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Satirical and Political Prints on the Jews' Naturalisation Bill, 1753

Israel Solomons

<plain_text><page sequence="1">SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, J753 By ISRAEL SOLOMONS. [Paper read before the Jewish Historical Society of England, March 7, 1910.) The impulse to satirise public men or measures in picture is probably as old as satiric verse. The political cartoon is an effective agent in moulding public opinion. Its success depends on the prescience of the artist, and his ability to seize at a critical moment a burning question of the hour, while public excitement is still at a white heat. The best and most telling cartoons are those which do not merely reflect current public opinion, but guide it. Pictorial satire is a most effective weapon in the hand of him who fights against that which he believes to be evil, in social or political life. The satiric artist is able to hold up his opponents to ridicule, and at the same time obtain partisans to his own views. It is supposed that this particular form of art originated in Italy, developed in Holland, and attained its maturity in England, the land of free pen and pencil. From the general characteristics of the prints, it is obvious that they are the production of amateurs or self taught artists with the particular faculty of hitting off any passing foible of the day. Art schools worthy the name were not in vogue in the early part of the eighteenth century, so that in caricature untrained ability found and seized its opportunity. The passing of the Bill for naturalising the Jews in 1753 occa? sioned a remarkable activity of the satirical talent, both of the writer and artist; scores of pamphlets for and against the Bill were published; anti-Jewish ballads were sung in the streets to popular airs. " No Jews ! 205</page><page sequence="2">206 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON No wooden shoes ! No long beards, nor whiskers! Christianity for ever!" were the cries heard on the highways and by-ways of the country. In the fashionable end of town, the quality crowded the print shops, eager to see or purchase the latest " squibs" on the Jew Bill. These were sold at sixpence each, or one shilling coloured. One perhaps scarcely stops to think how seriously handicapped the producers of these publications were in those days. After the design was drawn, and approved of by the publisher, it was etched by hand on a sheet of copper, and, by means of a hand-press, each cartoon printed from the etched plate. Now, with our marvellous printing machinery turning out thousands upon thousands of copies an hour, and by the discovery of photography and other varied and ingenious methods, we are enabled to appreciate the humour of the political draughtsman in our daily paper even for the small sum of one half-penny. On examining these prints, it must be admitted that the sense of humour enjoyed by the general public at that period strikes one as being somewhat crude. The licence and ferocity of the eighteenth-century caricaturist rob his work of much historical value, although frequently the serious student must turn to him, in order to grasp the trend of thought and character of the English people during that period. He deemed it his mission to hold up to derision and contempt the subject or person ho was satirising. His unblushing exaggerations and utter distortion of facts are more tragic than humorous; but he no doubt knew his public, whose baser passions he was desirous of arousing. It has taken me quite a considerable number of years in making a collection of these prints, which are excessively rare. In the catalogue which forms an Appendix to this Paper, I have noted thirty items, seven in my collection not to be found in the British Museum Print Boom. One of the principal themes of almost all these " Burlesque Pictures," as they were at one time called, was "Wholesale Bribery." Every one who supported the Bill for the naturalisation of the Jews, from the first minister of the Crown to a private member of Parliament, was, without the slightest justification, portrayed receiving bags of gold from the Jews in return for their good offices. In several of them, Sir William Calvert, a wealthy brewer and member for the City of London, is shown receiving ?100,000 as a bribe for having voted in favour of the measure. The</page><page sequence="3">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 207 " Two Brothers/' as they are sarcastically alluded to in the political literature of the day, Henry Pelham (1695-1754), First Lord of the Treasury, and his elder brother, the Duke of Newcastle (1693-1768), the leader of the Government in the Upper House, are holding bags of gold marked ?500,000 in payment for their combined services in making the Bill the law of the land. So intense was the antipathy exhibited against Pelham in consequence, that even after his death, March 6, 1754, at a time when the Act had already been repealed, an etching was published, entitled " His Arrival at his Country Retirement and Recep? tion," in which he is pictured entering the nether regions, escorted and welcomed by demons. Nor did the Church escape the intemperate zeal of the graphic satirist. The bishops, in consequence of their favouring the unpopular measure, had aroused the ire and hostility of the populace. A pamphleteer of the day asserted that " the present set of prelates is the only one since the time of Christ who would have countenanced so anti-Christian a measure." In two of the cartoons, entitled " Vox Populi, Vox Dei, or the Jew Act Repealed, December a.d. 1753," and "The Circumcised Gentiles, or a Journey to Jerusalem," the bishop's bribe is marked ?1000. The spiritual peers seem to have been tempted by a compara? tively moderate reward, when contrasted with the alleged huge payments received by Calvert and " The Two Brothers." I cannot identify positively the particular bishop these squibs are meant to satirise. Three of them undoubtedly favoured the Bill. They were Thomas Seeker (1693-1768), Bishop of Bristol 1734, Bishop of Oxford 1737, and Archbishop of Canterbury 1758; Thomas Hayter (1702-1762), Bishop of Norwich 1749, and Bishop of London 1761; and Robert Hay Drummond ^1711-1776), Bishop of St. Asaph 1748, Bishop of Salisbury 1761, and translated in the same year to the Archbishopric of York. Another clerical dignitary, although not holding so eminent a posi? tion in the Church as the bishops, is worthy of record. Josiah Tucker (1712-1799), Dean of Gloucester, 1758, was the author of "A Letter to a Friend concerning Naturalisations, showing . . . III. What are the Motives for the Present Clamour against the Bill passed Last Sessions for Enabling the Parliament to Naturalise such Jews as they shall Approve of," 1753 (in Wo parts). Liberality of thought, as expressed in</page><page sequence="4">208 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON these pamphlets, so exasperated the mob that the author was burnt in effigy along with his pamphlets in the streets of Bristol. Another theme that finds a place in almost all the cartoons was compulsory initiation into the Abrahamic covenant. The naturalisation of the Jews becoming the law of the land, political ascendancy, it was urged, would then become theirs, and they would, as a natural conse? quence, foist their religion and its rites upon the rest of the population. Terminological inexactitude was known, it seems, even at a period when political science was not so highly developed as in our days. That this absurd notion was believed by the illiterate and those blinded by pre? judice and fanaticism, there is not the slightest doubt. In one of the prints, "A Scene of Scenes for the Year 1853" (1753), an initiation is depicted as actually taking place in the street near Queen Anne's statue, outside St. Paul's Cathedral, while others standing' by are eagerly awaiting their turn. Although the British Museum does not possess this print, the original sepia drawing is to be found in the National Collection. In " A Stir in the City, or Some Folks at Guild? hall," orator Henley is introducing a party of butchers to perform the rite for any voters wishing to become Jews. It is also alluded to in " The Circumcised Gentiles, or a Journey to Jerusalem," " The Committee of Aldermen," "Vox Populi, Vox Dei, or the Jew Act Repealed, December A.D. 1753," and "The Racers Unhors'd, 1753." At Ipswich the boys followed the Bishop of Norwich in the streets, jeeringly calling on him to come and make them Jews according to the usual Jewish rite. No. 15 in my catalogue is a double folio broadside, entitled "Earl of E-t's (Egmont's) Speech against the Jew Bill." John Percival, second Earl of Egmont (1711-1770) was a great figure in politics, and the most prominent leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons before succeeding his father in the earldom. Walpole, in his " Memoirs of George II." (vol. i. p. 35 n.), relates that " when scarce a man he had a scheme for assembling the Jews, and making himself their king." His opposition to the Bill may have therefore been but a question of party politics. One of the most remarkable characters that figure in this collection of satirical prints is Sampson Gideon. He was born in London in the last year of the seventeenth century. His father, who died in 1720, was Rowland Gideon, or Rehuel (Gideon) Abudiente, as he was known in</page><page sequence="5">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 209 the Synagogue. A West India merchant, he was on the Court of the Painter Stainers' Company (admitted February 17, 1697), and the first Jew to be a freeman of the City of London. The Gideons were descended from the Gideon Abudientes, a Marrano family who escaped from Lisbon early in the seventeenth century, and settled in Amsterdam, where they became again members of the House of Israel. A branch settled in London, where the foreign-sounding designation of Abudiente was abandoned, and as Gideon only were they henceforth known to the Gentile world. They were a cultured family, producing grammarians, poets, and theologians. The first prominent English member of this family was also of a literary turn of mind. In a metrical version of the Psalms in Spanish, entitled Espejo Fiel de Vidas, by Daniel Israel Lopez Laguna, published in London in 1720, on the fourteenth of the preliminary leaves will be found twenty lines of laudatory verse, headed "By Samson Guideon, junior," to the author. He was termed junior as his uncle of a similar name was still living. He was then in the twenty-first year of his age, and destined to become the greatest financier of his time, consulted on all financial matters concerning the State both by Walpole and Pelham. The great object of his life appears to have been to found an ennobled and landed family, which to a Jew was impossible in his time. He married out of the faith, his wife being Jane (Elizabeth1?), daughter of Charles Ermell, Esq. His eldest son, Sampson, was born 1744, created a baronet when at Eton, and in 1789 the Irish peerage was said to be defiled by his elevation to the rank of Baron Eardley of Spalding. Even after his marriage, the great financier continued regularly to pay his finta, as a Yahid of the Bevis Marks Synagogue. But in the month of Heshvan, 5514 (1754), he addressed a letter to the Mahamad desiring his name to be removed from the list of Yehidim. Although he married a Christian lady, and consequently brought up his children in the dominant faith, he himself was never baptized. When he died, October 17, 1762, a paragraph in his will was found to contain a desire to be buried with his people in their " House of Life" at Mile End. He bequeathed the Bevis Marks Synagogue ??1000, should he be interred in the Carreira with the right of a Guebir, and an Escaba (memorial prayer) be recited for his soul every eve of the Day of Atonement. His request was granted, the body was taken in great VOL. VI. O</page><page sequence="6">210 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON funeral pomp from his mansion, Belvedere House, Erith, to Pewterers' Hall, Lime Street, and thence to Mile End, where this man who would be a Jew, and would not appear a Jew, who believed in Judaism, and brought up his children to Christianity, found his long, last rest. After his death it was discovered that although eight years previously he had nominally severed his connection with the Sephardi community, never? theless he had continued to pay the charges, under the anonymous designation of uPeloni Almoni," through his friend Phineas Gomes Serra. His ambition to found a family was not to be, his only son dying without male issue. The most eminent of his descendants was the late Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, Chancellor of the Exchequer in one of the Gladstone Administrations. The present Lord Auckland and his cousin, Miss Bowlanda F. Childers, are great-grandchildren of his granddaughter, Lady Culling Smith. The origin of the name Bowlanda is somewhat curious. It was transmitted to her from her Jewish forbear, Behuel, or, in its anglicised form, Bowland Gideon (Abudiente), from whom she is sixth in descent. Sampson Gideon's portrait is in the possession of another descendant, Mrs. Culling Hanbury, of Bedwell Park, Hertfordshire, from which the small phototype I possess is taken. Incidentally I will mention that the first wife of his Grace the present Duke of Norfolk was descended from Bachel de Paiba, a sister of Sampson Gideon. It may be conjectured that Gideon undoubtedly exercised great influence with the Pelhams in promoting the Naturalisation Bill. He was one of the most prominent figures in the City of London, the oracle of Jonathan's coffee-house in Exchange Alley, afterwards the Stock Exchange, a governor of the Bank of England, loan contractor to the Government, and confidential adviser on State finance both to Walpole and Pelham. At that time the Board of Deputies had not been formed, and when an occasion arose for the Jews to address them? selves to the Government concerning their social or political welfare, the most influential members of the community were deputed to repre? sent them. Gideon, perhaps from purely personal or selfish motives, was anxious for the success of the project. Should the Bill pass, it might be the stepping-stone to further concessions. He was an ambitious man,</page><page sequence="7">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 211 eager for social aggrandisement, with hopes of a seat in Parliament and a place in the baronetage. It is strange that in wading through the mass of literature that appeared in the newspapers, magazines, and pamphlets for and against the Bill, I have not in a single instance come across any protest from a Jew or from a Jewish body in defence or in vindication of their character and rights. It is possible that the pamphlets, which were generally published anonymously, may have had in some instances Jews for their authors, or perhaps it was thought that it was politic not to appear in the public eye as active protagonists. The Bevis Marks Synagogue, the richest and most influential at that time, no doubt made great efforts to insure the success of the movement, which meant so much to the majority of its congregants. Funds were subscribed in furthering the propaganda, and combating the an ti-Je wish literature that flooded the country. Gideon was still a member of the synagogue, and to him they naturally looked for guidance in matters affecting their political status. Surmising that the association of his name with the measure might jeopardise its success, rumours were at his instigation spread that he was not at all interested in it. A contem? porary writer states : " He took no part in the Bill for the naturalisation of the Jews, and was much offended with the Mahamad of the Portuguese Jews for making use of his name ; but he was the power behind the throne, forwarding the movement craftily and subtly until the Act became the law of the land." In a conversation I had with my friend the learned Haham Dr. M. Gaster, I gathered from him that in the archives of his synagogue the whole history of the movement from the Jewish standpoint is to be found. From it one can gather what efforts the Jews themselves made to gain their first political victory, what was the plan of campaign, the amounts of the funds, and in which manner they were expended. It is worthy of note that the solicitor at that time to the " Kaal Kados Saare Samaim," Bevis Marks, was Philip Cartaret Wrebb (1700-1770), appointed joint solicitor to the Treasury in 1756. He was a zealous champion for the naturalisation of the Jews, and author of at least three pamphlets treating on the subject?Nos. 12, 61, 80 in the Bibliography of the pamphlets on the Jew Bill by Mr. A. M. Hyamson (See Transactions, vi. p. 178 seq.). Sampson Gideon was not spared by the graphic satirists. They were left unconvinced, despite his avowals, that he was not the instigator</page><page sequence="8">212 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON of the hateful measure. To them he personified the Jew and his cause, and figures in the majority of the cartoons. In "A Scene of Scenes for the year 1853 " (1753) he is occupying the pedestal upon which Queen Anne's statue outside St. Paul's Cathedral is usually found, with the inscription, " The Most Noble Sampson Noedig (Gideon) D-of-." In "The Grand Conference, or the Jew Pre? dominant," he is seated at a table with Henry Pelham, his brother the Duke of Newcastle, and others, bribing them with bags of gold, value ?200,000. In " Vox Populi, Vox Dei, or the Jew Act repealed, Decem? ber a.D. 1753," he, with Lord Bolingbroke, the leaders of a mob of Jews and Deists, are threatening a cross, the emblem of Christianity. In " The Racers Unhors'd," after the Bill had been repealed, he is bewailing to a bishop the money he had expended in vain. In " The City Up and Down, or the Candidates Poiz'd," he is standing with a demon at his back, on his arm a hatful of money, declaring that he would give the profits of his last lottery if he could bring about the return to Parliament of Sir William Calvert for the City of London, who had been a staunch supporter of the Naturalisation Bill. He also appears in " A Stir in the City, or Some Polks at Guildhall," referring to the same election. And in " All the World in a Hurry, or the Road from London to Oxford," a satire on the Oxford parliamentary election of 1754, he is seen sur? rounded by a company of his co-religionists on the highway. They are urging him on to get to Oxford to give his support to the candidate who favoured the "Jew Bill." There were hopes, it seems, that although the Bill had been repealed, it might again become law. I have recently come across a couple of pamphlets in connection with the Oxford election, extracts of which may add something new to the literature of the Natu? ralisation Bill. One is entitled " The Election Magazine, or the Oxford? shire Register (Oxford, 1753, 8vo, 78 pp. [b.m. 809 e 35]). A re-issue appeared with a new title-page " Oxfordshire in an Uproar, or the Election Magazine " (Oxford, n.d.). The following appears on page 31 : " This is to give Notice, To all wandering Jews, but principally those of the tribe of Isaachar, that, as soon as they are naturalized, they may be immediately furnish'd with Freeholds in the County of Oxford at reasonable Rates, by applying in Town to Mr. Butcher near Bloomsbury Market, and, in the Country, to Mr. Wryface at Woodstock.?Rabbies H-1 and Br-n will</page><page sequence="9">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 213 attend to draw the Writings in Hebrew. N.B.?Gideon hath already contracted for 5000 1. a year." On page 43 the following doggerel is printed, entitled " A Song for the Freeholders in the New Interest?To the Tune of the Free Mason's Song." I. Come let us prepare Freeholders, that are In the Mind to be circumcised ; The Time is at hand When thro' all the Land The Jews shall be naturalized. III. No way to get Pelf The Devil himself More lucky yet ever devised ; The Jews made him roar, And happy, he swore, That his oldFriends were naturalized. IV. Noll cry'd with Grin on, That since Forty One Had never disfigur'd his wise Head, " Old England farewell?" " Amen," echoed Hell, May the Jews be all naturalized. II. 'Tis Interest New That brings in the Jew And wills that all Things be excised ; Then with the Old down, And Mitre and C-n, So the Jews be but naturalized. ?Da Capo. On page 58, " The Jolly Knight's Declaration To his Constituents." I am sworn to the Church Both to People and Porch, And I'm fond of the Name of High Flyer ; I have shewn my good Will Against the Jews Bill, Which has set the whole Nation on Fire. That I hate ev'ry Jew, Believe I speak true, Nor shall they be naturalized ; For them if I vote, Or e'er turn my Coat, I myself will be first circumcised. Page 60, "A New Song; or, An Invitation to the Litchfield Blues." in. Tho' M-gh's Duke should swagger, And the Knight should fall in Passion ; We never will chuse&lt; A Friend to Jews, Or the Jewish Naturalization.</page><page sequence="10">214 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON Page 62, " Another New Song, or an Answer to the Invitation" &lt;kc in. Tho', Sir, 'gainst the Jew Bill divided, And Viscount hates declining; We ne'er will vote, For a Protestant Coat, With Popery in the Lining. And on page 63, "To the Honest Electors of Oxfordshire. A New Christian Ballad." Old Oxfordshire, shew yourself now as of Old, And let not your Property be bought or sold ; Vote for Wenman, the honest, the brave, and the true, And despise every Man that would favour a Jew. Derry down, doicn, down, derry down. As to Dashwood, you know him right trusty, and brave. For Places or Pensions would ne'er be a Slave; And for twenty long Years he has prov'd himself true,, And despises the Man that would favour a Jew. Berry down, Sc. Consider, my Friends, what a monstrous Evil, To turn out our Saviour, and vote for the Devil! And that this is the Case, you must all know it true, Of every Man that would favour a Jew. Derry down, &lt;L-c. Let there not be a Jew at your Bottle or Board, Leave them for the B-ps, his G??, or my L-d; They will feast them with Place, and with Salary too,? But turn out all Men that will favour a Jew. Derry down, (he. Don't stay to be ask'd, but give Wenman your Voice, Approve yourselves Christians by Dashivood's free Choice ; For they, by Experience you find, dare be true, And despise every Man that would favour a Jew. Derry down, &amp;c. Old England ! Old Interest I Christianity for Ever. Huzza!</page><page sequence="11">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 215 The other pamphlet I refer to gives a somewhat gross but facetious account of the alleged circumcision of Sir Edward Turner, one of the candidates for the Oxford Parliamentary Election, entitled : The Christian's New Warning Piece: or, A Full and True Account of the Circumcision of Sir E. T. Bart. As it was perform'd at the Bear-Inn in the City of Oxford, on Saturday last, being the Jewish Sabbath. Wherein is contain'd, A Faithful Narrative Of the sad Effects of Ambition and Vanity, in the Departure from the Faith, and the Deplorable Circumstances Of that Unfortunate Gentleman. London : Printed for W. Owen, near Temple-Bar; and Sold by all the Booksellers in Oxford, mdccliii. [Price Three Pence] 8vo. 14 pp. x 1l: (catalogue), [b.m. g. 3640.] This political squib was not without effect, for Turner was returned at the bottom of the poll. The agitation which sprang up against this measure ranks among the most remarkable popular movements in the eighteenth century, and the antipathy lingered on for several years. In 1762, nine years after the Bill had been repealed, it became again the subject of satire in a print, " Britannia guided by Justice," a cartoon reflecting on the Bute Adminis? tration. It was left to the England of the nineteenth century to redress the balance. In the agitation for and against the political enfranchise? ment of the Jews, an agitation which became critical with Grant's Bill of 1830 and only ended in 1858, there was a very creditable absence of animosity or abuse. The pamphlets which were then published, and the speeches in both Houses of Parliament, were marked on the whole by a tolerance and suavity which did honour to both sides in the controversy.</page><page sequence="12">APPENDIX Catalogue of Satirical and Political Prints on the Jews Naturalization Bill. The descriptive letterpress has been abridged (with occasional re? vision) from the British Museum catalogue. The items marked with an asterisk [*] are not in the Museum collection; in those cases the description is my own. The following are the items which are in my possession: Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26, 28, and 30. * 1. The Dreadful Consequences of a General Naturalization, to the Natives of Great-Britain and Ireland : Humbly offer'd to the Perusal of the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the Worshipful Court of Aldermen, Common-Council, and the Trading Part of this Nation in general: By a Citizen. ****** " The Phiz that next attracts my View Is Aaron, my good Friend, the Jew. A Rogue he is, a perfect Bite, And cheating is his sole Delight; Yet Jews must live, and why not here, Where's Wealth enough, and much to spare 1 We buy their Baubles and their Toys, And pay full dearly for their lies; Yet as good Christians we forgive, For Men must by their Calling live." ****** Published According to Act of Parliament April ye 16 1751. T. Fox sculp. Sold by the Print and Booksellers, in Town and Country. (Price Six-Pence.) 216</page><page sequence="13"></page><page sequence="14">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 217 2. Another Impression. With the additional inscription " The Consequence of Naturalizing Foreigners " printed close to the top edge of the print. The publication of this broadside is announced in The General Advertiser, April 13, 1751. [12|x9i (b.m. 3214). 3. The Grand Conference, or the Jew Predominant. See G?n, C?s, L?s, and B?s by Speak then Inspector, from Obscurity 'Tis such, that pass your L?b?y away Borrow by Br?b?y, and by V?e they pay, As Judas did for pelf betray our Lord, Grant Heav'n that they may meet their just Reward! Printed for Israel de Costor in Bevis marks near the Synagogue. [1753.J Seated round a table are Sampson Gideon, Duke of Newcastle, Henry Pelham, a Bishop, and Dr. Hill (?). Gideon having produced a bag of money, says, " Dare Gentlemens, and my very good Friends Dis be de Puss collected by our Tribe for de great Favour." At his feet lies a list of the "Collections from the West Indies...Portugal...Holland . Metz...Prague...England &amp;c....Total... 200,00OL." The Jews Naturalization Bill was very unpopular, and it was common belief that all the leading men of the time in favour of it had been bribed. The abbreviations in the verses cited stand for: line 1 Gideon, Com? mons, Lords, Bishops ; line 3 Liberty ; line 4 Bribery, Vice. [8}x 13J (b.m. 3203). 4. A Prospect of the new Jerusalem. Why, Friend, 'tis here in Print; the year too, See, One Thousand Seven hundred Fifty Three, Christ Save us from his Enemies the Jews ! What's this ? made free and true born English Jews ! The Devil, Infidels ! Hereticks ! and Turks ! These can't be English, these are Romish works : Some Popish Plot to bring in the Pretender; Pray Heaven guard our glorious Faith's Defender !</page><page sequence="15">218 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON Numb5 Chap, xxxii. Let this land, be given unto thy Servants, for a Possession: Price 6d Many Jews appear on several eminences, and look with delight at London, or take a " Pisgah sight" of their "New Jerusalem." With those on the nearest eminence is the Lord Mayor or an Alderman, holding the 1 ' Naturalization Bill." On the ground lies a demon pointing to the Jews, and holding a bag marked ?500,000. "Two Brothers,"the Duke of Newcastle and Henry Pelham, are standing on a distant hill, and are perceived by the Jews, who smile gratefully on them. It is intimated, by the actions of various persons, that the bag of money, ?500,000, was in part, at least, intended for the two brothers for the part they took in passing the Bill for the Naturalization of the Jews. The measure, which was very unpopular, was passed June 1753, but it was thought expedient to repeal it on Dec. 4, of the same year. Reproduced in Traill and Mann's Social England, Illustrated edition, vol. v. p. 231. [12J x 91 (B&lt;M&gt; 3204). 5. The Circumcised Gentiles, or a Journey to Jerusalem. "And in every Province, and in every City whithersoever the Kings Commandment and his decree came, the Jews had Joy and gladness, a feast and a good day: and many of the People of the land became Jews ; for the fear of the Jews fell upon them. Esther Chap. viii. verse 17. Issachar Barebone junr. Inv*. et Sculp. Sold by Moses in Cheapside Price 6d. Published ac? cording to the Act. Aug. 7, 1753. A Jew mounted on an ass, with a Bishop seated behind him. He is pointing derisively to the Bishop, while he cries, "Meam Naturalize and have Converted mine Broder dat is behind." The Bishop has the " Talmud" under his arm, and remarks, "We have erred and stray'd from thy ways like lost Sheep." The man leading the ass holds a bag marked " 100,000" which is intended to in? dicate that bribery brought about the passing of the Jews Naturalization Bill. The " New Testament " is lying on the ground and also two papers, severally marked "General Election ""Jews. . . 96, Christians 55," the figures by which the Bill became law. [91 x 71 (b.m. 3205). 6. The Jews Triumph, and England's Fears, set forth, in the popular Clamour raised in Great-Britain against an Act of Parliament to be passed in favour of the Jews, in 1753, permitting them to be naturalized, on advancing large Sums of Money.</page><page sequence="16">^^^^^ UKhv -SiiT^^ (\rif 77/,;i/,w. /. hrm //uti,/*Y./Ft/7i/ Thru. tyr? cm//A' ?ntt/&lt;M, M, ?/?".//*? fomrfi rw As. ' (v ? /,.*//; &gt;/// ///.* /.*//, ///?,'?./ '//tr Jftrj' . fam'Itoih P/*//r //?/&gt;/./ /// Ms fr vA^ff'f/' , U /htit i/ih ///, U-fWt &lt;///,///v/t-A'/'// fay/Mftiv.' frj// /fiat r/t .///&lt;?/: /ri?' v% *//.* S.i/Mj ?f/*n.1rr f X II III Jl" ( Ii .i J' - \ Y A'j I Mm //?^/v ^w# ti*tHp My J*rti**t4r./i&gt;r * A-/J{,w&gt;t :</page><page sequence="17">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 219 The Circumcized Gentiles: Or, a Journey to Jerusalem. Numb. 282. [1753.] This broadside contains woodcut copies of "A Prospect of the new Jerusalem," No. 4, with the title altered as above, and " The Circumcized Gentiles," No. 5. The latter is an altered copy, but to the former, one or two significant additions have been made. Over the head of the '' Two Brothers " is " 500.0001. " ; and at the foot of the Alderman is placed " Cal?vt 100,0001." intimating that the brothers Pelham had been bribed by the sum marked over their heads, and ?100,000 had been given to Alderman Sir William Calvert, brewer, and Lord Mayor, for his favour and influence in support of the "Jew Bill." These woodcuts are surrounded by the following letterpress alluding to the subject. Why, Friend, 'tis here in Print, the Year too see, One Thousand Seven Hundred Fifty Three, Christ save us from his Enemies the Jews, What's this, made free and true born English Jews. The Devil, Infidels, Hereticks, and Turks, These can't be English, these are Romish Works : Some Popish Plot to bring in the Pretender, Pray Heaven guard our glorious Faith's Defender. Numb. Chap, xxxii.?Let this Land be given unto thy Servants for a Possession. The Prophecies of Shyloch. And the Spirit of the Lord fell upon me, and said unto me, Speak, thus saith the Lord, Arise, arise and be glad, O House of Jacob, and let all the Children of Israel rejoice; for the Day of your Redemption draweth nigh, and your Sufferings near an End. For it shall come to pass, that as I plucked you out, I will return, and have Compassion on you, and will bring you again, every Man to his Heritage, and every Man to his Land. I have heard your Complaints, with Pity, and visited the Afflictions of my chosen People, to bring you together again, and establish you for an everlasting Kingdom. With a stronger Arm will I gather you than when I led you through the Ked Sea, and deliver'd you from Egyptian Bondage: The Land you are now to possess is fruitful and pleasant, and its Inhabitants are ripe for Destruction. They have forsaken the Lord their God, and delighted in Riches more than their Redeemer; therefore thus saith the Lord, I will visit their Iniquities with Vengeance, and punish the Mighty for their Transgressions. The Sins of their Rulers are greater than those of the Son of Nebat; and their Senators have denied the Law of the Lord: Their Pastors are cloathed with Sloth and Indolence, while the Vulgar learn to forget their God: They have forsaken my House, and left my holy Temple desolate. Their Judges have taught the People Perjury, and corrupted the Hearts of</page><page sequence="18">220 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON the Unwary, that they might screen the Guilty from Punishment, and condemn the Helpless and Innocent. They deck themselves with Jewels, and wanton in the Midst of their Wealth: Their young Men delight in Gaming and Drunkenness, and their Women play the Whore in the open Streets: the Blood of the Innocent cries aloud for Vengeance, while Thieves and Bobbers are seen in every Corner. The Table of the Mighty is become his Snare; he sold his Birthright for his Gluttony, as did Esau in the Heat of his Hunger: The Inheritance of his Brethren also, and the Lord his Redeemer, for the Good of his Guts; therefore he shall be hated from one End of the Earth to the other, and everlasting Infamy entailed on his Name for ever. I fed them with Plenty of Corn, and crowned them with Riches and Wealth: They were honour'd by their Neighbours for their Wisdom, and Princes stood in Awe of them for their Strength. I fenced them with the Walls of the Depth ; even by the Walls of the mighty Ocean, that they might be secure from their Enemies, nor troubled by the Noise of War. I made the Mighty bow to their Pavillions, and covered the Ocean with their Fleets: Their Fame went from one End of the Earth to the other; I establish'd them in the burning Zone: I was their sure Kock of Defence while they walk'd in my Ways ; but they forsook the Paths of their Fathers and dwindled into Luxury and Shame. Therefore, thus saith the Lord: I will destroy them in mine Anger, and give you their Land for a Possession: I will establish you as their Rulers, and strengthen you by the Word of my Power, that you may punish them for their Transgressions, and scourge them for their Sins. Ye shall call your brethren to your Assistance, and entirely root them out of the Land. The Nations round about shall be astonish'd; but they shall yield to the House of Israel, saith the Lord. That fam'd cross Block, at which the Jews did stumble, No longer Jews, or wiser Greeks, do humble. Grecians may call it Foolishness indeed Afresh, while Hebrews make Christ's Members bleed. A Land, they curse, invites them and their Spouses ; And offers them its Fruits, the Parks, the Houses. Come Sons of Heber, each Jew bring his Wench ; Lo ! seat yourselves, and sport on yonder Bench. Each post of honour Jews will greatly grace, When left by B-ns base degenerate Race. O Sons of Lucre! Whence this Thirst for Gold ? Remember Judas too Christ Jesus sold ; Sold to the Devil his Peace, for sordid Pelf, Then, trembling, sneak'd away, and hang'd Himself. On the sky are inscribed these lines:? The Devil, growling on the Ground, Laughs at an Hundred Thousand Pound.</page><page sequence="19">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 221 Says, twice Five Hundred Thousand is their Merit, And Brothers must that Sum inherit; Ca?vt, his Hundred Thousand must Content, He has well Done, but he will soon repent. And in every Province, and in every City whithersoever the King's Com? mandment and his Decree came, the Jews had Joy and Gladness, a Feast and a good Day: and many of the People of the Land became Jews : for the Fear of the Jews fell upon them.?Esther, Chap. viii. Verse 17. By the just Vengeance of incensed Skies Poor Bishop Judas, late repenting, dies : The Jews engag'd him with a paultry Bribe, Amounting hardly to a Crown a Tribe; Which, tho' his Conscience forc'd him to restore, (And, Parsons tell us, no Man can do more) Yet, through Despair, of God and Man accurst, He lost his Bishoprick, and hang'd, or burst. Those former Ages differ'd much from this ; Judas betray'd his Master with a kiss. But some have kiss'd the Gospel fifty Times, Whose Perjury's the least of all their Crimes. Some, who can perjure thro' a Two-Inch Board ; Yet keep their Bishopricks, and 'scape the Cord. Like Hemp, which by a skilful Spinster drawn To slender Threads, may sometimes pass for Lawn. As antient Judas, by Transgression fell, And burst asunder e'er he went to Hell; So could we see a Set of new Iscariots, Come headlong tumbling from their mitred Chariots, Each modern Judas perish like the first; Drop from the Tree, with all his Bowels burst: Who could forbear, that view'd each guilty Face, To cry, Lo! Judas gone to his own Place ! His Habitation let all Men forsake ; And, let his Bishoprick another take. Aaeon's Shew-Box. Brethren Elect, of Irael's {sic) Stock, (Your looks no longer scare one) We are now Friends,?Come, round me flock, What will you buy of Aaron ?</page><page sequence="20">222 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON My Lads and Lasses, Why this Haste ? Come, view my Trafrick nearer ; For know, when once our Patent's past, 'Twill cost you all much dearer. See here ! my Spectacles, so bright, For Learn'd and Reverend Noses; Which will reflect Rabbinick light On Hebrew, and on Moses. Observe my other Glasses too ; Which suit with all Conditions ; Which shorten, or extend the View Of purblind Politicians. You, who for high Preferment hope, And far extend your Aim, Within your Reach this Telescope Will bring, at once, your Game. But O, let Prudence be your Guide, In claiming its Assistance ; For, should you turn to the wrong Side, 'Twill throw it at a Distance. See here ! my Multiplying Glass, Not that I recommend it, Except to Juda's Chosen Race, Where Transports will attend it, See Ribands for your Head and Waist, My Rings and Buttons view ; Assistances for the Strait lac'd, And those that buckle to. What will my pretty Maidens buy ? Come, gratify your Passion, You will not be to Jews so shy When Beards come once in Fashion. See here are Pins, in glitt'ring Rows, And Thimbles, worth your minding ; See Tape?and Braiding, for your Shoes, And Quality for Binding. See Bodkins, Lancets, Scissars, Knives, Will make your Business easy ; And cut for Widows, Maids, or Wives, The prettiest Things to please ye! What though my Watches' Springs are loose, And all the Wheels in fault are ; They're not at all less fit for Use, Which with the times will alter. Six-pence apiece these Seals?nay, pick ; Don't think I cheat or cozen ;</page><page sequence="21">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 223 At Birmingham they cost, last Week, At least, Two Groats a Dozen. For Two Pence, Paul,?for this, a Crown: Take Care, Boy, how you spoil it; O Sacrilege, to drop it down ! Why, 'tis the Head?of Pilate ! Come buy, my Friends, and trust me then ; The Faithful ne'er will wrong ye ; We shall grow truer Englishmen, The more we live among ye. We'll never leave you in the Lurch, Like Nazaritish Minions: We, ev'ry Soul, will come to Church, When you hold our Opinions. Then let the Christian Slaves beware They treat us as Trepanners ; When, with their Money, we shall share Their Politicks and Manners I Then next follows a satirical announcement of Moses ben Amri, Surgeon, at his House near More-gate, with regard to circumcision?a joke which recurs with wearisome repetition throughout this literature. Lastly we have Manasseh-ben-Israel to the Electors of Great-Britain. Gentlemen, Notwithstanding the many impertinent Speeches that have been made, and indecent Reflections that have been thrown out, concerning a certain lucrative Jobb, in order to influence you against the Friends and Patrons of the humane Race of Jacob at the next General Election, you will permit me to assure you in the most solemn Manner, that the meek, generous, and compassionate Hebrews have this Nation's Wealth really at Heart; at that to whatsoever Degree of Power they may arrive, they will endeavour to surpass the Prudence of Joseph at the Court of Pharaoh ; that they will ever zealously struggle for the Rights of the Crown and the Riches of the People, and that they will never cause any Persons to be circumcised against their Consent; but will allow the old Natives of this Land all the Privileges, and give them all the Encouragement, they can reason? ably expect; and therefore it is to be hoped, that you will, out of Gratitude, give your Votes, at the next General Election, for every Person who so greatly promoted your Interest and Happiness, by voting for the most wise, most politick, and most profitable Bill for naturalizing the Jews. (1.) 1 If x 9 in. (2.) 11J x 8| in. (b. m. 3206).</page><page sequence="22">224 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON 7. The ? ? lews shaving the ? Par-l-m-t or the Knowg Ones ? taken ? in. Published according to act of Parliam* for Tim Barber at ~ Dexterous Trimer over the Water. [1753. A Group of men in a barber's shop standing round a person about to be shaved. The Barber, a Jew, says, " Have Patience Gentlemen &amp; we will shave you all out of the Realm." A Jew behind cries, *' Long live Solomon the Second " {i.e. George II.); a second Jew, "Money Wise King of the Jews" (Sampson Gideon), and a third Jew, " New Crucifie Christ again." A High Priest says to the Duke of Newcastle, "I hope your-will Petition the King for a Temple," whilst another Jew remarks " &amp; make a new Jerusalem," to which the Duke replies, " What Mighty Ills have not been done by M-." A seated figure, a Christian, exclaims, '* They will Circumcise us next," to which his companion replies, " It is too late to repent; we may thank the D-of N-" {i.e. Duke of Newcastle). [9|xl3f (b.m. 3208). *8. Another Impression. (Variations in the descriptive labels.) . . . A High Priest says to the Duke of Newcastle, " I hope your G-cewill Petition the King for a Temple," whilst another Jew remarks " &amp; make a new Jerusalem," to which the Duke replies, " Yes, anything for Money." A seated figure, a Christian, exclaims, " They will Circumcise us next," to which his com? panion replies, "It is to late to repent; we may thank the D ? ? k of N ? ? c ? ? ? 1." *9. The lews shaving the Par*l*m**t, or the Christians taken inn. A group of men in a barber's shop standing round a person about to be shaved. The barber, a Jew, says, " Have Patience Gentlemen and we will shave you all out of the Realm." A Jew behind cries, " Long live Soloman the Second {i.e. George II.) ; a second Jew, " Money Wise King of Jews " (Sampson Gideon); and a third Jew " Now Crucify Christ Again." A High Priest says to the Duke of Newcastle, " I hope Your Grace will Petition the King for a Temple," whilst another Jew remarks, '&amp; Make a New Jerusalam," to which the Duke replies, " Yes, Anything for Money." A seated figure, a Christian, exclaims, " They will Circumcise us Next," to which his companion replies, " It is to late to Repent; we may thank the Duke of New*ca***e* " {i.e. Duke of Newcastle). The subject of this print is similar to Nos. 7 and 8 but has been reversed and reduced in size, the ** Duke of Cumberland " being omitted. [74 x 9^ in. 10. Publish'd for Mr. Foreskin at the great pair of Breeches in the Parish of Westmter: [1753.] A Jew is kneeling before a chest of money ; a messenger addresses him, "My Master wants the Money." The Jew demands, "Where's the Bill? " Another messenger says, " Hear, I have Brought the Bill."</page><page sequence="23"></page><page sequence="24">THE JEWS' NATUR?LTSATION BILL, 1753. 225 This alludes to Henry Pelham or the Duke of Newcastle, who were supposed for a given some of money to have got the Jews Naturalization Bill passed by the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Two Jews behind conversing ; one says, " We can buy Estates now " ; the other adds. " Ah, &amp; have places, too." [8f x 12f in. (b.m. 3209). 11. The Commite of Ald = =mn (The Committee of Aldermen). [1753.] Sir Crisp Gascoyne, Lord Mayor ; and Alderman Ironsides, the Lord Mayor Elect, with four Aldermen seated at a table. One of the Aldermen says :? " Why faith my Friend to tell you true for a good bribe, I'd Ene turn Jew." Another says:? " Spectatators [sic) look and hear behold the powerfull works of Magick Gold." A dog is contemptuously treating the " Jew Bill," which lies on the ground and he barks out, " This for your Circumcition Bill." [12J x 8J in. (plate-mark b.m. 3210) *12. A Nat?zd [Naturalized] I?w [Jew] in his robes. The Subtile Snake his Temples bind, Fit Emblem of a Trech'rous Mind ; With downcast look of Murd'rer Cain, Intent on Stratagem and Gain ; Cloak't with the Benefit of Britain, As on the Fleece you See it written ; A Brittish Fleece the Wolf to Hide, And Cover Tyrrany and Pride. His arms have Brib'd his Legs and Feet, With Blown up Bladders of Deceit, Imaginary Wealth of Paper, Which one day must Fly off in Vapour; ?But Britain Turn away your Eyes,^j Nor see him thus your Laws dispise, y Beneath Each Foot a Charter Lyes. J Off Slave-or meet your due reward, From the Just Stroke of Britains Sword, VOL. VI. P</page><page sequence="25">226 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON Millions have dyed for Those to Gain, Then Know for what they dyed we will Maintain. Publish'd according to Act of Parliament. Price 6d. A figure of a Jew is pictured standing with his right foot on a scroll M Magna Charta," his left foot tramping down a volume '* 4 Evangelists," and a crucifix. Coiled round his head is a serpent darting forth its fangs. In his left he is holding a document, " B?B?RY " [Bribery], and in his right a scroll "Conveyances." On each forearm " 10000" is inscribed, indicating that by bribery the " Jew Bill" would become law. From his left leg a pewter pot is hanging marked " Ca?ts Intire " in allusion to the support of the Bill given by Sir William Calvert, who was a brewer. [13x91 in. *13. A Scene of Scenes for the Year 1853 [1753 ?]. The statue of Queen Anne outside the west front of St. Paul's Cathedral lies in fragments on the ground and a figure clad in the robes of an English Peer has been placed in its stead ; the pedestal is inscribed *' The Most Noble Sampson Noedig [Gideon] D-of-; his right elbow placed on the Tables of the Law [Ten Commandments]. On the right a man [Sir Crisp Gascoyne, a brewer, and opponent of the Jews Naturalization Bill] stripped to the waist and manacled to the rear of a brewer's dray containing barrels marked "G-ns Intire Butt Beer," is being flogged; he exclaims " I will be circumcised." Four men are engaged in pulling down the pillars of a building [Mansion House] ; a Jew looking on says, "Down with this Vertue Hall to prevent future Mischief"; this no doubt alludes to the opposition of the City to the Bill. On the left a figure seated in a chair [Sir William Calvert, a brewer, and a great advocate in favour of the Naturalization of the Jews] is being circumcised, several Bishops and Judges who had supported the measure are looking on and impatiently awaiting their turn; the operator exclaims " Have de Patience I will do all." Sir William says, " All these drink of my beer." In the foreground a figure (a clergyman or lawyer), apparently an opponent of the " Jew Bill," exclaims, " I spoke Sir only Law and Justice." He is handcuffed and followed by a mob of Jews with staves in their hands, who reply, " We have a Law and by that Law you die, away with him, away with him." The squib is an idea what the Jews, it was supposed, would do should the Naturalization Bill become law. Reproduced in the Jewish Chronicle, April 6, 1(j06. [7J x 13 in. 14. The Original Sepia Drawing of No. 13. The Inscriptions had not then been inserted in the labels, and in consequence the description by the B.M. cataloguer, who had evidently not seen the print, is quite inaccurate. [7-|x 13 in. (b.m. 3263).</page><page sequence="26">Vqx J'opuliVox Doi/y///i .Irw.Vl. I { v i &gt; pa \vA . - ]) t?ir. A i&gt;J74%% '/fitdry M*4rA#*y fifjfi*u*/urn* '/m/nur ; '/A**fiiY /&gt;?asA#i/ttffrm/rA' ,t rr /&gt;Uf* , t/,ch&gt;'if'rnA//'styA* i'/,/mfy 4,url.ry/i/. '/ V/W //*//&lt;*?/.'/ /.,t y*yt/&gt;?.'//&gt;//? ft/ f/ir ? 'u/tt. /*/s&gt;yt//s*y /7/&lt;^/a.*ty*u may/fn&lt;/; '/Ar fAyt/rK? four from Jteya/* Jut/A,/: 'rr*/t f y %'n?/y&gt;,t, *?&lt;s//.itAt&gt;*t,*e /? u/.v,/. ? f/tm/ m4^^t/Ae/^i^A^fm^/l0mei^^ V+t /fi&gt; At*r*+ 7**^AZ,h&gt;Ay&lt;*t ///fytt/'/I//tu/, X ,,.,/r ,</page><page sequence="27">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 227 *15. E. of E-t's Speech against the Jew-Bill. Printed and sold by J. Raymond, Citizen of London. An engraved portrait [7| x 6?, plate-mark] of the Earl of Egmont heads the speech. [22 x 17 in.] Single Sheet Broadside, *16. Vox Populi, Vox Dei, or the Jew Act Repealed.? Decr* a.d. 1753. Gods word declares the lews a Vagrant race, Till they their King Messias Laws Embrace; Therefore Deistical attempts are Vain, Still must they Wander Like that Murderer Cain, See how Worth Weighs &amp; Vanity how Light, The lew Asham'd Lays prostrate at the Sight; Skreens with one hand his Never blushing face, Thus to be fool'd and Baffled with disgrace, But Hear Ye Deaf, and look ye Willful Blind,* In Prophesy Messias you may find; The Scepters gone from Royal Judah's Seed,f The Daily Sacrafice Hath Ceas't to Bleed; J That Temple Honour'd by Our Lord is Raz'd ? And 'mongest the Gentiles his Great Name is prais'd,tt Consider this and to your Duty Turn, And Look on him whome you have pierc'd, and mourn,* Go hear ye Deaf, and Look you Willful Blind, And then you wilt a Happier Canaan find4 A landscape, with many figures, among which is that of a Jew, who lies prostrate, leaning on bags of gold, and holding the " lews Act Repealed," ex? claiming, " It was 111 timed, all our Ambitious hopes are need." On a mound is erected a Cross which is threatened by a " Mob of lews and Deists" headed by S?n G?d?n" (Sampson Gideon) and "LD B?1?k" (Lord Bolingbroke). A hand from heaven holds a balance ; in one scale " The Gospels" and " Mag[na] Charta" weigh down bags of money, inscribed " 1000," ** 1000," and "1000" respectively, with " lews Act of Pa-mt" (Parliament). On the ground are * Jas. Ch. xlii. f Gen. Ch. xlix. $ Dan. Ch. ix. ? Hag. Ch. ii. tt Isa. Ch. 9. * Zac. 12. J Jud. v. 16.</page><page sequence="28">228 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON " The Ark over set, " a " Circumcision knife " with broken blade, the " Ephod " or priests' vestments with the Urim Vetumim, and the " Levitical Law " a scroll marked with Hebrew letters. Sir William Calvert, Member of Parliament for the City of London, who voted in favour of the " Jew Bill " is holding " lew Bill Presented by Sr W-m " [Calvert], At the General Election which ensued he was returned at the bottom of the poll. [lOf x 9 in. 17. Another Impression. (Engraver's proof.) The date following the title is wanting. In the foreground of the print the " Levitical Law"?a scroll marked with Hebrew letters?has not yet been engraved, and several of the descriptive labels are in manuscript and vary some? what from the later printed ones. [(b.m. 3202). *18. 1. Maecenas. 2. Hen^ 9th. 3. Ekud of Nineveh. 4. EkudofOphir. The Racers Unhors'd 1753. Israel is Devour'd now shall they be among the Gentiles as a Vessel in which is no plea? sure "j God Will Cast them away because they Did not Obey him they shall Wander Among the Nations. 5. Noedig| Dupe. 6. Mellchizedek. 7. Orator Humbugg. 8. Strength of Engd The Hone Fanny Killigrew Inv* ad Vivum Del, et Sculp. Pr?6d The Race is not givn to the Strong. Issued after the repeal of the Jews Naturalization Bill. Figure 5, Noedig| Dupe (Sampson Gideon), the great Jew financier, who expended large sums of money to get the Bill passed. He is facing figure 6, Mellchizedek = Bishop Seeker, who voted in favour of the Bill, and bewailing the loss of his money as the Act had been repealed, exclaiming " Vat Sail Ik do voor myn gelt myn gelt dat is all, myn gelt myn gelt." The Bishop replies, " Have patience till we mount again, for when we are no longer sore we shall sit sure in our seats." Figure 7, Orator Humbugg = Orator Henley, says, " I am no Jew Bishop My market against New Market or any of your courses or Downs either."</page><page sequence="29">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 229 Figure 3, Ekud of Nineveh = Duke of Newcastle, remarks to figure 2 (Heny dih = Henry Pelham his brother), " We must not mount again till we get to our own Jockeys to manage the race for us." He replies: " My rein is broken ; I could not ride it out?pox of the plaguy Circumcision." See Notes and Queries, Eleventh Series, i. 70. [9| x 13J in. 19. 2 Bones, or Poor Puss taken in. Pubd for Mr Arames (?) Speadwell att Paris. This etching represents a Court of Justice with the Characters supported by Animals under the Presidency of the Lion. A Stag standing before the King of Beasts says " and his Son Gedeon Thresed Wheat by ye Wine Press &amp; hid it from ye Medinites." This may refer to Sampson Gideon and his alleged nefarious proceedings with regard to Lotteries. A dog and a cat are quarreling about 2 bones. The dog barks "These are no Bones for you to pick" ; the cat snarls "It is hard we cant have a tast for ones Money." One bone is inscribed " ?20-" and the other " Nat?1-on Bill." [9x7 in. (b.m. 3207). 20. The City up and Down or the Candidates Poiz'd. Price / 6d Plain ( Is Coloured. Publish'd according to Act of Parliam*, March 1754. Refers to the City of London Parliamentary Election, 1754. Several Jews are crowding round Sir William Calvert, one of the former representatives, pro? mising their interest in return for his zealous support of the Jews Naturalization Bill; they say 14 You have all our Interest, for your Zealous support of our Bill " ; he replies, "Confound ~ Bill, now I have no Hope left." His zealous support made him so unpopular that he lost his election, and was at the bottom of the poll. Sir John Barnard says, " I am strictly speaking neither a Friend to - Jews nor their Enemy ; excepting when they aim at having equal Rights &amp; Privilages with my Fellow Citizens &amp; Country-men," Sampson Gideon, with his hat full of money, says, " If I was over I wou'd turn - poize tho' it cost me | Profits of | last Lottery." Gideon is frequently alluded to in the electioneering squibs of the time. In the report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Lottery of 1753, it is stated " that Sampson Gideon became proprietor of more than six thousand tickets, which he sold at a premium. He was a strenuous supporter of those who voted for the Jews Naturalization Bill. [9jx 13| in. (b.m. 3265).</page><page sequence="30">230 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON 21. His Arrival at his Country Retirement &amp; Reception [March 6, 1754. Henry Pelham is represented entering the Infernal Regions conducted by a demon. Other demons and departed statesmen greet his arrival as follows :? Sir Robert Walpole : " O This is a Child of my own bringing up I found him a promising Genius for dirtty Work Therefore did all I could to gain him the Succes? sion at my Retirement hither Knowing that Some of his Black Stroaks wou'd make me appear as fair as Alabaster?He has done it in several Respects but Chiefly in getting the N-1-n of the J ? ws (Naturalization of the Jews) passed?have any of you great Genius's done anything Equal ? " Cardinal Wolsey inquires, " Is that the Choice Spirit You have so often describ'd?I made pretty large Strides towards making the King and People Swallow down What I thought proper?But this beats all my Ego et Rex meus's out of Doors." Another condemned being, Judge Jeffries, says, "All my Transactions in the West Were but a Joak to that great Achievement." Henry Pelham died March 6, 1754, aged 60. He was First Lord of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer. The Jews Naturalization Bill, the great cause of Mr. Pelham's unpopularity, was passed June 1753, on the eve of a general election, but it was repealed in the following December. [9x 13| in. (b.m. 3264). 22. A Stir in the City, or some Folks at Guild-Hail. Sold by lohn Smith at Hogarths Head .opposite Wood Street Cheapside. [April 1754.] (2) See Mr. Sheriff with his WTand, Has put the Bishop at a Stand, Who takes Guild Hall, for Holy Land. Doodle &amp;c. (3) There's S?ms?n [ = Sampson Gideon] full of Discontent, Because He's not in Parliament; WThich was His very Hearts Intent Groups of citizens are assembled before Guildhall in consequence of the General Election about to commence. Six candidates, preceded by a Bishop, are going to Guildhall. They are met by the Sheriffs, who assure the prelate: " My Lord Rabbi this is Guild Hall &amp; not the Synagouge," and " No sons of Levi have place here my Lord." This is in allusion to the general support given by the Bishops to the Jew7s Naturalization Bill. A Jew exclaims : " What a shame</page><page sequence="31">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 231 it is we have no Votes" ; another remarks: " Though you can't Vote, S?n (Sampson Gideon) You may still do Business there." Gideon replies : " I thought to have voted in Another Building." If the Jews Naturalization Bill had not been repealed, he expected to become a member of Parliament. " You have an excellent Hand at a Lottery all the World knows," whispers a lean, bearded Jew in his ear. Orator Henley, standing on a tub, cries: " Are you ready for circumcision ? Here are Surgeons for you," recommending a party of butchers as fit to prepare voters for becoming Jews. One of the party cries of those opposed to the Jews Naturalization Bill was, that should the Bill become law, all Englishmen would be compelled to enter the Abrahamic covenant. One of the candidates says : " I'll vote for a New Bridge, but not for a new Jew Bill." Although the Bill had at that time been repealed, hopes were entertained that it might again become law. Sir William Calvert, with the " Jew Bill" in his pocket, exclaims : " I only voted for the Jew Bill." It was in consequence of this he lost his seat in Parliament at this election, being returned bottom of the poll. [6f x 14| in. (b.m. 3266). 23. A second state of the plate. The result of poll printed on the foreground. 24. The P?nt?ry [ = Parliamentary] Race or The.City Jockies. O ! D-mn the Jew Sr William cries As over his Horse he headlong flies Ay that Da?d Jew threw dust in his Eyes Doodle &amp;c. Published According to Act of Parliament 1754 and sold by M: Cooper at the Globe in Pater Noster Row. Price 6d. [April 1754.] The Parliamentary Election of April 1754 is pictured as a horse-race. Sir William Calvert, a former member for the City of London, has been thrown from his horse, ** Loose Legs," through running into a Jew pedlar, who, half under the fallen horse, is groaning, " Is this an Act of Naturalization," and Calvert, pro? strate on his back, cries : " Damn the Jew." This is in allusion to Calvert losing his seat at the General Election, being returned bottom of the poll, in conse? quence of his support of the Jews Naturalization Bill. This print is announced in The Public Advertiser, March 7, 1754. [6 x 13| in. (b.m. 3268).</page><page sequence="32">232 SATIRICAL AND POLITICAL PRINTS ON 25. All the World in a Hnrry or the Road from London to Oxford. Published &amp; Sold by l? Smith at Hogarth's Head in Cheapside, Price 6d. [April 1754.] First state. Refers to the Parliamentary Elections of " London " and " Oxford" in April 1754. Sampson Gideon, who is very fat and perspiring, trudges along the road, and is being urged by several Jews who are leading him to support Sir William Calvert with his money, in return for the efforts he made in getting the Jews Naturalization Bill passed. Gideon exclaims, mopping his forehead : " Verily England is too hot at this time of ~ year." One of the Jews with Gideon re? marks: " What S?mps?n refuse to sweat a little for our friend Sr Wm" ; and another exclaims: "Sr W?m has been sweated often on our Account." Sir Richard Glyn, in a postchaise behind Gideon and his party, says to his postilion : u What |, Devil cant you get before y Jews Tom;" he replies: " they are in Possession of | Road Sr R?h?d." An onlooker exclaims: " Damn the Jews, they are always in ~ way," The publication of this print is announced in The Public Advertiser, April 4, 1754. [7|xl4i in. (b.m. 3270). 26. Second state of the plate. Series of verses beneath the title, "London" and "Oxford" placed over the respective cities, and remarks by the three other " witches." 27. The compleat Vermin-catcher of G?B?n [ = Great Britain], or the old Trap new baited. Publishd according to Act of Parliament April 18th 1754. * A noted Dray-horse. The Duke of Newcastle is seated in a chair by the side of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, fishing for partisans with various bait among the Members of Parliament, or candidates at the Parliamentary Election of 1754. " Jews, &amp; no Jews," exclaims one eager for the bait, referring to the then momentous question of the Jews Naturalization Bill. An impression in the B.M. has been coloured by hand. [8f x 13? in. (b.m. 3269). 28. The American Moose-Deer, or away to the River Ohio. Let Him fight now, who never fought before, Let Him who all ways fought, now fight | more. Sold by the Printsellers, Price 6d plain, Is colourd. [1754.]</page><page sequence="33">THE JEWS' NATURALISATION BILL, 1753. 233 An American Moose-Deer is surrounded by Kings, and standing on the banks of the " Ohio "?the Bishop of Oxford resting a book on the back of the deer, inscribed "20,000," and " I'll prey for ye Jews and ye Marriage Act, and my King." Thomas Seeker, Bishop of Oxford from 1737-1758, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, had in 1753, given his support to the Jews Naturalization Bill. The ,?20,000 no doubt alludes to the then prevailing notion that he was bribed by the Jews to favour the measure. This print was published in June 1755; see " The Gentleman's Magazine," 1755, p. 335. [6f x 1H in. (b.m. 3280). 29. An Election Entertainment. Plate I. Painted and the whole Engraved by Wm. Hogarth.. Published 24th February 1755, as the Act directs. To the Right Honourable Henry Fox &amp;c. &amp;c. This Plate is humbly Inscrib'd by his most Obedient humble Serv* Wm Hogarth. A Parliamentary Election procession is passing by the window of the dining room of a country inn, in a chair an effigy is carried of a man with a big, Jew? like nose; round the neck of the figure, is placed a placard inscribed " NO JEWS." It is supposed to represent the Duke of Newcastle and the placard refers to the part he took in getting the Jews Naturalization Bill passed. The original painting is in the Soane Museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields. [21 x 15| in. (b.m. 3285). 30. Britannia guided by Justice &amp;c. c. c. (An Apology for Lord Bute.) [May 1762.] This etching shows the north side of the Royal Exchange as it existed in May 1762. Various persons are discussing the Bute Administration. A Merchant says to his neighbour, " Tell me Brother Traffick why our Brethren hate this New Favourite ? " " Because he is an honest man" is the reply. Another Merchant standing by exclaims " As I live Brother this is worse than naturaliz? ing the Jews." " Traffic " being a frequent name for bribery, " Brother Traffic " may be intended for Sir William Calvert, a brewer, and Lord Mayor of London, who was said to have been bribed by the Jews to support the Bill, which he did, and thereby lost his seat for London. [7 x 121 in. 3865).</page></plain_text>