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Research Reports: Portraits of Claude Montefiore

Bryan Diamond

<plain_text><page sequence="1">RESEARCH REPORTS Portraits of Claude Montefiore BRYAN DIAMOND When I was concluding my twenty-year stint as the Honorary Archivist of the Liberal Jewish Synagogue (ljs) in St. John's Wood, London, I was contacted by Mrs. Carol Blackett-Ord, a picture researcher and print cataloguer at the National Portrait Gallery (npg), London. The gallery owns a drawing of 1935 of Claude Goldsmid Montefiore (CGM) by Sir William Rothenstein (npg 4789). Montefiore was the President of the Jewish Historical Society of England in 1899-1900 (his Presidential Address in December 1899 was entitled "Nation or Religious Community?"); he was also the first President of the ljs. Blackett-Ord was compiling a list of other portraits of him and visited the ljs to view photographs in its archive, as well as the 1925 portrait in oils by Sir Oswald Birley (see plate 5), which hangs on the main staircase. She gave me a copy of the list that she produced, which can be consulted online.1 (I later provided a further entry, for the undated painting of cgm in his doctoral robes; see plate 8.) Then I had the idea of curating an exhibition of these representations. It was not possible to borrow any originals but I obtained some good surrogates and the exhibition was held at the ljs in November-December 2013. I found tributes and obituaries,2 and information on Wikipedia. The odnb's article (by Professor Geoffrey Alderman, 2004) merely listed "Likenesses"; here, I follow Blackett-Ord's list: "G. F. Watts, oils, 1903, Watts Gallery, Compton, Surreyt;] O. Birley, oils, 1925, Liberal Jewish i Carol Blackett-Ord, "Claude Joseph Goldsmid Montefiore (1858-1938), Biblical scholar and philanthropist" php?linkid=mpo3i40&amp;tab=iconography(accessed October 2014). I thank Carol Blackett- Ord and the several curators and archivists who provided information and images for the exhibition and this article. 2 Vivian G. Simmons, "The Memorial Addresses in Honour of Past Presidents: Claude Goldsmid Montefiore", Jewish Historical Studies: Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 14 (1939): 253; The Times, 11 July 1938, p. 14. Jewish Historical Studies, volume 46, 2014 189</page><page sequence="2">190 BRYAN DIAMOND Synagogue, London[;] B. Elkan, bronze bust, 1934, U. Southampton[;] W. Rothenstein, sanguine drawing, NPG[;] photograph, repro. in Ber- mant, TheCousinhood3[;] photograph, NPG". Articles about Montefiore by Steven Bayme and Edward Kessler regarding his role in Liberal Judaism are also available.4 His life has been described by his niece, Lucy Cohen, and by Chaim Bermant,5 so I will not repeat his biography, except to mention the roles in which he was portrayed. Following Blackett-Ord's note, these are: President, Anglo- Jewish Association (1896-1921), President, Jewish Religious Union (jru; 1902-38); President, University College, Southampton (1913-34); Chairman, Froebel Educational Institute (fei; 1917-38); principal funder of the ljs building, St. John's Wood (1925); President, World Union for Progressive Judaism (from 1926); and honorary doctorates from Manchester (1921) and Oxford (1926) universities. A private income allowed him to devote time to scholarship and social welfare, within and beyond the Jewish community, as can be seen from this list. I now consider the historical value of the portraits located. His niece's memoir starts with a recollection by the historian and politician Herbert Fisher (1865-1940; also Warden of New College, Oxford, who described himself as an atheist).6 Fisher's connection to Montefiore is not clear, but may date from undergraduate days and a discussion group who met regularly at cgm's London home (and Fisher's sister lived near cgm's country house at Holmbury St Mary, Surrey). Fisher recalled: "he was quite unforgettable, and unlike any other man one has ever met or may reasonably expect to meet again. His physical appearance was arresting. The erect figure, the high dominant brow, the deep-set glowing brown eyes, the clear ringing voice and the upright and downright ways of speech gave an impression of commanding force." Writing much later, Bermant described him as "serious, tall, well over six foot, with broad shoulders, close-cropped hair, a small beard, ivory complexion, eyes large, dark, 3 Chaim Bermant, The Cousinhood: The An¿jlo-Jeurísh Gentry (London: Eyre &amp; Spottswoode, 1971), ch. 24. See also Palgrave Dictionary of Anglo-Jewish History, ed. William D. Rubinstein (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 689. 4 Steven Bayme, "Claude Montefiore, Lily Montagu and the origins of the Jewish Religious Union", Jewish Historical Studies: Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 27 (1980): 61; Edward Kessler, "Claude Montefiore: defender of rabbinic Judaism", ibid. 35 (2000): 231-8. 5 Lucy Cohen, Some Recollections of Claude Montefiore 1858-1938 (London: Faber &amp; Faber, 1940); Bermant, The Cousinhood. 6 Cohen, Some Recollections, ii.</page><page sequence="3">Portraits of Claude Montefiore 191 piercing, luminous, visionary". The Jewish Chronicle (JC) obituary noted that "His fine presence with the deep-set eyes added impressiveness to the spoken word", and Rabbi Mattuck in the Liberal Jewish Monthly wrote: "We saw the deep look in his star-like eyes."7 So what do the portraits show? Plate i James Sant, Claude Montefiore, 1866. Oil on canvas, 119.8 X 83.8 cm (47 X 33 in). Montefiore family collection. Early portraits Montefiore was born in London on 6 June 1858, the youngest of four children. The earliest pictures are two paintings of him as a child, the 7 Bermant, The Cousinhood, 320; JC, 15 July 1938, obituary, p. 15; Liberal Jewish Monthly, Memorial Number, Sept. 1938.</page><page sequence="4">192 BRYAN DIAMOND earlier one with his sisters, the latter by James Sant.8 Sanťs, dated 1866 (see plate 1), is elaborate and striking, set in a landscape, with the boy leaning against a rocky outcrop to which mussels are attached. He is carrying a walking stick in one hand. The representation of a figure in the landscape was a common theme throughout eighteenth- and nineteenth- century portraiture. A low horizon gives a sense of heroic grandeur to the subject, even one so young, perhaps hinting at future possibilities. The overcast sky lends drama, adding to the narrative. Being at one with nature and learning from it were ideas put forward by writers such as John Ruskin during the second half of the nineteenth century. Henry Raeburn (painting earlier than Sant) often used such landscape settings for his portraits of children.9 Sant's painting must have cost an appreciable sum; why would cgm have been painted thus at eight years old? James Sant evo, ra (1820-1916) was a British painter who was favoured with commissions of portraits by a large aristocratic circle led by Countess (Frances) Waldegrave (1821-1879), who included artists among her guests at Strawberry Hill. Sant was elected to the Royal Academy in 1869 and in 1872 was appointed Principal Painter in Ordinary (official portraitist) to Queen Victoria and the royal family. He painted numerous children, in one of which a boy holds a stick similar to that shown in the portrait of cgm. Rocky caves also feature in his other portraits. That of cgm was shown in the Royal Academy summer exhibition in 1866 where it was described as "Claude, younger son ofNathaniel Montefiore, Esq.". The Royal Academy of Arts Library has commented: "It was quite common for wealthy Jewish families to have a portrait made of some of their family members in the nineteenth century. In the decades after Emancipation in nineteenth-century Europe, Jews were attracted to the art scene in different ways. Some of the wealthy went to the Parisian and other artists in fashion. Others decorated their homes with art by the lesser names of salons and the Sant painting is a perfect example of this."10 A portrait of cgm as a young man was accepted by the ljs council from Lady Henriques in 1969 but, sadly, I have not been able to locate it.11 The earliest photograph, head turned to the left, was inset in a complimentary profile of cgm by Joseph Jacobs in the Youtyj Israel ("For 8 Edward Kessler, An English Jew (London: Valentine Mitchell, 1989), cgm with sisters, facing p. 12, dated "c 1866"; Cohen, Some Recollections, the Sant, facing p. 38. 9 London, Royal Academy of Arts Library, by email, July 2014. 10 Ibid., Aug. 2013. ii Ljs Council Minutes, Jan. 1969, p. 3.</page><page sequence="5">Portraits of Claude Montefiore 193 Jewish Youth") monthly magazine in June 1897.12 No photographer is credited (as with all the known photographs except those by the Vandyk and Elite studios). Cgm then had a neatly trimmed beard and moustache, as in later photographs in the JC. A sketchy ink drawing was reproduced in October 1902 as page 1 of The Jewish World newspaper.13 Montefiore is shown delivering the sermon at the first service of the jru, standing at a lectern, arms holding a rail. A non-Jewish artist (name unknown) employed by the newspaper was given permission to sketch the occasion, provided he sat at the side. The draw- ing was copied in a brochure for the 2002 centenary of Liberal Judaism in the UK. Plate 2 G. F. Watts (1817-1904), C.J. G. Montejiore, 1903. Oil on canvas, 76.2 X 63.5 (293/4 X 25 in). Courtesy ofWatts Gallery, Compton, Surrey. The principal portraits The first public painting was by George Watts (1817-1904), a half-length painted in 1897 (see plate 2). I quote from the npg website: "formerly sitter's family, now U. of Southampton Art Coll. . . . According to Mary 12 Later incorporated by theJC as its children's section. 13 This paper, founded in 1873, was a competitor to theJC, which acquired itin 1913.</page><page sequence="6">194 BRYAN DIAMOND Watts, 'After reading with great interest the Hibbert lectures',14 which helped establish him as a leading scholar, 'Mr. Watts became anxious to know the author, believing him to be a representative of the best Jewish mind, and this was brought about in 1896. Later Mr. Watts expressed a wish to paint Mr. Montefiore for his national collection and found great pleasure in his society'." Watts was admired as a portrait painter and his subjects included several of the most important men and women of the day, intended to form a "House of Fame". Many of these are now in the NPG. Watts's portraits consistently focus on the head and face of the sitters, rather than on dress or accessories. In the case of cgm's, a photograph was derived from the painting and used in theJC as a half-tone thumbnail photograph with other portraits of the Jewish deputation to the coronation of Edward vii in 1901.15 A second version was painted in 1903, now in the Watts Gallery. A formal portrait photograph was taken in about 1910 by an unidentified photographer, showing cgm in a head-and-shoulders, full-face pose, with cropped beard and moustache. It was reproduced in 1910 in an anti- slave traffic book, showing cgm (as the president of a committee of the Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Women) along with other leaders, including the Archbishop ofWestminster and the Bishop of Southwark, ata conference.16 TheJC used the same portrait inset as an oval in a report of 1911 of the ljs inaugural service,17 and reproduced another photograph in reports in 191018 and 191119 of Anglo-Jewish Association events where cgm was the President, these at a time when illustrations in theJC were rare. Two books about the Froebel Institute reproduce several photographs of cgm from the Institute's archive.20 An early Froebel photograph (c. 1900; 14 Cgm, The Growth and Origin of Religion as illustrated by the Ancient Hebrews (London: Williams &amp; Norgate, 1893). 15 J C, 10 May 1901, p. ii, "The Jewish Deputation to The King: A Historic Occasion". 16 W. A. Coote, A Vision and its Fulfilment: Being the History of the Origin ofthe Work of the National Vigilance Association/or the Suppression o/the White Slave Trafic (London, 1910), p. 133; report of the Portsmouth Conference at pt?id=mdp.390i509i34i498;view=iup;seq=i5i 17 JC, 10 Feb. 1911, p. 19. 18 Ibid., 18 March 1910, p. 17. 19 Ibid., 15 Dec. 1911, p. 22. 20 Peter Weston, From Roehampton Great House to Grove House to Froebel College: An Illustrated History (Roehampton: University of Surrey, 1998); Peter Weston, The Froebel Educational Institute: The Origins and History ofthe College (Roehampton: University of Surrey, 2002).</page><page sequence="7">Portraits of Claude Montefiore 195 Plate 3 Photograph at the Froebel Institute, c. 1900s? Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, University ofRoehampton. see plate 3) shows him full-face with the usual moustache and beard, as a scholar seated behind a desk with a framed photograph and books behind him.21 Other notable photographs include one in a newspaper in 1905, a half- length showing him seated with an arm round a chairback, his head and shoulders turned slightly to his left but looking directly out.22 A head-and- shoulders photograph of cgm looking three quarters to the left (c. 1910; see plate 4) Blackett-Ord calls the "prime photograph in later life".23 In April 1924, Montefiore wrote (about an unidentified portrait), "I have to waste hours and hours on this portrait into which I have been entrapped 21 Weston, Froebel Educational institute, 12; Bermant, The Cousinhood , fig. 19. 22 Reproduced in theJC, 16 July 1926, p. 26; also in Encyclopaedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Keter, 1971), vol. 12, col. 267; Kessler, An Englishjew, frontispiece; Israel Feinstein, Jewish Society in Victorian England: Collected Essays (London, 1993), 195; Daniel R. Langton, Claude Montejiore: His Life and Thought (London and Portland, or, 2002), xii. 23 Blackett-Ord, "Claude Joseph Goldsmid Montefiore"; Laurence Rigal and Rosita Rosenberg, Liberal Judaism: The First Hundred Years (London: Liberal Judaism, 2004), 12; Pam Fox, A Place to Call My Jewish Home: Memories of the Liberal Jewish Synagogue 1911-2011 (London: Liberal Jewish Synagogue, 2011), 3.</page><page sequence="8">196 BRYAN DIAMOND Plate 4 Photograph, c. 1910. Archive, Liberal Jewish Synagogue, London. - three sittings already, and many more to come."24 This tallies with his comments on sitting for the bust in 1934 (see plate 9). The ljs's 1925 portrait (see plate 5) is by Sir Oswald Birley, ra, an English painter well-known for his portraits of royalty and drawings of famous individuals. He also painted Chaim Weizmann and four highly regarded portraits of his friend Sir Winston Churchill. The style and subject of his paintings vary, though certain themes reappear, in particular an interest in "weighty" or "essential" subjects tackled in a restrained manner. The NPG owns more than 200 ofhis portraits. He was the Principal ofthe Royal College of Art from 1920 to 1935. The ljs Newsletter in September 1925 announced that at an inspection of the new building, the painting was to be presented to the Congregation, and photogravure copies would be on sale at half a guinea. Photographs from the portrait were fairly widely reproduced, on the cover of the Libera! Jewish Monthly, in a brochure for the ljs 50th anniversary25 and in the press.26 Blackett-Ord believes that 24 Cohen, Some Recollections, 117. 25 The First Fifty Years: A Record of Liberal Judaism in England (London: Alumni Society of the Liberal Jewish Synagogue, March 1950), frontispiece. 26 Jewish Guardian, 18 Sept. 1925, below a poem in praise of cgm by "L.G.".</page><page sequence="9">Portraits of Claude Montefiore 197 Plate 5 Photogravure of Sir Oswald Birley's 1925 portrait of CGM. Liberal Jewish Synagogue, London. the Ljs's portrait is a copy of a lost original, as shown by the quality of the brushwork, relatively sketchy treatment of the face and hands, and slight differences from the photographs made from the original. The pose with hand on head is unusual; in the npg among the portraits on display I noted only a few of this type, such as those of John Evelyn (1640), Lawrence Sterne (1760), Horace Walpole (1756-7), Edward Jenner (1803), and Jessie Boot at his desk (1909). Perhaps these derive from Dürer's Melancholia (1514), of a seated winged figure, her face in shadow but eyes alert, who rests her head on her hand. In the National Gallery's Baron de Besenval in his Salon de Compagnie of 1791, the subject rests his head on his hand, his elbow against a fireplace. Later than the Birley portrait, a photograph of Rabbi I. Mattuck in 1927 shows him with head bowed, resting on his hand.27 A further oil painting was made in 1925 by Christopher Williams, three- quarter-length, seated to right; it is now displayed at Froebel College, University of Roehampton, in the oak-panelled Portrait Room in Grove 27 Ljs Archive; Fox, Place to Call My Jewish Home, 7.</page><page sequence="10">198 BRYAN DIAMOND Plateó [left] Atelier Elite photograph, Berlin, 1928. Archive, Liberal Jewish Synagogue, London. Plate 7 [right] Vandyk studio photograph, 1920s. Archive, Liberal Jewish Synagogue, London. House.28 Christopher David Williams (1873-1934), rba, was a Welsh artist, primarily a painter of portraits and allegorical pictures but also of landscapes with figures. He was commissioned to paint the investiture of the Prince of Wales in 1911 and The Charge of the Welsh Division at Mametz Wood in 1916. In the summer of 1911 he painted the first of three portraits of Lloyd George, who described him as "one of the most gifted artists Wales has produced". From 1925 until 1932 he was a member of the Art Committee of the National Museum ofWales. Several of his pictures are in Welsh galleries. An excellent formal photograph (see plate 6) was taken in 1928 by the Atelier Elite in Berlin, at 119 Leipzig Strasse (a main avenue in central Berlin, conveniently almost opposite the Herrenhaus hall used for the World Union for Progressive Judaism conference; see below). It is in brown sepia, with cgm turned to the left, looking at the camera ("Elite Berlin" is embossed below left). This (or a closely similar one) was used on the dust- 28 See the brochure of Grove House, Pages_Assets/PDFs_and_Word_D0cs/Conferencing/Grove°/o20Houseo/o20New°/o20 Brochure°/o2020i2.pdf (accessed Oct. 2014).</page><page sequence="11">Portraits of Claude Montefiore 199 Plate 8 [left] Christopher Williams, cgm, c. 1930. Oil on canvas, 137.5 x 106.7 cm (54 X 42 in). University of Roehampton. Courtesy of the Froebel Trust. Plate 9 [right] Benno Elkan, Claude Montefiore, 1934. Bronze, 49 cm (19V4 in). University of Southampton Collection. jacket of another cousin's memoir29 and in a Liberal Judaism centenary compact disc.30 Another such photograph (see plate 7) was taken by the Vandyk studio (of 41 Buckingham Palace Road, London, their location from 1912 to 194731); the studio was listed in the London Directory up to 1929 as C. Vandyk Ltd, "court photographers" - they regularly took portraits at the Palace from about 1900 and held royal warrants. This shows cgm with a moustache only, head turned to the right, holding a book, and evidently wearing the mittens referred to by Cohen, "knitted by an affectionate 29 Ruth Sebag-Montefiore, A Family Patchwork: Vive Generations oj an Ancjlo-Jeunsh Family (London: Weidenfeld &amp; Nicolson, 1987), back of jacket. 30 Rabbi Stephen Howard, This is Liberal Judaism Centenary Celebration 1902-2002 (London: Union ofLiberal and Progressive Synagogues, 2001). 31 Carl Vandyk (1851-1931) was born in Hanover, Germany, into a Jewish family; www. (accessed Oct. 2014). The npg has 17 Vandyk photographs of eminent sitters.</page><page sequence="12">200 BRYAN DIAMOND niece".32 These studio photographs may have been taken for reproduction in various publications. A second painting by Williams (see plate 8) is believed by the Froebel Trust to date from about 1930;33 it shows cgm in, presumably, the robes of his honorary doctorate from the University of Manchester, bonnet on lap, head turned, with his usual beard. (He had also received a doctorate from Oxford in 1927.) The sole portrait bust (1934; see plate 9) is by Benno Elkan, obe (b. 1877 Dortmund, Westphalia, d. i960, London), who was a sculptor and medallist. Elkan studied and worked in Paris, Rome, and Frankfurt-am- Main, and lived in London following the rise of the Nazis in 1933. His works included tombs, busts, medals, and other monuments, many now in museums across Europe, and he exhibited at international shows. In Britain, he executed busts of Winston Churchill, Chaim Weizmann, Arturo Toscanini, and Lord Salisbury. He also cast the two tree-of-life menorahs, donated by Viscount Lee, in Westminster Abbey. In the ljs cemetery, his Memorial to Victims of Nazism was donated in 1957 by the Chevra Kadisha (burial society) of the New Liberal (now Belsize Square) congregation (who used the cemetery from 1942); their Cantor had known Elkan in Berlin. The bust of cgm was commissioned by University College, Southampton, he being their President, and remains in their collection. Sittings to Elkan took place in London in February 1934. Blackett-Ord cites Cohen's quotation from cgm's letters aboutElkan "the odious bust man".34 The bust is an impressive likeness, giving the subject neatly cropped hair and beard. The final artist's portrait was by Sir William Rothenstein. To quote Blackett-Ord: "In 1934 Montefiore resigned the presidency of University College, Southampton, due to ill health. He had been president since 1913, and vice-president of the college's earlier incarnation, Hartley University College, since 1908. To supplement [Elkan's] bust, William Rothenstein was commissioned to paint Montefiore to honour the long association. Sittings took place in 1935, and this drawing [the npg's] is one of the preparatory studies."35 The artist recalled: '"Though a man of 32 Cohen, Some Recollections, 67; Sebag-Montefiore, Family Patchwork, 59, related that Sir Isidore Spielman (1854-1925) also wore mittens: "warm wrists prevent chills". 33 It hangs in the Froebel Trust offices in Roehampton. 34 Blackett-Ord, "Claude Joseph Goldsmid Montefiore". 35 For the drawing see Joseph-Goldsmid-Montefiore (accessed Dec. 2014).</page><page sequence="13">Portraits of Claude Montefiore 201 great wealth, Montefiore was a saint. His velvet eyes shone with goodness and, too, with a gentle humour. His inattention to appearance meant that he came to sit, now clean shaved, now with three or four days' growth of bristly beard. He was a strong anti-Zionist and foresaw trouble through the Balfour declaration.'"36 The drawing shows the head in detail, the body only sketched. In both drawing and painting, cgm has his hands clasped and looks straight ahead; his moustache is shown but no beard. Sir William Rothenstein (1872-1945) was born into a German Jewish family in Bradford; his father had emigrated from Germany in 1859 to work in Bradford's burgeoning textile industry; he married Bertha Dux and William was the fifth of their six children. Between 1902 and 1912, the artist worked on a series of paintings in the predominantly Jewish East End of London. Bermant records that in his later years Montefiore became cautious about spending money and would appear in frayed suits, not evident in any of the photographs.37 Two family photographs (copies in the npg archive38) show him white-haired on a garden bench holding the wide- brimmed hat mentioned by Cohen39 with his son Leonard, and standing holding a dog. The last known photograph dates from 1937, showing cgm outdoors, bareheaded, standing with hands behind him, beside the then fei Principal, Miss Jebb. A final published photograph, apparently taken in the 1930s, appeared in the obituaries in 1938 and the Encyclopaedia Judaica.40 Group photographs Several photographs show cgm in a group; I list these to show his involve- ment as an officer at various events and/or with other people: At the fei, Kensington, c. 1900, surrounded by group of fourteen children and three teachers; reproduced in Weston, From Roehampton Great House to Grove House, p. 20. 36 Ibid., citing (n. 1) William Rothenstein, Since Fifty: Men and Memories 1922-1938 (London: Faber and Faber, 1939), vol. 3, 229. An image may be seen at arts/yourpaintings/paintings/claude-montefiore-17026 (accessed 3 Dec. 2014). 37 Bermant, The Cousinhood, 326. 38 Npg Archive, sitters' box, copies obtained from a grandson. 39 Cohen, Some Recollections, 67: "large floppety wide-a-wake unlike anyone else's" (the wide-awake was a broad-brimmed felt hat with a low crown, popular among countrymen in Victorian times). 40 The Times, 11 July 1938, p. 14; JC, 15 July 1938, p. 15; Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 12, col. 268.</page><page sequence="14">202 BRYAN DIAMOND At the new ljs cemetery, Willesden, Sept. 1914, at a tree-planting cere- mony, four small photographs show him with a spade among Rabbi Mattuck, Marjorie Moos and others; one photograph reproduced in Fox, Place to Call My Jewish Home, p. 10. At the visit of Queen Mary to Froebel College, Roehampton, Feb. 1922, in a large group, cgm's head visible behind the Queen's shoulder; reproduced in Weston, From Roehampton Great House to Grove House, p. 23. Outside the fei's Grove House, Roehampton, 1925, in the centre of a group of 24 women staff, cgm holding a dog, his hair now white, aged 67; reproduced in Weston, Froebel Educational Institute, p. 48. At the ljs, Jan. 1925, two photographs showing cgm at the laying of the foundation stone, together with the then Rabbis Mattuck and Perlzweig; one photograph reproduced in Kessler, An English Jeu&gt;, facing p. 13. Outside the ljs, 1926, with the other founders of Liberal Judaism, Rabbi Mattuck and Miss Lily Montagu; reproduced in Fox, Place to Call My Jewish Home, p. 20. In the Herrenhaus hall (3-4 Leipziger Strasse, now the Bundesrat's location), Berlin, Aug. 1928, at the World Union for Progressive Judaism's first international conference, in the birthplace of Reform Judaism, cgm in the chair, chin on left hand; he presided over the sessions, delivering his opening address in German in deference to the hosts. The Misses Lily and Marian Montagu were present and sent a copy of this photograph to their friend and co-worker at the West Central Club, London, Miss Hannah Feldman. In Roehampton, March 1937, laying "foundation" window sill of the library of the Lawrence Building (completed Sept. 1937), four similar poses, trowel in hand, bareheaded on a cold day, with staff, students, and children; reproduced in Weston, From Roehampton Great House to Grove House, p. 27. Conclusion The various portraits do not seek to make Claude Montefiore an icon or hero but give some idea of the character of this noted scholar and philanthropist, in isolation and in some of his activities, and show something of the ways in which such people were depicted through their lifetimes in the press and elsewhere.</page></plain_text>

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