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The Family of Mordecai Hamburger and their Association with Madras

R. J. D'Arcy Hart

<plain_text><page sequence="1">THE FAMILY OF MORDECAI HAMBURGER. 57 7 The Family of Mordecai Hamburger and Their Association with Madras. It is not perhaps without interest that there is to be found in London at the Hoxton cemetery of the Hambro' Synagogue the grave of a grandson of the celebrated diarist Ghickel of Hamelyn, and that the inscription1 should be in quite a good state of preservation at the present day. The tomb referred to is that of Elchanan Henle Hamburger, otherwise Henry Moses, one of the sons of Marcus Moses (Mordecai Hamburger) the founder of the Hambro' congregation. Marcus Moses married at Altona in about the year 16992 his second cousin3 Freudchen, a daughter of Ghickel and Chayim Hameln. His bride could scarcely have been more than fourteen4 years old?not an unusual marrying age for that period owing to the insecure conditions prevailing and to the consequent anxiety of parents to see their children provided for. She was "a big girl for her age" however, "and lovely beyond compare."5 Marcus Moses, whose father, Moses b. Loeb, was President of the Hamburg community, was a pious and upright man, and was widely esteemed. Like his parents-in-law, Marcus was a merchant dealing in precious stones. On his marriage he established his home in London, where he took charge of the English business of his firm. Owing to the opposition aroused by the actions of Aberle, the lay head of the existing Ashkenazic community, an attempt was made in 1704 by Abraham Nathan, Sampson Mears, and Marcus Moses to convert Nathan's house in St. Mary Axe into a synagogue. This was frustrated however 1 This refers to the Hebrew. If there was ever an English inscription, and there is ample space, it has disappeared. 2 Calculated from Marvin Lowenthal's translation of The Memoirs of Gl?cket of Hameln (New York, 1932). 3 Ibid., pp. xv, 14, 104, 217, 220, and M. Grunwald's Hamburgs deutsche Juden (Hamburg, 1904), p. 276, No. 2730. 4 Lowenthal, op. cit., p. 212. 5 Loeb Altona, formerly Loeb Hildesheim?see Note 8. E</page><page sequence="2">58 MISCELLANIES. by the intervention of representatives of the Sephardim and of the recognized Ashkenazic community with the Court of Aldermen of the City of London; and the following is the report6 of the proceedings in connection with the matter:? "Tuesday, 20 March, 1704. Mr. Abraham Mendez and Mr. Moses Hart now acquainting this Court that Abraham Nathan an Inhabitant in St. Mary Axe Sampson Mears inhabiting in Goodmans Fields and Marcus Moses of White chapel Jews of the German Nation and others were erecting a New Synagogue in Saint Mary Axe aforesaid without permission of this Court. It is ordered that the said Abraham Nathan Sampson Mears and Marcus Moses be summoned to attend this Court upon Thursday next to shew cause why they presume to take upon them to erect a new Place for the Jewish Worship without any authority for the same, and that the said Mr. Mendez and Mr. Hart be present at the same time." "Thursday, 22 March, 1704. Upon examination of the Complaint made unto this Court, upon Tuesday last that Abraham Nathan Sampson Moses Marques Moses and others, Jews of the German Nation were erecting a Synagogue in St. Mary Axe After hearing both parties in the presence of each other and it appearing unto this Court that the said Building was fitting up and designed by the Parties complained of?for a Synagogue or place of Jewish worship and for a Colledge or Schoole for the education and instruction of Youth and others according to the Jewish Religion This Court doth declare that they will not permit nor suffer the said place to be converted or turned into a Synagogue for the exercise of the said Jewish Religion or for a Schoole or Colledge for ye education and instruction of any Persons in the Jewish Law or Religion and therefore doth order and require that no person or persons do presume to convert the said place into a Synagogue Colledge or Schoole, or to use any Jewish worship therein as they will answere the same at their peril." 6 Guildhall Library: Addnl. MSS. 343 (City of London Aldermanic Court Repertory 109, fos. 199 and 215).</page><page sequence="3">THE FAMILY OF MORDECAI HAMBURGER. 59 In 1706, in consequence of his criticism of the validity of a divorce a decree of excommunication was published against Marcus Moses, largely owing to pressure on the part of the aforesaid Aberle, who was a competitor in business and had been an unsuccessful suitor for the hand of Freudchen. During the months which followed, Moses suffered social ostracism and heavy financial loss. But towards the close of the year he had secured the overruling of the ban, and he opened at his residence a synagogue, in which the Hambro' congregation was inaugurated. After these events his business prospered for a time; but about six years later, being again in financial straits, he decided to undertake the voyage to India, where he accordingly went, leaving in London his wife and family of nine children (with a tenth expected).7 Marcus Moses remained in India for several years, and succeeded in creating a second fortune as a diamond merchant. The following events in his career in the East have been recorded 8:? On the 21st October, 1717, when the Madras Government desired to reward Lieutenant John Roach after his recapture of Trivatore by constituting him "Major of all the Honble. Company's Forces on the Coast of Choromandell and Island of Sumatra" and by giving him "a Gold medall with the Honble. Company's arms Set round with Diamonds Sparks, with an inscription on the reverse Suitable to the occasion, (the value about three hundred Pagodas9)," Marcus Moses was entrusted with the fashioning of the "Jewell," which was duly presented to Roach on the 12th December. 10 In June, 1718 an action was brought in the Madras Courts11 7 Prof. Dr. David Kaufmann in Transactions of the Society, iii, 102-125; Rabbiner Eduard Duckesz, of Altona, in the Jewish Chronicle of 6th Sept., 1901, p. 22; M. Grunwald, op. cit.f p. 76; and Mr. Wilfred S. Samuel in the Jewish Guardian of 13th March, 1925. The London Journal of July 22nd, 1721, p. 4:?" On Tuesday last came to Town a Jew, who had been nine Years in India a Diamond-hunting, and 'tis said has gain'd a great Estate by that Pastime: He left here, when he went for India, a Wife and nine Children; his Wife then going with a Tenth; all of whom he has found in good Health." 8 H. D. Love's Vestiges of Old Madras (London, 1913), Vol II, p. 154; and Madras Public Proceedings, Range 239, Vol. 87, Sept., 1717?Feb., 1718, pp. 27, 28, 56. 9 Equal to Roach's pay for fifteen months as a Major. A pagoda was a gold coin. 10 Madras Public Proceedings, Range 239, Vol. 87, March?Dec, 1718, pp. 96, 97-111, 118, 123, 127-134, 140, 143, 145-150. The plaintiff was referred to as "Sir Peter Dulivier." 11 The Governor and Council; minor cases were heard by the Mayor's Court.</page><page sequence="4">60 MISCELLANIES. against Marcus Moses by the Chevalier Pierre Dulivier, a former Governor of the French territory of Pondicherry. Moses, who was described as "formerly an inhabitant of Pontichery but at present of Fort St. George,"12 had visited Dulivier in Paris in 1712, having been recom? mended "very particularly" by Thomas Pitt,13 who had been Governor of Madras from 1698 to 1709. Dulivier, having the opportunity of returning to Pondicherry, proposed to enter the diamond trade, and suggested to Moses that he should also go there in order that they should work in conjunction with each other; and a considerable amount of business appears to have resulted. The case referred to purchases made on commission for Dulivier's friends in France; and the plaintiff, on the ground that his friends had been overcharged, endeavoured to obtain the disclosure of the names of the persons from whom the defendant made his purchases at the mines.14 Moses was able to show that the prices charged compared favourably with those obtaining in Europe, and that he had made no secret profits, and successfully resisted the attempt to obtain information which, in view of the conditions prevailing at the mines, would have involved him in the risk of danger to himself and of the loss of his trade. The court reserved their decision until the 14th July, when judgment was pronounced in favour of the defendant on all counts. When Moses visited France in 1712, Pitt had "sent him to Paris with a modell of his great diamond"?presumably the famous Pitt or Regent diamond, which Pitt had acquired from a native merchant in 1701 during his governorship, and which was eventually disposed of to the Regent of France for ?135,000; and there is therefore presented the interesting possibility that Moses was instrumental in effecting the sale. A portrait by Kneller of Thomas Pitt depicts the diamond in his hat, and shows him wearing on one of his shoes a specially enlarged heel, which he used for the purpose of carrying the stone.15 Moses returned to his family in England in 1721 ;16 and it is said 12 The name of the European settlement at Madras. 13 Grandfather of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. 14 At Golconda, near Ellore, a week's journey from Madras. 15 H. D. Love, op. ext., vol. ii, pp. 2, 3. 16 Moses Marcus, The Principal Motives . . . (London, 1724), p. xx.</page><page sequence="5">THE FAMILY OF MORDECAI HAMBURGER. 61 that the London newspapers at that time had much to report regarding his successful career.7 During his absence in India the congregation had continued to worship in the synagogue at his house; but after his return he removed with his family to Magpye Alley (afterwards Church Row), Fenchurch Street, where a new synagogue building was erected in his garden in 1725. The Hambro' Synagogue remained until 1892 on this site, which is now occupied by Fenchurch Station Chambers. The circumstances in which the Hambro5 congregation was formed, and in which the synagogue in the garden of Marcus Moses's house in Magpye Alley was founded are well known, and have therefore only been briefly summarised. But the reasons for the transfer of the premises to Benjamin Isaac (Wolf Prager) and for the return of Moses to India in 1731 are not clear. He would then have been seventy years old (if it is correct that he was born in about 166017); and a five months' journey on one of the East India Company's 480-ton ships could scarcely have been an attraction to a man of his age. Probably he was anxious to re-establish and maintain his business until one of his sons had gained sufficient experience to take it over from him. In the East India Company's London records it is stated that "At a Court of Directors holden on Wednesday the 28th October, 1730," the "Petition of Marcus Moses being read, praying leave to return to Fort St. George with one Servant to Inhabit there, Order'd that his Request be granted on his entring into the usual Covenants"; and in the following January his son Hyam Moses and Henry Isaac were "approved of to be Security for Mr. Marcus Moses Free Merchant18 for Fort St. George." An entry dated February 9th, 1730/31, accordingly read as follows:?"Mr. Marcus Moses Free Merchant for Fort St. George, in the Duke of Cumberland &amp; Lazarus Simons his menial Serv*.,19 they pays ye Charge of their Passage." A change however was evidently made in the arrangements, as the item was struck out and was sub 17 The Jewish Encyclopedia, vi. p. 195. 18 i.e., not one of the merchants in the service of the East India Company. 19 As until 1834, no British subject could proceed to India without the Com? pany's permission, this may have simply been an alternative method, involving fewer formalities than were required for obtaining Free Merchant's indentures.</page><page sequence="6">62 miscellanies. stituted on February 11th by a fresh entry which omitted the servant. Moses's name appears in the list of passengers in the "Ship Duke of Cumberland musterd in the Downes the 22nd Febry 1730 "(1731)20 The Captain of the ship (which arrived at Madras on the 22nd July) had received authority to seize any pirates who might be met with on the voyage. After Marcus Moses had returned to Fort St. George, his son Levy Moses went out to join him there in 1734. Marcus's name is included in the List of Inhabitants21 for the 30th September, 1735, but not in subsequent lists, of which the next was dated the 31st December of that year; and it is to be presumed that he died in India during the last three months of 1735. The congregation which he founded more than two hundred and thirty years ago appears now in 1937 to be likely to become merged once again into that of the Great Synagogue. The following letter from the East India Company to Benjamin Isaac is reproduced here as referring to the Hambro' Synagogue:?22 "Mr. Benjamin Isaacs Sr. I am Commanded by the Court of Directors of the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies to Acquaint you as I hereby do that they have Orderd their Workmen forthwith to pull down the House commonly called the Old Custom House in Fenchurch Street which Adjoyns to your House, and whereas the Foundation which is to be laid for the Warehouses designed to be built on the ground will be deeper than the foundation of your House &amp; Garden Wall therefore the said Court desire you will take care to Secure the same. Dated at the East India House London this 26th February 1733.23 Signed by Order of the said Council, Chris. Mole, 20 India Office General Records (I.O.G.R.): Court Minutes, 1730-32, Vol. 54, pp. 153, 213; and Miscellanies, Vol. 7, p. 48 and end of volume. 21I.O.G.R.: European Inhabitants, Vol. 3a, Madras, 1702-80. 22 Ibid. Miscellanies, Vol. 7, p. 309. 23 1733-34.</page><page sequence="7">THE FAMILY OF MORDECAI HAMBURGER. 63 Memor: the Original was deliver'd to Mr. Benjn. Isaacs this day by Mr. John Read Carpenter In presence of James Hendrie." Marcus Moses had seven sons, Moses, Hiam or Hyam, Henry, Levy,24 Samuel, Lipman or Leffman, and Joseph, and three daughters, Elizabeth, Hester or Esther, and Susannah. The eldest son, who took the name of Moses Marcus, was born in 1701, and was educated in London and at Hamburg. He had been intended for the ministry, but in 1723 he adopted Christianity, and he wrote concerning his apostasy a learned tract entitled, "The Principal Motives and Circumstances that induced Moses Marcus to leave the Jewish, and embrace the Christian Eaith with a short Account of his Sufferings thereupon."25 The conversion, however, was not genuine, but, owing apparently to his being of a somewhat lazy and extravagant disposition, was made with the object of compelling his parents to support him under a law in force at the time. This, however, they appear to have been able very largely to avoid; and in 1724?sixteen months after his "conversion"?Marcus wrote to them from Amsterdam a letter of recantation. But his parents refused to forgive him; and he subsequently returned to England, where he supported his wife and family by earning a precarious living as a teacher of languages. Moses Marcus wrote an English translation of J. G. Carpzov's "Defence of the Hebrew Bible"; this was published in London in 1729 under the following title:?"A Defence of the Hebrew Bible in answer to the charge of corruption brought against it by Mr. Whiston in his 'Essay towards restoring the true text of the Old Testament,' etc., wherein Mr. Whiston's pretences are particularly examined and confuted: translated from the Latin, with additional notes, by M. Marcus."26 Hiam or Hyam Moses was a London merchant who dealt in precious stones. He married Judith, a daughter of Benjamin Isaac, and had 24 Subsequently described as " Levy Moses I.," in order to distinguish him from his nephew, who is referred to in this Paper as " Levy Moses II." 25 Published in London, 1724. 26 Rev. Dr. A. Cohen and Mr. Wilfred S. Samuel in Jewish Chronicle of 30th Dec, 1932, and 27th Jan., 1933, respectively; and British Museum Catalogue.</page><page sequence="8">64 MISCELLANIES. two children, Jacob and Esther; they lived in Great St. Helens. In November, 1733, when at a Court of Directors of the East India Company the petition of Levy Moses I. was read "praying leave to go to his Father Mr. Marcus Moses at Fort St. George he paying for his Passage," it was " Order'd that he have leave to go on the usual terms, on his Entering into Covenants as customary"; and at a subse? quent court Levy's brothers Hiam and Joseph Moses were proposed as security for him in ?2,000. Instructions were accordingly given "that the Secretary do enquire into the Circumstances and Ability of the said Persons and make report," and the following was the result of his investigation:?"I have enquired into the Circumstances of Messrs. Hiam Moses and Joseph Moses who are proposed by Mr. Levy Moses permitted by the Court to reside at Madrass as Security for him in ?2,000. And find they are both Jewellers and Housekeepers and that the former Married Mr. Benjamin Isaacs Daughter with whom he had a good Fortune and the Old Gentleman has settled ?10,000 upon her after his Death." The report was duly read in court, and the security approved.27 The marriage of Hiam Moses and Judith Isaac formed a link between the family of the original owner of the Hambro' Synagogue and that of his two next successors. No evidence has been found in support of the tradition that Benjamin Isaac (who died a widower in 1750) was a son-in-law of Marcus Moses. On the other hand the former is known to have married Gittele, a daughter of Ephraim of Rosenberg.28 Confirmation is given by a contemporary newspaper7 and by Kaufmann and Grunwald as to the number of Marcus Moses's children being ten; and of his three daughters, referred to later in this Paper, two died unmarried, and the third was the wife of Simon Jacobus Moses. Hyam Moses died at some time between the 6th August, 1771 (when he is referred to in the will29 of his brother-in-law Henry Isaac, the third owner of the synagogue), and the 11th February, 1783, on which date his widow proved the will30 (dated 23rd October, 1780) 27I.O.G.R.: Court Minutes, 1732-34, Vol. 55, pp. 496, 503, 511; and Mis cellaneous Letters Received, 1733, Vol. 24, No. 167. 28 Hambro' Synagogue Curtain at Jewish Museum. 29P.C.C. 1773, Stevens, 208. 30 P.C.C. 1783, Cornwallis, 86.</page><page sequence="9">THE FAMILY OF MORDECAI HAMBURGER. 65 of their son Jacob Moses. Jacob appears to have died a bachelor; but his sister Esther was married on the 22nd September, 1761,31 to her first cousin, Joseph Gompertz (an uncle of Benjamin Gompertz, F.R.S., mathematician, and actuary to the Alliance Assurance Company, and of Lewis Gompertz, a founder of the R.S.P.C.A.). They lived at 25 Crutched Eriars, and had one child, Lion Gompertz of Harliford Place, Kennington, and later of Bath. Joseph Gompertz was President of the Hambro' Synagogue for ten years; and the same position was occupied by his son for a considerable period. When the synagogue was consecrated after rebuilding in 1808, father and son carried the Scrolls into the Ark. On the same occasion Joseph Gompertz was the recipient of an address in commemoration of his services as President.32 Joseph died on the 9th June, 1810, at the age of 78, and was buried at Hoxton on the following day. He was survived by his wife, who died on the 13th August, 1815. Lion Gompertz married Rebecca, daughter of Solomon Salomons33 of 4, Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, and aunt of the first Sir David Salomons. Their child, Esther Shiphrah Gompertz, who was born on the 27th September 1818,34 was thus descended from four well-known Anglo-Jewish families, namely from those of Marcus Moses (Mordecai Hamburger), Benjamin Isaac (Wolf Prager), Gompertz, and Salomons. Rebecca Gompertz died on the 26th December, 1839.34 She was survived by her husband, who died on the 8th May, 1848.34 Their daughter was married on the 17th February, 1841, to Judah de Jacob Pariente of Gibraltar.35 Henry Moses, whose grave was referred to at the beginning of this Paper, lived in London in the parish of All Hallows, Barking-by-the Tower.35a He was President of the Hambro' Synagogue of which he had become a Life Warden by 1736. In the contemporary congregational records his Hebrew name is usually given as Henle Hamburger, the 31 The Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xxxi, p. 537 (Nov., 1761). 32 Zur Geschichte j?discher Familien, III, " Die Familie Gomperz," by Prof. Dr. David Kaufmann and Dr. Max Freudenthal (Frankfurt a/M., 1907), p. 321. 33 Son of Levy (Judah Leib b. Jochanan) Salomons of Seething Lane. 34 Hambro' Synagogue Register. 35 From Sir Thomas Colyer-Fergusson. 35aHe became Senior Churchwarden in 1768?an unusual distinction to be conferred upon a Jew?and his name still appears upon a wood panel erected in this Church.?The writer is indebted to Dr. C. Roth for this information.</page><page sequence="10">66 MISCELLANIES. first word, Elchanan, being omitted. He married Sarah, a daughter of Abraham Elias (Assur Anshel b. Eliaser Neimegen); the date of the marriage settlement was the 21st February, 1736.36 Like Henry's father, his father-in-law (who was a cousin of Reuben and Levy (Norden) Salomons of Lime Street) also spent many years in India, where he resided at Surat in the Bombay Presidency. A son of Abraham Elias, Levy (Judah) Elias of Mansell Street, married Joyce Gompertz, a sister of Joseph Gompertz; and their son, Benjamin (Zeeb) Elias of Pier Head, London Docks, was President of the Hambro' Synagogue and was one of the founders of the Bread, Meat, and Coal Charity. Henry Moses was in business as a merchant, his counting house being situated at his residence. He acted in conjunction with John Goddard as an agent in England for the sale of diamonds exported from India by his brother Levy's firm. The proceeds were either invested on behalf of the Madras business or employed in the purchase of bullion which was shipped to India. During the latter part of his life Henry was involved in a considerable amount of litigation37 and 53 arising out of claims on his brother Levy's estate, of which he was executor in England. In his will,38 dated 1754, Henry leaves "to my dear wife Sarah Moses according to the Laws and Customs of the Jews which is one third more yn or portion besides I leave her all my house? hold Goods and Furniture and one hundred ounces of plate, the Rest to be sold and the remainder of my estate to be divided equally among my dear children, but in case I should die possessed of five thousand pounds or upwards then my dear wife after she has received according to the Custom of the Jews to come in for an equal share with my dear 36 Will of Abraham Elias: P.C.C. 1770, Jenner, 291. 37 The principal case appears to have been " Jones v. Moses &amp; others " (Chancery Proceedings C12/2033/28), the " complainant" being George Jones (formerly partner of Levy Moses) and the defendants Henry Moses, his brother Samuel Moses (Levy Moses's executor in India), Levy and Reuben Salomons, Jacob Mossell (Governor of Batavia), and Sir Josehua Van Neck, Baronet, and James Barton (Mossell's representatives in England). Jones having died, and his widow having been married to William Kemeys, the suit was revived against Henry's widow and others as " Kemeys &amp; wife v. Moses " (C12/2410/68), " Kemeys v. Moses " (C12/2410/73), and " Kemeys v. Norden " (C12/2099/1). Under the last reference are included an inventory of the effects of Henry Moses and accounts in connection with the administration of his personal estate. 38 P.C.C. 1769, Bogg, 135.</page><page sequence="11">THE FAMILY OF MORDECAI HAMBURGER. 67 children this share the Interest she is to receive during her life and after her death to be equally divided among my sons then living." He bequeathes "to the Synagogue of Magpye Alley oyl for one year to burn and for one year large wax candles." Henry Moses died on Wednesday, the 5th of Adar Rishon, 1769, and was buried on the same day. In his epitaph he is described as "one who spake uprightly and who walked in purity of heart," as "great with a good name," and as having "died with a good name."39 The executors, his brother Samuel and his son Eleazer, being in India, special probate40 was granted by the Prerogative Court of Canterbury with letters of administration to the widow. This began with the customary formula, which was evidently employed without regard to the religious allegiance of the person or persons concerned:? "Frederick by Divine Providence Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England and Metropolitan, To Our well beloved in Christ Sarah Moses, Widow, the Relict and a principal Legatee named in the will with three codicils of Henry Moses, late of the parish of All Hallows, Barking, London, deceased, Greeting. Whereas the said Henry Moses having whilst living and at the time of his Death Goods Chattels or Credits in various Dioceses or Jurisdictions. . . ." The children of Henry and Sarah Moses were Eleazer, Levy, Lucky, Judith, Frances, Isaac, Hannah, and Minkey. The three latter were minors at the time of their father's death, and their brother Levy became their guardian. Sarah Moses survived her husband for many years, and it is probable that after his death she removed to the parish of St. Botolph, Aldgate. But those of her children who had been living there in 1790 had moved by the year 1794 to Walworth, where it seems reasonable to suppose that she continued to reside with them. She died in the winter of 1799/1800, and was buried on the 5th Teveth.34 Eleazer Moses went out to India in 1764, travelling with his uncle, Samuel Moses, in the "Duke of Gloucester," which arrived on the 3rd August.55 He resided at Fort St. George, and like other members of his father's family who went to India, was a free merchant,18 He 39 Dayan Mendelssohn's Translation of Decipherable Epitaphs at Hoxton, 1929 40 P.C.C. Probate Act Book, 1769.</page><page sequence="12">68 MISCELLANIES. was in partnership with his uncle; and when Samuel Moses returned to England, endeavours were made in 1772 to arrange for the latter's place to be taken by David Levy41 and by Eleazer's brother, Levy Moses IL, as set out in the following petition, "To the Honble. Court of Directors of the East India Company. The Humble Petition of David Levy and Levy Moses. Sheweth, That Messrs. Samuel Moses &amp; Eleazer Moses were in Partnership at Madras. That Mr. Sam1. Moses having return'd to England, the remaining Partner Mr. Eleazer Moses has Requested that your Petitioners might be sent out to Assist him in Carrying on his Business, which will Suffer greatly unless they are Allowed to go. That the said Mr. Eleazer Moses has Express'd this Desire in several Letters to his Brother Levy Moses, the Originals of which have been shown to your Honours Secretary, and of which the following are part. In his Letter of 19 Sepr. 1770 Writing of Mr. Sam1. Moses's departure he says=When he Arrives he will then send you out here to me =to be join'd in Business with me In Case you should Come out =here, you will write a Letter Acquainting me of your being arriv'd =ready to be sent ashore with the Cattamarain/which is the Black =fellow that is sent on Board to Know the Name of the Wessel/for =me &amp; Wait my Coming to fetch you ashore. In his Letter Anno 1771 he says. =1 hope on our Uncles safe Arrival in England that he will send =you out to me I Beg the favour that when you come out here, =you will bring along with you a few Valuable Books of History = &amp; I will Reimburse you. That your Petitioners are willing to find whatever Security your Honours may require to the Extent of Twenty Thousand Pounds, 41 David Levy married Malcah Elias, aunt of Eleazer Moses.</page><page sequence="13">the family of mordecai hamburger. 69 and likewise to Submit to any other Regulations or Restrictions which your Honours may think fit to Enjoin. And your Petitioners shall ever pray. David Levy. Levy Moses." These plans were never realised. The Committee of Correspondence, having been instructed to examine the application, reported that having considered the petition, "and it appearing that the practice of permitting Persons to repair to the East Indies under Free Merchant's Covenants, from the inconveniences attending it has been discontinued, the Com? mittee are of Opinion, that the Petition of Messrs. Levy and Moses be not complied with."42 The committee's report was subsequently adopted at a Court of Directors. Eleazer died in India before the 8th July, 1822, the date of his sister Frances Moses's will,43 under which provision was made for a small bequest to his children "in case there are any living lawfully begotten and shall come to England." Henry's son Levy Moses II. lived in the parish of St. Botolph, Aldgate, and later in Walworth. Although he did not succeed in obtaining permission to reside at Madras, his business in England was evidently connected with India; and the following request for leave to visit Bombay was granted in 1780, the necessary guarantee of ?500 being furnished by his uncle Samuel Moses and by Joseph Gompertz i44? "To the Honourable Directors of the United Company of Merchants Trading to the East Indies, The Humble Petition of Levy Moses, That your Petitioner having Concerns at Cochin which cannot be Settled without his Presence Therefore begs leave of the Honourable Company to take his Passage on one of the Bombay Ships and Your Petitioner will give any Security Your Honours shall Require. Anrl Ynnr Pp+.i+.irmpr n.a in Dnf.v Tlnnnrl shall Evat Pta.v p.t.n. " 42I.O.G.R.: Miscellaneous Letters Received, 1772, Vol. 56, No. 117; Corres? pondence Reports, 1771-73, Vol. 10, p. 191; and Court Minutes, 1772-73, Vol. 81, pp. 244, 347. 43P.C.C. 1823, Richards, 303. 441.O.G.R.: Court Minutes, 1779-80, Vol. 88, pp. 588, 628 &amp; 1780-81, Vol. 89, p. 7, and Miscellaneous Letters Received, 1780 (1), Vol. 66, No. 130.</page><page sequence="14">70 MISCELLANIES. Levy Moses II. was buried at the Hackney cemetery of the Hambro' Synagogue on the 21st of Teveth, 1807/08.34 Lucky Moses became the wife53 of Henry's brother Samuel Moses in about the year 1771, when the latter returned to England after his second period of residence in India. In 1812 she was living at Kennington, and she died on the 29th December of that year.34 Henry's daughter Judith Moses was living unmarried in 1796. She died in 1799,34 and her will was proved by her sister Frances on the 6th March, 1799.45 Frances Moses lived in the parish of St. Botolph, Aldgate, after? wards at Walworth, and later in Southampton Street, Camberwell. She died unmarried on the 6th May, 1823,34 and appears to have been the last surviving child of Henry Moses. Institutions and individuals referred to in her will43 (dated 8th July, 1822) included the Hambro' Synagogue, the clerk "Mr. Levy, who lives in the synagogue," the wife of Dr. Shannon and other members of his family, Mrs. Belger of Bocking, Essex, Jane Cohen, daughter of the late Abraham Nantzick, two maidservants, Leah Levy and her daughter "Phebi Levy Coal-merchant," the latter's cousin Rachel Reynolds, and "my friend Frances Meyers of Newington Butts widow of Benedix Meyers." The reference to Eleazer Moses has already been mentioned. The residue of the property was left to the Jews' Hospital, Mile End, the Bread, Meat, &amp; Coal Charity, and "the Jews Lancasterian school." The will was proved on the 28th May, 1823, by the three executors, Lyon Samuel of Goodmansfields, the testatrix's cousin Benjamin Elias, and Woolf Simmonds of Newington Butts. No reference to Isaac Moses has been found later than in 1772; and it would appear probable that he died at an early age. Hannah Moses, who also lived in St. Botolph's parish, Aldgate, died unmarried before the 15th February, 1780, on which date letters of administration of her property were granted to her mother. Minkey Moses, who was probably the youngest of the children of Henry Moses, lived in Trafalgar Street, Walworth, afterwards moving to Southampton Street, Camberwell. She died unmarried on the 8th October, 1819. Her will or46 codicils mention her aunt Malcah Levy 45 P.C.C. 1799, Howe, 205. 46 P.C.C. 1819, Ellenboro', 485.</page><page sequence="15">THE FAMILY OF MORDECAI HAMBURGER. 71 (nee Elias), the Hambro' Synagogue, and several of the persons referred to in the will of her sister Frances, who was appointed sole executrix. Of the other children of Marcus Moses (Mordecai Hamburger), Levy Moses I., who had booked his passage for Madras on the 21st December, 1733, as a free merchant, sailed in the following February in the "Princess Royal," which arrived at Fort St. George on the 21st July, 1734.47 He entered into partnership in 1743 with George Jones; and they traded "very largely in Diamonds, Jewels, and other valuable Effects."37 In 1746 Madras was captured by the French under Mahe de la Bourdonnais, but on the 10th October of that year a treaty of ransom was signed. Under this the town was to be evacuated for a ransom amounting to 1,100,000 Pagodas (?481,250), which was paid by bills of exchange maturing in subsequent years. Besides the ransom payable to the French East India Company, de la Bourdonnais stipulated that a sum of Pags. 100,000 should be handed to himself. Of that sum he actually received Pags. 88,000, which was paid before the treaty was signed. The funds required for this purpose, as well as for the salaries of the civil servants and pay of the garrison were raised by bonds on the (English) Company. The principal lenders were Solomon Salomons,48 Pags. 40,000; George Jones and Levy Moses, Pags. 15,000; Moses Heyman, Pags. 10,000; and others.49 Although de la Bourdonnais then left Madras, the treaty was not adhered to, as he was succeeded by Dupleix; and the French remained until the 21st August, 1749, when the town was handed back under the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. During the French occupation the seat of govern? ment was transferred to Fort St. David,50 to which place the military officers and civil servants, including Robert Clive, escaped. The English non-official population were expelled unless prepared to take the oath to the King of France, and in consequence the following appear in the List of Inhabitants of Fort St. David in 1748:?Solomon Salomons, 471.O.G.R.: Miscellanies, Vol. 7, p. 310 [" Marcus " here is evidently an error for Levy] and end of volume; and Madras Public Proceedings, Range 240, Vol. 1, 1734, p. 123. 48 Son of Benictus [? Benedictus] Salomons and nephew of Aaron Franks. 49 H. D. Love, op. cit, vol. ii, pp. 353, 369. 50 In the Gingee country at Tevnapatam; destroyed by the French in Oct., 1758, and never rebuilt.</page><page sequence="16">72 MISCELLANIES. Levy Moses, Moses Heyman, and Ephraim Isaac.51 In February, 1749, Clive, who had been appointed Quartermaster of Fort St. David, became involved in a dispute with the Chaplain. "The Rev. Francis Fordyce, who had lately come to Fort St. David from Bencoolen, was given to abusing his associates behind their backs. Dining one day with his friends Captain John Dalton and Lieutenant John Worth at Bandipollam, Clive was told that Fordyce had made insulting remarks about him. In the afternoon he met Fordyce at Cuddalore, reproached him with his conduct, and struck him. The Chaplain retaliated. Dalton and Worth, who were driving past at the moment, 6 saw Mr. Fordyce and Mr. Clive Cudjelling each other in the Street.' Fordyce preferred a complaint, which the Council investigated:? ' Mr. Clive's Deposition Concerning the Affair. That being at Dinner with Messrs. Dalton and Worth on or about the 16th February at Bandipollam, they told him Mr. Fordyce had said to a Gentleman in publick Company that he was a Scoundrel and a Coward, and that he had shook his Cane over him in the presence of Mr. Levy Moses.'" Fordyce was dismissed, and was superseded by the Rev. Robert Palk, who was afterwards Governor of Fort St. George.52 By March, 1751, Levy Moses had returned to Fort St. George, where he was living, unmarried, in Charles Street, and where he died in October, 1753.37 In his will,53 which was proved at Madras in that year and in London in 1755 by his brothers Samuel and Henry respectively, there are mentioned, in addition to his near relations, "my kinswoman Hester 61 Son of Henry Isaac and grandson of Benjamin Isaac (Wolf Prager). In 1757 he occupied in Choultry Gate Street, Madras, a large house, which was after? wards purchased for use as the Mayor's Court. 52 H. D. Love, op. ext., vol. ii, pp. 376, 375, 385, 388; and Fort St. David Factory Records, Vol. 6, 1749, p. 55. 53 P.C.C. 1755, Paul, 109; and P.C.C. Probate Act Book, 1772. The will also mentions " my dear and worthy friend Thomas Saunders, Esquire, Governor of Fort St. David." Rabbi Nathan Lyon is bequeathed the sum of ?30 sterling " for this reason only that I have a good opinion of his honesty." The will [P.C.C. 1776, Bellas, 467] of Nicholas Morse, who was Governor of Fort St. George from 1744 to 1746, and who was descended from Oliver Cromwell through the Protector's daughter Bridget Treton [H.D. Love, op. cit., Vol. II., p. 336,] refers to legacies of 200 pagodas to Miss Salomons, sister of Solomon Salomons [see Note 48], or her heirs, 100 pagodas each to " my faithful servants " Simon De Fonseca and others, and 600 pagodas to Levy Moses or his heirs. Nicholas Morse was the husband of Jane Goddard [c.f. Henry Moses's business associate].</page><page sequence="17">THE FAMILY OF M0RDECAI HAMBURGER. 73 Lyon" and Rabbi Nathan Lyon. The administration of the estate was affected by the lawsuits to which reference has been made. Samuel Moses went to India in 1746 in order to assist his brother Levy, whose health had deteriorated,54 and was taken into partnership in 1750 in the place of Jones, who returned to England at about this time. After the death of Levy Moses, Samuel continued the business until 1757, when he left for England.37 In 1764 he again proceeded to Fort St. George, accompanied on this occasion by his nephew Eleazer, who in turn became his partner. They had received permission to take with them, as their servant,19 Isaac Berend Goldsmith.55 Samuel's name appears in the Madras records of 1768 as having been granted two bonds of 2,000 Pagodas each and also one of 1,166 Pagodas as a creditor of the Nabob,56 and in the Bengal records of 1769 as the sender of a consignment of made-up jewels through an agent at Fort William [Calcutta] to "Mr. Michael Solomon" [Salomons] merchant, in England.57 By the year 1772 he had returned to London, where he established himself in the Crescent, Minories. In 1791 he was living at Walworth, where he died on the 2nd May, 1794; he does not appear to have had any children. Samuel Moses was survived by his wife, Lucky, who was unable to act as an executrix owing to illness. Under his will58 (dated 18th April, 1791), in which he is described as " Samuel Moses Junior," a bequest of ?25 was made to the Hambro' Synagogue, of which he was a member. The will was proved by his brother Lipman and his niece Frances. Lipman Moses resided in London in the parish of St. Catherine Coleman, and later at Walworth and in Jewry Street, Aldgate. He died on the 6th November, 1800; and with the possible but unlikely exception of his eldest brother, Moses Marcus, Lipman was the last survivor of the children of Marcus Moses. In his will,59 which is dated the 54I.O.G.R.: Miscellaneous Letters Received, 1745-46, Vol. 33, No. 72, Corres pondence Reports, Vol. 3, 29th Jan., 1745 [/46], and Court Minutes, 1744-46, Vol. 61, pp. 420, 425, 433. "Madras Public Proceedings, Range 240, Vol. 27, 1768; and I.O.G.R. Court Minutes, 1763-64, Vol. 72, pp. 212, 232, and Miscellaneous Letters Received, 1763, Vol. 45, No. 308. 56 The Nabob of Arcot was the local Indian ruler. 57 Lucien Wolf's notes on the Jews in India, now in the Mocatta Library, University College. 68 P.C.C. 1794, Holman, 270. 59 P.C.C. 1800, Adderley, 803. F</page><page sequence="18">74 MISCELLANIES. 27th February, 1799, after providing for various small legacies including bequests to the Hambro' Synagogue, to "my club,"60 to "Mr. Joseph Gompertz and his lady," and to Lion Gompertz, Lipman desires his executors61 "to make a public sale of all my Goods, Gold and Silver, Books and wearing Apparel and Linen, and all my furniture and what ready Money I have in the long Annuities, and what the whole produce to be sent to the Holy Land," after which follows the word "Jerusalem" in Hebrew and English. He gives instructions for "a plain stone as my brother and sister have." Joseph Moses began his career as a jeweller in St. Mary Axe, but unfortunately in 1740 became bankrupt. In 1755 he emigrated to Fort St. George, where he was in business as a merchant. He was married, but appears to have had no children. Joseph died in 1761; his will was proved at Madras and in London, the executors for England being his sisters Elizabeth and Hester.62 Elizabeth Moses lived in the parish of St. Olave, Hart Street, in the city of London. She died unmarried between 1762 and the 13th March, 1767, on which date letters of administration of her property were granted to her brother Henry. Hester or Esther Moses lived in the parish of St. Catherine Coleman and later in that of St. Botolph, Aldgate. She died unmarried on the 22nd November, 1790.63 Susannah or Susan Moses was married to Simon Jacobus Moses, a merchant of Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, who was the widower of Rebecca, daughter of Chief Rabbi Aaron Hart,64 and who was thus by his two marriages a connecting link between the founders of the Great and Hambro' Synagogues. After her husband's death, which took place between the 9th May, 1760, and the 22nd February, 1764, Susannah resided at Hackney. She died in 1765, and does not appear 60 The Hebrew name of the club then follows; this is somewhat indistinct in the Register, but is translated in the deposition as " The Club of Friend? ship." 61 Joseph and Lion Gompertz. 62 P.C.C. 1762, St. Eloy, 209. 63P.C.C. 1790, Bishop, 562. 64Chancery Proceedings: "Moses v. Moses" (C12/2059/47). Another Henry Moses was a brother and executor of Simon Jacobus Moses.</page><page sequence="19">the family of m0rdecai hamburger. 75 to have left any children. In her will65 are included the names of relatives to whom reference has already been made, and also those of her husband's nephew, Jacob Nathan Moses, and his wife, Myer Heyman (who was guardian to Susannah's three step-grandchildren, Joseph, Rebecca and Simon Hart Myers) and his wife, Mr. Thomas Kingsley, and the Hambro' Synagogue. The will of Susannah Moses was signed by the testatrix in her Hebrew name of Zippora daughter of Mordecai, and thus formed a valuable clue to the identification of the family, especially as the inscription on the tombstone of Elchanan Henle Hamburger, being entirely in Hebrew,1 did not in itself afford evidence that he was identical with Henry Moses, but gave corroboration regarding the synagogue and the year of death. Further links in the chain of evidence were provided however by the will36 of Abraham Elias, which is a translation from the Hebrew, and in which the testator's son-in-law is referred to as "Henry Hamburg," by the relationships between the various members of the family as shown by their wills, and by the connection with Madras. Final confirmation was obtained from two references in the India Office Records?one, in January, 1732, to a "Request of Mr. Joseph Moses being read praying to send to his Father Mr. Marcus Moses, an Inhabitant at Fort St. George, Two Chests of Wine and One small Chest of Hungary Water"66?and the other to the reading of the petition (previously mentioned) of Levy Moses I.27 Whether there are any descendants of Marcus Moses (Mordecai Hamburger) living at the present day is not known. Their existence is perhaps unlikely owing to the small number of marriages of which there were children. But in order to obtain confirmation on this matter, research would be required in three directions, namely, for descendants of Moses Marcus of London, of Mrs Judah de Jacob Pariente of Gibraltar, and of Eleazer Moses of Madras. R. J. D'Arcy Hart. Bead before the Society, June 15th, 1937. 65 P.C.C. 1765, Rushworth, 227. "I.O.G.R.: Court Minutes, 1732-34, Vol. 55, p. 238.</page><page sequence="20">76 miscellanies. (General Note). The information from the East India Company's Records is included by the courtesy of the India Office. Sincere thanks are due to Mr. Wilfred S. Samuel for many valuable suggestions in connection with this Paper. A number of the wills mentioned were traced by means of Mr. Arthur P. Arnold's hand-list. Lucien Wolf's notes on the Jews in India were found of considerable assistance on account of their indication of a number of sources of information.</page></plain_text>