< Back

The Plymouth Aliens List, 1798 and 1803

V. D. Lipman

<plain_text><page sequence="1">THE PLYMOUTH ALIENS LIST 1798 and 1803 By V. D. Lipman The requirement of registration of aliens during the Napoleonic Wars has provided sample evidence on the origins and occupations of late eighteenth century Anglo-Jewry. A list of fifty-eight names of Plymouth Jewish aliens has survived in the records of the Plymouth Congregation now in the Jewish Museum, London. The late Mr. Wilfred S. Samuel had a photostat made of this list and compiled a card-index from it. This photostat and card-index have been used for the list which is appended below. This list has already been used, and its main contents summarised, by the late Dr. J. Rumney in 'The Anglo-Jewish Community' in J.C. Supplement, 1936, p. iv and by Dr. Cecil Roth in his History of the Jews in England (2nd edn., 1949), p. 29, and The Rise of Provincial Jewry, p. 91. The list gives, for each person, name, occupation, place of birth, 'residence in his own country', age, 'principal place of residence before entering this country', 'landed at?in the year', 'present residence', and, in some cases, the number of years spent in Plymouth or in other places in England. In preparing the list for publication, the ages and periods of residence have been converted into dates. The error, if any, can only be a year either way and, since the object of publishing the list is to provide information for the social historian rather than exact biographical data, it was felt that the use of dates would facilitate comparison between the entries. The list seems to have been compiled originally in 1798 and revised in 1803. The revision in 1803, carried out in another hand, comprised : (a) the inclusion of those who had arrived at Plymouth after 1798 (though nos. 55 and 56 are stated to have arrived in Plymouth before 1798 yet appear at the end in the writing of the 1803 revisor); (b) the addition of details of length of stay in places in England; (c) notes such as 'dead' or 'removed from here', and the striking through of some entries which indicated that the person listed in 1798 was no longer resident in 1803; (d) the addition of five years to the ages of those listed in 1798 and still alive in Plymouth in 1803. It would appear therefore that when some? one's age was given in 1798 but he was no longer alive and in Plymouth in 1803, this correction to the age was not made. An adjustment has, however, been made in calculating the years of birth of nos. 2, 3, 4, 21, 26, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38 and 48. 187</page><page sequence="2">188 MISCELLANIES VI Examination of the places of birth shows the great majority were from Germany; out of fifty-eight immigrants forty-three came from what is now Germany and five from the adjacent Bohemia, compared with four from Amsterdam and six from Poland. Equally noticeable is the concentration of the German place-names of origin in a relatively narrow belt running east? wards from the Rhine into Franconia: eleven immigrants came from the Margravate of Ansbach, ten from in or near Mannheim, and five from Frank furt-on-Main, Hanau or Wurzburg. There were seventeen others from various places in Germany, one or two from each: it is remarkable that there was only one person from Hamburg and one from Altona. Of the four from Amsterdam, three were members of the same family. Of the six from Poland two came from Lissa (Leszno), two from 'Belleye' (presumably Biala), one from Brod (Brody) and one from Meseritz.1 The ages at which the immigrants reached England show great similarity. Thirty of the fifty-eight were between twenty and twenty-six years old inclusive, and nearly all the rest either sixteen to nineteen or twenty-seven to thirty years old. The youngest were thirteen (1), fourteen (2), fifteen (2); the oldest thirty-three (1), forty-eight (1), fifty-one (1). The earliest date of arrival in England is 1745. From then on, the average of one immigrant a year is roughly maintained: 1745-8 (4); 1750-9 (9); 1761-9 (14); 1770-7 (9); 1780-9 (15); 1790-9 (4); 1800-1 (3). The falling off in the 1770's may be due to the anti-Jewish feeling caused by the Chelsea murder and similar incidents, and the efforts made by the London con? gregations to reduce immigration; and the smaller numbers in the last decade were, of course, due to the war. Otherwise, no pattern in the flow of immigra? tion emerges. There is no discernible grouping from particular countries or areas in a given period. In so far as any pattern is apparent, it seems to be that of family migration: e.g. the three Emdins (nos. 6, 14, 15), presumably brothers, arriving from Amsterdam in 1786, 1787 and 1800. Harwich is the almost invariable port of arrival up to 17742, after which it is replaced by London and Gravesend, or occasionally Dover or Margate. Some of the immigrants appear to have come direct to Plymouth. Others spent a few years first in London or elsewhere, two spent twelve and twenty eight years respectively in Birmingham, others were in Portsmouth, Colchester, Norwich, Arundel and Kent. Two were in Dartmouth first (1764-94 and 1 These names of towns are spelled in rough transcription of the Hebrew, not the Polish spelling. Lissa is in the west of Poland (in Poznan, then known as Great Poland); Biala (now Biala Podlaska) is to the west of Brest-Litovsk and not far from Meseritz; Brody is also on the eastern side, north-east of Lwow. 2 Harwich was an important packet port. In 1774, the Postmaster-General renewed orders that 'while the industrious poor of all nations' could be transported to England gratis, Jews must pay the full passage money on the packets. See C. Roth, History of the Jews in England, p. 234, n. 1.</page><page sequence="3">PLYMOUTH ALIENS LIST 189 1784-1802), and some went on first to Cornwall (Truro, 1748-63 and 1771-85; St. Austritt, 1758-65; Cornwall, 1753-73). The occupations of nearly all are given. Dealers and Chapmen (5), Hawkers and Pedlars (3) and Dealers in Clothes or Old Clothes (8) can probably be taken together as the largest group (16). Probably a rather higher level of retail trade was represented by the four shopkeepers (two later listed in 1816 as Navy Agents?see Trans. J.H.S.E. XIII, 183-7), a dealer in hard? ware, and a dealer in pens. Manufacture was represented by a boxmaker, a pencutter and three hatters or capmakers. The specialist craft and retail trade, characteristic of the Jewish community of the period, was represented by eleven silversmiths, one goldsmith, one jeweller and seven spectaclemakers or opticians. It was generally the silversmith or spectaclemaker who had previously spent years in a small town like Truro, Dartmouth or Arundel. Finally there were two 'Clerks of the Synagogue'?Moses Isaac from Meseritz, who appears to have died between 1798 and 1803, and his Polish compatriot and successor, Joseph Levy from Lissa, later D?sseldorf; and Moses Ephraim whose portrait by the Jewish artist A. Daniel is in Dr. Roth's collection (repro? duced in his Rise of Provincial Jewry, p. 92), appears as a tutor in the house of Mr. Joseph. This was presumably the local magnate, Abraham Joseph. Ephraim is, however, marked as removed from Plymouth in 1803. Inci? dentally, his age is given as twenty-four; reckoning from 1798, this would put his date of birth at 1774, not 1745, as has previously been stated (presumably on the basis of the reference in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1815, p. 375, to his death at the age of seventy).</page><page sequence="4">190 MISCELLANIES VI v\ co -y &amp; ? 3 i CO o &lt; .S 4) ? CS o co tJ 1 V CS ts u &lt;M J-? o cs ? CD ?J0 M ? Ofu ? g g ? ? &lt;u es cd o ? os o .2 fr 3 S-J O ?u II rT4 ?3 s co Is a a o o cd o) h o i o o ' o 'S ?S a ? s a j Ph j Ph cd .c cd +3 Ph O -H- co 3 ?&lt; o Ca ? Ph ?^ 13 ? Ph tj ? w3 &gt; S-t o &lt;S es ? co pp ?&lt; cs xj &lt; 2 ? o tj co o &gt; a CP cd m c o tj co S co 9. CS a 'S ? s S Ph O CD ? 00 CO o CO h-1 t3 c I Ph ? i CO ? o CS O I c o 1-1 3 a ^5 tu CD CD CO &gt; ?Ph H 3 ? 3 o ^ ? H $ &gt; % S Q ? w B c/3 (-1 ? o pp tj tj I ? J tj ^ &lt;j-&gt; 'O o Ph 5=s Ph PQ pq 'S Vi &gt; O g So pp tj &lt;u a P^ o co zu a w cd si 3 ^ OQ? ^3 55 w O o I o 9 &gt; cj &gt; ? e? ?&lt; ?V ^ ^ ?4 ? ?8 &amp;| w ? &lt; &gt; u CS V o co Ph g "HS 8 8 ?2 g 0 P4 co *rt cd xJ ? *C .= ^ cS tj ^ ."S o g to O &amp; a CS vi If, &lt; ? ? CS ^ So ? ps cs tj tj cd</page><page sequence="5">PLYMOUTH ALIENS LIST 191 G cd O o u o ? CO 43 &lt; o ! u G cd ?a 2 o ?* o ?? o "~ O CO CO s o CO a o 059 Ph t?i Ph G cd hh -a 3 r-H O o co I CD CO , 3 o S g 1 8 Cd 2 ~ p") ? ^ 4- 2 1 CO CO 4-, 3 43 ^ 43 G o 4^ o PL, H-l nil ^co G u 0 J3 ow m CT) to ^ CT) &lt;u 1 u CD C CO ?? ?. 43 ?1 "S I Ph h3 PL, CO G o CO G cd EC T3 CO CD co ? CT) T~H cf&gt; a cG , CD CO CD ^ CD ~* I CD CD co - a g 0 &gt;- o ?3 G I o .g 2r " cq Ph Ph o 43 4; G a G P3 G O g c (L) G G u ? G U 8 cd * co *?10 a ~ ?9 o ? ~ ^ G G G * O o O O G G si O u 4^ _&lt; G - o CO I o ? I Ph CO CO co co ^ co co ? ?1,5 i ? 43 &lt;G r co 4^ CO Ph ^ O G a ? G O G &amp; q o Ph G CO J-l G ,1 :3 G ? co 3 cd bo 43 o cd X 43 G G cd S bo G .S 2 ? ? cd V 43 ? a &lt; o G bo I co G cJ G 43 G ^ 44 G 113 Lth 43 G G S T3 G c? Ph g s ;g cd ? CO &gt; CO g 43 bD O Ph O 1 &lt;d G 42 a g *- a ci g ffi g ? O 8 g i3 a o CO o CO 4? &amp; :G 5 ? JE?! G 5-1 Ph G ? EC c 0 2 43 d u G ^ CO s a 2 20 ? 15 V 53 2 SO &lt;u ^ 43 44 s '&gt; a G . 03 w ? - ES ? 43 o 22 ?4-. 3^ 2 a d v 4T i3 o GO A w CJ co ^ co o co 5 K o g ^ 4^ G Q g CO cd 44 co cd a, G O a ^ fi *G cd CO G 4J 44 cd s 4-? O ^ V 3 sT S5 ? r j-i 4) &gt; cd Oh W Ph CO</page><page sequence="6">192 miscellanies vi o g co Q 3 'S o O r ? G (U . s 8 .2 fr &lt;u xJ 3 CO I CO CD I G o *-? O G to tc -~ ? -5 -S g "3 "3 o o o Hi d Ph Ph . ^ w U U ? 29 I pp : . o H-H si u -g p ? Ph cfa *h 3a XJ Xi CO ^ o ? PM ?3 ,1 CO CO to c3 Xi &lt;U O ^L^ co ?3-S ? I SN CO Ph CO CO "53 ?. G ^3 a 2 co Ph^ M Ph Ph 3 bo o bo cS G ?S'S &lt;u - ? a 1 o $h XJ ^ l a s co ^ CM V G frjS ^ |x&gt; G o3 d .52 ?h Xl o G ?2 o &gt; XJ H N i-j G O 's CD ? h-1 G tH O &lt;U xJ sis j ^ S co 5 oo HrH lO 1&gt; ? o ^ ? ^ fr ^ o &gt; ag e 3 ^ a 8 .&amp; 8 g .2 o ^ 5 s *C o XI G I x) 03 ? i S3 XJ o 'S 3 2 G t+h G ? -d ? c3 ' XI o Xl ! 5-i 1 P, 'S ^ O n ^ u T3 w ? G N XJ .-S G N O Ph co G &lt; O PP CO LO CO Tfr? co CO CM CO CM CO P-" s , CM 1) P ^ h-l 'S G ,ti PP PP O ?? CO CO S J3. - ^ w Z PP PP CO ^ G O in &lt; xi co CO CO</page><page sequence="7">PLYMOUTH ALIENS LIST 193 2 |j? 3 _ 5 t! ? 8 o b 5 pn o Q h! 03 (jh CO nil U V 7? TJ to 2 ? co ^ g s ? co 4) is co ? CO CO co o 1 ?8 &lt; s s 4 S3 o u o a v ed 43 ^ CO v TJ 3 , O ? CO CO as ?fl s "a Ij ? ? t: s a a T? Cd TJ i ? 3 ' 2 o - 9 co CO ? 43 43 bO .as ?-s co cd 'S CD 3 1 4h^ Ph -m co . 42 ? 0) CO Cd +? 43 Si s ^ s 8 ^43 43 CO ? cd g CO ?a S3 cd s c S3 cd CO si i co CT) cd lO hh t^. hh cd ? a CO CO 43 N "co B.ts !?? co T) ri co co ? ? cd r*1 o cd t?I 4H ; s "I et co cd S3 T? cd O ? CO Ph cd n TJ *? ? ^ q co q ^ ^ co cd 'S 8 s: co 3 S3 cd cd S3 43 co cd ? 'co CO 43 S3 &lt;-&gt; .5 cd co co g c -3 ? J3 i S3 cd s ??a t? ? 3 S3 &gt; cd &gt; ^ 3 42 cd cd 43 4-? S3 O TJ co 43 ? O ?s CO V G S3 42 cd 13 a a ? o S3 43 cd d ^&gt; S3 TJ ? ? - h co cd ? N Cp -^h +2 rh cd ^ a ^ CO CO CO CM &gt; cd p 'S co co 1 TJ cd S3 TJ ? ft s ? CO H CO s cd ? 42 &lt; Z o Cm v&lt; cd CO N a cd co J co M 44 4T Ph ? O rt ^CO O P-( CO CO CO CO CT) CO o CM CO co 'S ? co : 43 bp o CO 43 C +3 42 44 TJ O co O CO ?8 ?3 I 4-* u cd Q 1 -s co S3 ? ^ co S3 a ? co 2 cd CD CO</page><page sequence="8">194 MISCELLANIES VI co rG CO &lt;L&gt; O 3 SU Ph 1 8 CO .9 o h-1 X5 ^ b 8 ja o ^ o H-3 CO o cd 3 1 &lt;? ? CS 3 I CO g ?h X5 ? &lt; cd cd . a s co j&gt; s m CO o ? X5 ? 43 ^ ? ? II Ph S 2 CO CO ? 43 'S I o &gt;^ CT) CO &lt;? o XJ cS o ?h pp ? CS CM O CO CO CM? 12s 3 co 'S - o _g 13 ?H CO ? Q cl ^ 3 O o O III Ph hh Ph P ? ? cl .52 u 43 ei 43 43 ^cS^cS^cSjgcS^cS0^ ^ Ks CO CO /-s ? P &gt; ^ u 1 CO &lt;? &gt; ^_ CS o A co O es is &gt; ? C3 (j O, co .ET &lt;U _ co X$ X3 ? CS CO pp CS PH ? ? 43 '53 ? 43 +J O j CS ro CS Ph O Ph co ? CS P4 CS ? ? X CS ^ Ph O PP CS a J ^ u ? - . ? _ Ph &lt;3 rj xs S u g a s co ? ? O 2 c CO cd CM v a.p CO* CT) CO Sh ? s s -5 ^ ci 5 O j c Ph CO u a 8? I fl a &lt; CO ^ ? rTl CO CO o m CS ? &gt;. ? ^ &gt; ? CS ?l ? Ii 5 Ph n ?t &lt; 1-5 CT) O CM tO CO cS rG JCJ ^ P PP cS ^ X3 c cS ^ ^ CS CS ? -"^ to jh CD _t4 cS 9 Ph &lt;? G ^ Ph v CM cd cd cd &lt;&lt; co CO ? CS +-&gt; cS 4! ? 13 Ph h?. co 53 cd r^ tO IT) co t3 T* C3 ? CS a 2 W K O ? CO* m CT) 3&gt; O bO ? o CO</page></plain_text>