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The Ketuboth of Bevis Marks

Haham Dr. M. Gaster

<plain_text><page sequence="1">7 The Ketuboth of Bevis Marks (Abstract of the first lecture delivered in the new Gustave Tuck Theatre, January 30, 1933).1 According to evidently a very ancient custom in the Sephardic Synagogue and especially in that of Bevis Marks, two Ketuboth were drawn up on the occasion of each marriage performed in that com? munity. One, often very elaborately written on parchment and illuminated, was handed over to the parties concerned and the other copied by the same hand was entered in a special book called the book of Ketuboth. It was in every detail an absolute copy of the other. As the custom is that the bridegroom should also sign the Ketubah in addition to the witnesses, he was obliged to do it twice and thus his autograph signature is on every Ketubah in the book of the Synagogue with the Spanish word Novio, meaning bridegroom, under? neath. The greatest importance of the Ketubah is from the religious point of view, that it is the infallible witness of a legally performed marriage according to Jewish law and tradition. It is also a source of historical information of a multiple character. Not only have we here the authentic names of all the persons concerned, and also often the genealogy of each of the parties, but what is no less important, a complete account of the dowry of the bride, the Ketubah being a financial document to safeguard the interest of the woman. All the financial details accompanying the marriage, often down to the num 1 The Dedication ceremony took place on December 13, 1932.</page><page sequence="2">72 MISCELLANIES. ber of pillow-cases and embroidered little things, were entered into the Ketubah. There are also other interests attached to the forms of the Ketuboth and to their contents, These I have endeavoured, to set out in a pamphlet called "The Ketuboth", to which I have added a number of illustrations, reproductions from ancient illuminated MSS. from various countries and of different ages. This booklet of mine was published in a very limited number and, with the exception of a few in my possession, I believe is now out of print. But I cannot dilate on its contents, except to draw attention to the fact, if I may say so, that I have been the first to show the manifold interest attached to the Ketubah, studied in its individual character. Still greater do I venture to think is the importance of Ketuboth taken in a collective sense and studied in a large number or grouped together, belonging to one centre or to one community, when they form a chapter in the history of that community. The beginnings of every community are somewhat lost in obscurity and,?although the Sephardic community of Bevis Marks has been placed on a solid foundation, as it was well organised and was established by men who brought with them old traditions that had been well tried in the system of organisation,? still, these Ketuboth, as it were, are the dry bones, the skeleton which requires the cover of flesh and blood to give us a living picture of the community which they represent. The wealth or poverty of the individuals is not always easily detected, one is often left to guess how rich or poor a member of the community may have been. But, when we study the dowry and the counterpart, the investment which the bridegroom adds, one soon learns exactly whether the parties were rich or poor, as well as their station in life, their profession and many other details which can only be culled with absolute reliability from these documents. No one can doubt their accuracy and nobody can raise any objection to any statement made therein. They rest on facts which are beyond dispute, since the slightest breath of doubt would from the very beginning destroy the value of the Ketubah and, with it, the marriage. When engaged in writing the history of Bevis Marks2 on the 2"History of the Ancient Synagogue of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, The Cathedral Synagogue of the Jews in England, situate in Bevis Marks. A Memorial volume. 1701-1901."</page><page sequence="3">THE KETUBOTH OP BEVIS MARKS. 73 occasion of the Bicentenary of 1902, I had copied as briefly as I could the large number of the entries found in these books of Ketuboth, more or less as a guide for my further investigations and for the completion of a brief outline of the development of the congregation. I had also copied out for the same purpose some other documents relative to the history of the Synagogue, but, circumstances over which I had no control, prevented me from publishing them along with the volume although they had already been set up in type. A proof of the latter I have been able to retain and from this I reproduce herein verbatim 86 of those entries which I had made covering the period of Haham Aylion who held office during the years 1689-1700. Whilst the entries in the books themselves are restricted only to the names of the bride and bridegroom, I have made much fuller abstracts from these Ketuboth which I considered to be of special interest. I have copied out also the family names, professions, the amount of dowry, the names of the witnesses for their being auto? graphs, and other incidental details, showing exactly the historical value of these documents. Unfortunately the first book of Ketuboth has disappeared. It covered the first years of the Re-settlement down to the year 5450, i.e., 1690. The late Mr. Lucien Wolf told me that the copy of this first volume had at some time been seen at a public auction in Amsterdam. Neither his investigations nor mine have hitherto been able to discover the name and place of the purchaser, if such exists. My own impression is that Haham Aylion, when he left London in 1700 to occupy the post of Haham in Amsterdam, may have inadvertently taken that booklet with him, since for a long time this book of Ketuboth was in the keeping of the Haham. In fact a large number of Ketuboth seems to have been written by the Hahamim. Another surmise is that in a fire which one day broke out in the house of the Haham Raphael Meldola in which many documents disappeared this copy was also burnt. This seems to me quite un? likely, because at that time the first book would have been kept in the archives, no longer being in practical use. It may be then that, after the death of Haham Aylion, among other things, it was also sold publicly. One can only hope that, if it has not been F</page><page sequence="4">74 MISCELLANIES. destroyed, it will one day turn up, probably from the most un? expected corner. A study of these Ketuboth, especially of Bevis Marks, helps us to realise the flow and ebb, to see also in what proportion the community had been growing and also later on, judged by the dowries, whether people became rich in the course of time or whether the community got impoverished. One can also judge from the Ketuboth the number of Marannos who were able to escape from Portugal and reached England. This is especially seen in the later volumes of the Ketuboth in the years between 1717-25, during the great persecution in Portugal. One recognises it from the fact that people who came with Christian names having been married already, now changed them here, when they became Jews, and then remarried as Jews and Jewesses. And so also as regards many other extremely interesting details, which only a comprehensive study of the Ketuboth could yield. This however lies beyond the scope of my short paper, of which this is only an abstract. We can also watch the rise and fall of families, their coming and going and complete disappearance and also trace the countries from which they came and gauge the intellectual status of the community by the professions followed by its members. Of course such an investi? gation must be of a limited character, since most of the people who came were already grown up men and women, but, by the Ketuboth, one can also trace their descent and see how the family multiplied and how they intertwined. Although not entering into the details of all the Ketuboth there are one or two points which I should like to mention. In the first place, I have found already in the time of Haham Aylion instances of the marriage of proselytes (Nos. 72, 78). I want to make it perfectly clear that where the bridegroom was called Ger and similarly the woman, "daughter of our forefather Abraham," it is not a question of Marannos but of real proselytes. Also on one or two occasions Tedescos were married in the Synagogue (Nos. 67, 82). This, by the way. If we examine now a little more closely these few marriage contracts, abstracts of which I am publishing here, the first name which strikes us is that of Turo, a name which carries us at once over to the United States, or New England, where the son or grandson called Judah Turo</page><page sequence="5">the ketuboth of bevis marks. 75 played such an important role in later times. The name Turo is too rare to belong to two different families. There were also some very wealthy men in the congregation. We find dowries of ?2,000 or ?3,000 which, of course, means an immense wealth and shows the part which these rich Sephardic merchants could play in the financial and political world by means of their wealth. Then we have a lafge number of physicians such as De Auila, Nunes, Fonseca, whose names occur later very rarely. Then we have scholars with various titles, such as Haham hanaalah, Haham hameromam, just as the Ashkenazim have their Rabbis, which does not mean that everyone holding that title is exercising ecclesiastical functions. The only one in authority was, and remained, the Haham, assisted, whenever required, by Dayanim, but the title alone merely showed that the man had been through a higher Rabbinical college and had obtained the degree. Of the lower tradesman we hear very little, but there must have been a good few, and there are also some very poor marriages. These items could be verified and multiplied by a study of the books on alms, of which I had published some abstracts at the same time, in my Bicentenary volume. The number of marriages again shows us, especially taken in average for a good few years, with the exception of those years where the influx of Marannos took place and thus altered the balance, that it had been practically constant for many years, about ten marriages on the average in each year. It shows that, for a long time, most of the people who had come were not born in the country and were not the result of an internal growth, and yet the number had remained more or less constant, at least for the first hundred years. It may be that circumstances will allow me to publish the whole of the material and also a full index which I have prepared, covering all the names and surnames found in these Ketuboth. For the time being, I must be satisfied with a brief abstract. It may be that it may serve as a guide to others to follow the same line of investigation and thus gauge as far as possible the economic and intellectual develop? ment of the community as a whole during the last couple of hundred years. The Ketuboth as far as they have been preserved are an infallible guide and to have shown this is sufficient for my purpose. M. Gaster.</page><page sequence="6">76 MISCELLANIES. APPENDIX Here follow the Ketuboth written by Haham Avlion [dated from 5450 (1689) to 5461 (1700)] " 1. 2 Sivan 5450. Gebir: Abraham b. Ishak1 Israel Corea to Deborah de Abraham de Ieudah Turo. Her dowry 23,000 "Elorines di banco" of Amsterdam money. He adds 10,500 Florines. 2. 7 Tammuz 5450. Sabatay de Isaac Nunes Nabaro (or Nauaro) to Sarah de Isaac Mendes Belisario. ?60 (esterlinas de Londo). He adds ?30. Witness, Moseh Sasportas. 3. 13 Ab /50. Joseph Mendes de Castro to Miss Leah Levi Gomes. 17,500 Florines "di denera di Banca de Amsterdam," and 8,750 Florines. Witness, Abraham Rs. Pinhel. 4. 11 Adar Sheni 5451. Ishaac Rodrigues Portello to Miss Rachel de Abraham Fernandes Nnnes. ?1,800 and ?900. Witness, Ishac Semah de Valencia. 5. 7 Kislev 5452. Jacob de Benjamin Escudero to Miss Gracia de Isac Barzilay: ?667 and ?333. Witness, Isaque Per. Coutt. 6. 21 Iyar 5452. Yacob Mendes de Britto to Miss Rachel Henriques de Castro. ?4,000 and ?200. Witness, Joseph Coen de Azevedo. 7. 5 Tammuz /52. Ishak de Joseph Dacosta Ahiarenga to Miss Esther de Moseh Pacheco. ?700 and ?350. Witnesses, Abrah. Rs. de Paiba and Joseph Barzilay. 8. 11 Ab /52. Moseh Israel de Abraham Haim Nunes to Miss Sarah de Daniel Jesurun Lobo. 6,000 flor. Amsterdam and 3,000 flor. Amsterdam. Witness, Mose Sasportas. 9. 17 Ab /52. Abran Diaz Arias to Miss Sarah Perez de Mendoza. He alone gave ?300. Witness, Joseph Shealtiel. 10. 17 Ab 152. Isahak Diaz Arias to Miss Rachel Perez de Mendoza. He alone gave ?200. The same witness to this contract as to the above: Joseph Shealtiel. (Evidently two brothers married two sisters on the same day.) 11. 15 Ellul /52. Joseph de Isak Barzilay to Miss Esther de Isak Gomes Porto. ?1,076 and ?538. Witness, Aron Pacheco. 12. 28 Tishri /53. Salamon Valensin to Miss Esther La Mira. He alone gave ?200. Witness, Jehudah (illegible) b. Ahron ben Susan. (N.B.?Haham Aylion signs here for the first time Shelomoh B. K. R. Jacob Ay lion. His father probably died in the period between the last and this Ketubah. In all the former he merely signs: Shelomoh Aylion, without mentioning his father.) 13. 5 Heshvan /53. Mosseh de Aaron de Medina to Miss Deborah de Solomon de Medina. ?2,000 and ?1,000. Witness, Jacob Haim Gabay. 14. 13 Heshvan /53. Mose de Abraham Rodrigues Francia to Miss Ribkah de Abraham Francia. ?2,500 and ?1,250. Witness, David b. Joseph Par do. 1 The spelling of names is as written in the official register. Of Isaac alone there are fourteen forms.</page><page sequence="7">THE EETUBOTH OF BEVIS MARES. 77 15. 15 Kislev /53. Mose Fernandes Julion to Miss Rachel Lopes. He alone gave ?300. (No other witness except Haham Aylion who generally signs all the Ketuboth.) 16. Rosh Hodesh Tebeth /53. Isaque de David Nunes Cardozo to Miss Jehudith de Isak Rodrigues Leon. ?65 and ?35. Witness, Joseph aben Danon. 17. 8 Tebeth /53. Phineas de Jacob Gomes Serra to Miss Sarah de Isaak Lopes. ?2,350 and ?1,175. Witness, Joseph Coen de Azevedo. 18. 15 Tebeth /53. Doctor (Harofe) Ishac Frois Nunes to Miss Rebecah daughter of the "famous doctor" (Harofe hamubhaq) Abraham Perez Galbon (i.e. Jalfon). ?275 and ?137 10s. Witness, Joseph b. Jacob aben Danon. 19. 13 Sivan /63. Izaque de he-Haham R. Samuel Israel to Miss Reyna de Joseph Pereira. 1,000 nor. Amsterdam and 500 nor. Witness, Binyamin Franco. 20. 15 Ellul/53. Moseh de Shemuel Massiah to Miss Jehudith de Jeudah Nunes. ?60 and ?40. Witness, Isaque Lopez Mellado. 21. 2 Kislev /54. David de Isac Lopez Pereira to Miss Simhah de David Nunes Henriques. ?600 and ?300. Witness, Jacob Mendes de Brito. 22. 11 Kislev /54. Jacob de Jacob Nunez to Miss Sarah de Abraham Coen Lobatto. ?300 and ?150. Witness, Hazon Coen Gomes. 23. 9 Tebeth/54. Rohiel de Mosseh Abudiente to Miss Esther de Abraham do Porto. A marriage contract had been previously drawn up by the public notary Antonio Wright on 26 December, 1693. In this document, the signatories were the bride's mother, Sara, her husband being dead, and Alfonso Rodrigues, the bride's uncle. Witnesses here: Isaack Rodrigues and Abraham Lopes de Britto. (Is "Isaack" the Hebrew name of "Alfons," the uncle of the bride?) 24. 9 Tebeth /54. Simson de Moseh Abudiente to Miss Rachel de Abraham do Porto. (When marrying the sister-in-law, he, like his brother, had a contract drawn up by the same notary on the same day, the same persons representing the bride as in the previous No. and the same persons, Isaack Rodrigues and Abraham Lopes de Britto, witnessing also the Ketubah, as the marriage took place on the same day.) 25. 2 Sivan /54. Semuel de Joseph Dacosta Aluarenga to Miss Rebecah de Benjamin Franco. ?650 and ?350. Witness, Joseph Coen de Azevedo. 26. 14 Tammuz /54. Aharon Baruch de Joseph Aluares to Miss Bianca de Jacob de Farro. ?240 and ?120. Witnesses, Abrah. Rs. de Paiba and Joseph Pereira. 27. 13 Ab /54. Jahacob de Abraham Teixeira de Mattos to Miss Sarah de Joseph Henriques Sequeira. (These parties have also made a contract before the public notary, Antonio Wright (written in Hebrew "Rift"), 23 July, 1694.) Witness, Abrm. Vaes Martines. 28. 13 Ab /54. Mose de Daniel Henriques Valentin to Miss Benvenida de David de Silva. ?170 and ?85. Witness, Binyamin Nunes. 29. 8 Heshvan /55. Benjamin de Abraham Nunes Henriques to Miss Sarah de Isaac Henriques Pereira. ?2,500 and ?2,000. Witness, Jacob Francia. 30. 18 Tebeth /55. Benjami(n) Arias de Ordufia to Miss Abigail del Valle. He alone gives ?100. Witness, Jacob Nunes Mirande and Jacob Mendes de Britto. 31. 19 Tebeth /55. Abraham Mendes Majaro to Miss Sarah Morales Henriques. ?300 and ?150. Witness, Mosseh de Curiel.</page><page sequence="8">78 MISCELLANIES. 32. 3 Iyar /55. Abraham Garcia de Orobio to Miss Sarah Martos. He alone gives ?100. Witness, Joseph de Mattos. 33. 9 Tammuz /55. Joseph de Menasseh Pereira to Miss Rachel de Abraham Dias Arias. ?1,000 and ?700. Witness, Joseph b. Jacob aben Danon. 34. 15 Heshvan /56. Abraham Lopes de Cordoba to Miss Abigail de Abraham Rodrigues Carion. ?400 and ?200. Witness, Abraham Dias Arias. 35. 10 Adar Sheni /56. Abraham Norsa de Jehoshua Norsa to Miss Esther de Isaac Abohab Cardozo. ?500 and ?250. Witness, Benj. Nunes. 36. 3 Msan /56. Doctor (Harofe) Isack de Auila to Rachel Pineyra. ?800 and ?260. Witness, Abrm. Lopes de Britto. 37. 12 Iyar /56. Isaack de Dauid Baru(ch) Lluzada (pronounced Liuzada and so written in the Hebrew text) to Rebecah de Jacob Baruch Lluzada. He alone settles on her ?300. Witness, Ishak Lopes P(ereira?). 38. 15 Elhil /56. Daniel de Raffael Perez to Miss Hanah the daughter of the Haham hashalem Isaac de Avial. ?300 and ?150. Witness, Joseph b. Jacob aben Danon. 39. 14 Tishri /57. Issache de Abraham Cardosso to Miss Sarah de Moseh de Chaues. ?400 and ?200. Witnesses, David Pardo, also under the signature of the Haham Aylion, Sal. de Medina. 40. 3 Heshvan /57. David de Oliuera Brandon to Abigail de Oliuera Brandon. ?500 and ?250. Witness, Isaque Dias Arias (in the Hebrew text the name is written Brandon; in the signature, written with Latin characters, it is Blandon. In the following No. the same name occurs but it is written Brandon). 41. 3 Heshvan /57. Jacob de Oliuera Brandon to Rachel de Oliuera Brandon. ?500 and ?250. Witness, Abraham Dias Arias. 42. 16 Heshvan /57. Doctor (Harofe) Joseph Pereira da Costa to Miss Sara de Abraham Lopes Pernandes. ?300 and ?150. Witness, Izak de Auila. 43. 16 Heshvan /57. Moseh Pereira da Costa to Miss Esther de Abraham Lopes Fernandes. ?300 and ?150. Witness, Izak de Auila. 44. 23 Heshvan /57. Isaque Pereira Brandon to Rebecah Lopes Pereira. ?200 and ?100. Witness, David Gabay. 45. 2 Tebeth /57. Abraham de Selomoh Mendes to Miss Debora de Aharon de Medina. ?1,500 and ?750. Witness, David Gabay. 46. 8 Shebat /57. Moseh de Joseph Abenyacar to Miss Rebecah de (late) Haham Netanel Sarfati. ?500 and ?250. Witness, Joseph b. Jacob aben Danon. 47. 6 Adar /57. Abraham de Joseph Nunes to Miss Rachel de Isaac Israel Correa. ?1,700 and ?850. Witness, Isaac Dias Arias. 48. 18 Adar /57. Abram Nunes Dalmeida to Sarah Dalmeida. He alone gives ?100. Witness, Jahacob Mendes de Britto. 49. Rosh Hodesh Tammuz /57. Jacob de Abraham da Vega to Miss Rachel de Isac Israel Henriques. (These parties have made a contract before the public notary Wright on 3 June, 1697.) Witnesses here, Issack Lindo and Aharon Pacheco. 50. 13 Ab /57. Aron de Joseph Baruch Aluares to Miss Rachel de Jacob de Farro. ?500 and ?250. Witness, Abraham Rds. de Paiba. 51. Rosh Hodesh Heshvan /58. Emanuel (Manuel) de David Nahmis (Namias) to Miss Sarah de Samuel de Leon Gedes. ?350 and ?175. Witness, Binyamin Nunez.</page><page sequence="9">THE KETUBOTH OF BEVIS MARKS. 79 52. Rosh Hodesh Heshvan /58. David de Jacob de Farro to Miss Jehudith de Isac Lindo. (A contract made between the two parties before the public notary Antonio Wright, the bride being represented by her father and Eliahu Lindo on the 4th October, 1697.) Witness, J. Manuel Barzilay. 53. 15 Heshvan /58. Abraham de Jacob de Oliueira to Miss Rebecae de Abraham Isaiah de Morais. ?300 and ?120. Witness, Joseph Pereira da Costa. 54. 10 Shebat /58. Jacob de Joseph Mendes to Miss Sarah de Manasseh Mendes. She had been betrothed to his brother but he died before he had married her, so Jacob claimed her as his " Yibum," and he married her accord? ing to Law. ?1,000 and ?600. Witness, Abraham Gomes. 55. 8 Adar /58. Abraham de Moseh Franco to Miss Sarah de Jacob Gomes Serra. ?2,700 and ?1,350. Witness, Ishac Semah de Valencia. 56. 4 Sivan /58. Jacob Haim de Moseh Gabay to Miss Hanah the daughter of the late Haham hanaalah Moseh Mocata. ?300 and ?700. Witness, Jacob Nunez Mirande. 57. 4 Sivan /58. Mose Nunes Cardoso to Miss Rachel de Chaues. ?20 and ?30. Witness, Moseh b. Joseph aben Danon. 58. 11 Sivan /58. Abraham de Isaac Fernandes to Hanah de David Fernandes. ?160 and ?80. Witness, Joseph Henriques. 59. 11 Sivan /58. Jacob de Abraham Leon to Miss Roza de Abraham Rodrigues Carion.. ?300 and ?300. Witness, Mose de Joseph aben Danon. 60. 9 Tammuz /58. Jacob Aboab Osorio, alias Jacob Jenes de Joseph Aboab Osorio, alias Joseph Jenes Osorio to Miss Sarah, alias Bianca da Costa, daughter of Jacob da Costa, alias Alvaro da Costa. (They made a contract before the public notary Antonio "Riit" on 6 June, 1699; on behalf of the bride being also her mother Rachel, alias Leonora da Costa, present at the making of it.) Witnesses here, Binyamin Nunez and Moseh do Porto. 61. 15 Ab /58. Yuda de Abraham Fresco to the widow Deborah Cardozo. Dowry, ?300. Witness, Pinhas Henriquez Bernal. 62. 6 Ellul /58. Daniel de Jacob Martines to Rachel de Jacob Nunes Mirande. ?1,000 and ?500. Witness, Joseph Henriquez. 63. 6 Ellul /58. Moseh, alias Antonio da Costa, son of Jacob, alias Alvaro da Costa, to Miss Rachel, alias Catarina, Mendes daughter of the "famous doctor" (Harofe hamubhaq) Moseh, alias Fernando, Mendes. (They also made a contract before the public notary Antonio Wright on the 1st August, 1699, on the side of the bridegroom being also his mother, Rachel, alias Leonora da Costa and on that of the bride, her father.) Witnesses here, Binyamin Nunes and Jacob Shalom Moreno. 64. 6 Kislev /59. Abram Lozada to Miss Sarah de Almeda. He alone gives ?150. Witness, David de Paz. 65. 6 Kislev /59. Jacob de Lossada to Miss Rachel de Abraham Losada. ?500 and ?250. Witness, David de Paz (written "depaz"). 66. 8 Tebeth /59. Jeuda de Iehiel Caracosa to Miss Esther de Moseh Joseph Barzilay. ?600 and ?300. Witnesses, Jacob Coen Arias and Isack Lindo. 67. 21 Sebat /59. A second Ketubah written at the request of the parties, viz.: Binjamin Wolf, son of Mosheh ha-Levi, and his wife Hitzlah, daughter of Samuel Heilbut, to whom he had been married in London in the</page><page sequence="10">80 MISCELLANIES. year 5445 on the loth of Kislev on a Wednesday, but they had lost the Ketubah, and they now ask for a duplicate to be written according to Law. ?500 and ?100. They delayed the signature until the following Sunday, the 25 Shebat. Witness, Moseh aben Danon. (The bridegroom signs with the usual Ashkenazi cursive letters.) 68. 3 Adar Sheni /59. Jacob de Samuel Israel to Miss Esther de Emanuel Mocatta. ?40 and ?100. Witness, Mosseh Sarruco. 69. Monday 14 Nisan /59. Jehosua de (late) he-Haham hameromam Natanel Sarfati to Miss Jehudith de he-Haham hanaalah Joseph Franco Serano. ?200 and ?200. Witness, Joseph ha-Cohen de Azevedo. 70. Monday 4 Sivan /59. He-Haham hanaalah Joshua de Jacob Gomes Serra to Miss Rachel de Isaac Israel Bravo. ?2,000 and ?1,000. Witness, Joseph Rd. da Costa. 71. 22 Ellul /59. David de Abraham Isaiah Morais to Miss Esther Pereira. ?300 and ?150. Witness, Joseph Pereira da Costa. 72. 12 Heshvan /60. Abraham de Isaac Mementon to the proselyte Sarah the daughter of our forefather Abraham. ?150 and ?75. Witness, Joseph b. Jacob aben Danon. 73. 3 Kislev /60. Abran Dias de Lozada to Miss Sarah de Pas. ?50 and ?25. Witness, Abraham Per. Brandon. 74. 21 Kislev /60. Abran de Almeda to Miss Sarah Perera. He alone gives ?500. Witness, Abraham Arias. 75. 28 Kislev /60. The "famous doctor" (Ha-rofe hamubhaq) Abraham da Fonseca to Sarah da Fonseca. He alone gives ?100. Witness, Joseph Abarbanel. 76. 1 Tebeth /60. Samuel de Torres to Miss Hanah Lopes. He alone gives ?50. Witness, Samuel de Caseres. 77. 1 Tebeth /60. Abraan de Torres to Miss Sarah Lopes. He alone gives ?100. Witness, Samuel de Caseres. 78. Sunday 5 Tebeth /60. Ishack de Daniel Abendana to Rachel the daughter of our forefather Abraham (i.e. a proselyte). He alone gives ?150. Witness, Joshua Gomes Serra. 79. 8 Tebeth /60. David de Isaac Velio to Miss Rachel de Abraham Iehudah Leon. ?150 and ?75. Witness, Joseph b. Jacob aben Danon. 80. 21 Shebat /60. Abr?o Henriques Lopes to Miss Sarah Nunes. He alone gives ?200. Witness, Joseph Cohen D'Azevedo. 81. 15 Sivan /60. Jacob Morales to Miss Rachel daughter of the late "famous doctor" (Harofe hamubhaq) Abraham Perez Galvon. ?100 and ?50. Witness, David Correa. 82. 15 Sivan /60. Zalman, i.e., Salomon, son of Mordechai Segal (i.e., Levi) to Miss Havah, daughter of the late Yequtiel son of he-chaber Elhanan ?20 and ?10. (No other witness but the signature of the Haham. As this is only the copy, the original being retained by the contracting party, they seem to have neglected to sign the book also.) 83. 1 Tammuz /60. Jacob de Fonseca da Costa to Miss Rachel Alyin Henriques. ?400 and ?200. Witness, Ishac de Auila. 84. 13 Ab /60. David de Castres Pinero to Miss Rachel Pereira. ?200 and ?200. Witness, Joseph Mendez de Castro.</page><page sequence="11">A NEW STARR OF HUNTINGDON. 81 85. 24 Tishri /61. Abram da Fonseea da Costa to Miss Sarah de Auila. ?400 and ?200. Signature of witness illegible. 86. 7 Heshvan /61. Jacob Lopez, alias Fransisco de Lis junior, son of Abraham Lopes, alias Fransisco de Lis, to Miss Esther daughter of Isaac Israel, alias Pedro Henriques junior. (They made a contract before the public notary Guilermo Butler, 7 October, 1700.) Here witness, Jahacob Jesurun Rodrigues.</page></plain_text>