PLATE XI</page><page sequence="23">PLATE XII</page><page sequence="24">PLATE XIII * i 1^</page><page sequence="25">PLATE XIV</page><page sequence="26">PLATE XV IbIIII^Ib</page><page sequence="27">PLATE XVI Dim* Milltri u ltrl\ 21. 'Der Musterreiter', 1825</page><page sequence="28">PLATE XVII ._THE PERIOD._? Ftoitetif lb*Prrxt.-a*ROII I IONIL DE ?OTK?C?ll.k"-* J&lt;?S 25. 'The modern Croesus', 1870 22. 'Die Kr?hwinkler . . .', c. 1830</page><page sequence="29">PLATE XVIII</page><page sequence="30">PLATE XIX * ?? ? -- ?</page><page sequence="31">PLATE XX 24. Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, c. 1840 26. Baron Lionel, 1877 28. 'The winner of the race', 1871 29. 'Alfred', 1884</page><page sequence="32">PLATE XXI 30. 'A quiet morning in the T?te Gallery', 1907 (This drawing, by Max Beerbohm, in the T?te Gallery, is reproduced by kind permission of Mrs. Reichman as Executrix of the Beerbohm Estate)</page><page sequence="33">PLATE XXII 31. 'Racing and sporting', 1884 32. Leopold de Rothschild, 1889 ^ ^^^^ i -13 vj 33. 'Natty', 1888 34. 'Famous city men No. 1', 1890</page><page sequence="34">35. 'Ferdy', 1889 PLATE XXIII 36. 'Alphonse', 1894 38. 'The Aylesbury division', 1900</page><page sequence="35">The Rothschilds in Caricature 87 Rubens 444. 36. MAYER ALPHONSE DE ROTHS? CHILD (1827-1905). Eldest son of James and head of the House of Rothschild in Paris. 'Alphonse'. Chromo-lithograph by 'Guth' from Vanity Fair, 20 September 1894. Rubens 442. From the text: 'His father, the Baron James, died six-and-twenty years ago and he has since been the head of the House of Rothschild in Paris. . . . On big f?te days the family meet for traditional prayers in the room of the late Baron James; which room, has been untouched since he died ... he is supposed to have done much to spoil the newest Russian loan, by way of reprisal for that country's unkindness to poorer Jews than himself.' 37. ARTHUR DE ROTHSCHILD (1851 1903). Third son of Nathaniel. 'Eros'. Chromo-lithograph by 'Spy' (Sir Leslie Ward) from Vanity Fair, 2 August 1900. Rubens 443. From the text: 'He is very well known in G Paris and even more so at Monte Carlo. He owns a very beautiful yacht called the Eros upon which he "does" many parties very well.' 38. LIONEL WALTER, 2nd LORD ROTHSCHILD (1868-1937). Eldest son of 1st Lord Rothschild. 'The Aylesbury Division'. Chromo? lithograph by 'Spy' (Sir Leslie Ward) from Vanity Fair, 13 September 1900. Rubens 448. From the text: 'He is member for the Aylesbury Division of Buckinghamshire whose electors chose him to succeed the late Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild as the Liberal-Unionist representative in the beginning of last year. In the House he has made one good speech-^on the subject of Undersized Fish; for he is a very con? siderable authority on Natural History. He is indeed so full of scientific knowledge that he could put many a professional scientist to shame; yet his learning is never obtrusive.' Except for Nos. 10, 17, 18, and 30, the illus? trations are from originals in the author's collection.</page></plain_text>

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