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Relations of the Mahamad of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation of London with the Holy Land in the 19th century

Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Relations of the Mahamad of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation of London with the Holy Land in the 19th century* MIRIAM RODRIGUES-PEREIRA Some thirty years ago, in his presidential address to this Society on the correspondence of the Mahamad (wardens) in the 17th and 18th centuries,1 Richard Barnett traced the history of its support for the Holy Land through the Terra Santa Fund and through its response to special missions. This support continued into the 19th century,2 and was regarded as a priority, despite innumerable calls on the congregation's benevolence arising from great poverty among Sephardim in London, resulting particularly from the Napoleonic Wars, as well as appeals from Sephardi communities in many countries and also from the growing number of Ashkenazi communities in Britain. The funds The Terra Santa ('Holy Land') Fund, under the control of a Parnas of Terra Santa elected annually, consisted of offerings made in synagogue and sums collected and forwarded to the Treasurer [Gabay). Between 1794 and 1830 offerings were frequently made on important Sabbaths, notably Bereshit and Yitro, on minor festivals or for a Barmitzvah, or when prayers for the sick (Rogativa) or for deliverance (Agomel) were said. Amounts raised ranged from ?8 to ?30 per annum.3 In later years offerings were more commonly made on the main festivals as well as Sabbaths. The money was remitted to the Holy Land for distribution according to proportions fixed in 1733, i.e. 11/24 to Jerusalem, 7/24 to Safed and 6/24 to Hebron. The Terra Santa Fund was supplemented from the 1800s by the Cautivos ('Captives') Fund, similarly organized under a Parnas. This fund, like those in the older communities of Venice and Livorno, was applied to help ransom captives - those taken by Mediterranean pirates or the Knights of Malta, as well as brethren who faced the Inquisition. The usual contribution was ?5 per head.4 Calls on the fund for individual captives were much reduced early in the 19th century,5 after the power of the Knights of Malta was broken and * A revised version of a paper presented to a joint meeting of the Society and the Society for Jewish Study, 18 May 1989. 197</page><page sequence="2">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira as the Royal Navy established its supremacy in the Mediterranean. It was decided that the fund could properly be applied to help Jews under threat of imprisonment or death, as was sadly often the case in the Holy Land, or to assist any distressed congregation if at the time there was no claim from captives.6 From 1833 responsibility for the accounts of both funds was taken over by the Secretary of the Congregation.7 These two funds were supplemented on occasion with sums from the general synagogue accounts, granted by decision of the Elders. Legacies and gifts, some from abroad, provided another source of funds. Jacob del Mare, who died in 1789, left ?80 annually 'for ever' (continuing to this day) for the benefit of the communities of the four Holy Cities - Jerusalem, Safed, Hebron and Tiberias - ?20 for each. The Barbados Sephardi community sometimes sent donations through London, for instance ?25 in 1815. One particularly touching bequest, of ?68, came from Orabuena Cohen of Gibraltar in 1827 in fulfilment of the wishes expressed by her brothers Zebulun, Abraham and Joseph. She was the last survivor of her family, all of whom had died in an epidemic in Gibraltar in 1804. The money for the Holy Land, then under Ottoman Turkish rule, was remitted to the Deputies of Terra Santa in Constantinople8 via the firm of Franco in Livorno - a route the Mahamad had arranged in the early days of the congregation with the learned Hahamim of the communities there. However, in 1791 Jerusalem wanted their share of the del Mare legacy to be sent via the Amsterdam congregation. By 1797 Napoleon's advance into Northern Italy and Holland barred both routes for some years. The remittance of money was prohibited by English law. The Mahamad carefully devised alternative arrangements. Constantinople could claim the money from 'the Treasurer of the Portuguese Jewish Nation' at no. 10 Bevis Marks (from 1805 from the Secretary's house, no. 11) within 30 days, on presentation of bona fides authenticated by the English Minister and known merchants. This proved satisfactory. The Mahamad insisted that the certificates presented must be precisely worded, as it was a matter of public commerce. This had been explained to the bearer [Portador) John Prior.9 In 1805 the sum of ?527 due, was held up because of two 'informalities'. In the absence of the English Minister from Constantinople in 1807, a letter of authentication from the Livorno congregation was sufficient. Certificates from the English Chancery in Constantinople were required up to at least 1829. In 1828, the Mahamad, anxious to reduce the time it took for money to reach the needy, agreed with Constantinople that whatever sums became available would be sent each year instead of every two years, as had become the custom. In the 1860s the two-yearly system was resumed, but in 198</page><page sequence="3">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land the 1880s and 1890s money was remitted every six months. Considerable losses were incurred in the exchange of money. In 1855, at the Mahamad's request, Sir Moses Montefiore personally investigated 'a more beneficial route' and it was decided that the remittance of money through the Deputies at Constantinople should cease. Merchants in Gibraltar, Beyrouth and Manchester, as well as London, became regularly involved in the necessary financial transactions,10 as they had occasionally been in the past. Emissaries The Mahamad gave a great deal of attention to the question of Shiluhim [Siluhim in Sephardi parlance), the emissaries from the Holy Land who came to Europe to collect money for their communities, often to alleviate the effects of particular disasters. Their intention to come to London was usually announced by letters, containing their credentials and the reasons for their missions, sent from Amsterdam, Hamburg, Paris, Livorno or Gibraltar, and often enclosing other letters endorsing their missions from those Sephardi communities or sponsors there. The Haham or Bet Din was asked to translate the letters from Hebrew and assess the mission's validity. Once the Saliah's bona fides was established the Mahamad prepared to receive him as an honoured guest. Accommodation was arranged for him and his servant, and sponsors [Padrinhos) were appointed to oversee his mission and smoothe his way to potential donors. He was allotted a seat of honour in the synagogue at Bevis Marks. Before his departure he was given a travel allowance - viaticum [seda la dareh) - to help him on his journey. Some Siluhim were not the easiest of characters to deal with, as will appear. Missions clearly involved considerable expense to both the hosts and the communities which sent them. As in the previous century, the Mahamad attempted to remedy this by undertaking to guarantee a regular contribution annually for a period of several years, provided that no Saliah was sent during that time. This sometimes worked, though not consistently until the 1840s. The Mahamad frequently pointed out the drain on their resources caused by relieving the increasing number of their own poor (they ran a sort of welfare service long before such provision was common). Conditions were made worse by higher food prices and heavier government taxes due to wars. This was the reason advanced in 1797 for rejecting an appeal from Haham R. Ephraim Nabon, Salia from Hebron, then in Hamburg, which had been received from Isaac Abendana Mendes there.11 199</page><page sequence="4">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira There were about twenty missions in the years up to the 1840s. Sums of ?30 or ?50 were usually given, plus between ?5 and ?10 for travel. This was apart from what the Saliah himself collected. A Saliah was entitled only to money collected specifically for his mission; other money must be allotted strictly as laid down. In 1798 Haham Abraham Eliezer Levy's urgent mission from Safed, which was suffering from 'extraordinary calamities and danger to life', was granted ?50 from the Cautivos Fund on the Bet Din's advice. Permission was given to Gabriel Israel Brandon and Raphael Rodrigues Brandon to make an additional private collection, and ?2 was raised. Fifteen years earlier, in 1783,12 Safed had been granted ?15 (presumably sent each year) while adhering to the condition that no further emissaries be sent. The Mahamad gave the Saliah ?5 5s Od for his journey [seda la dareh) and insisted that the congregations in the places through which he passed should be informed of the condition that had been set. The Mahamad also responded to appeals sent by the Amsterdam sponsors of Siluhim. 'Calamities' at Tiberias brought an appeal in March 1801 from Amsterdam from the sponsors of the Saliah R. Mozeh Mayar, the Hazanim David Imanuel da Silva and Aron de David Hamis Vaz. The Elders decided to grant ?20 for ten years. An additional ?25 came from the Bridgetown, Barbados, community. Two further appeals came from Amsterdam sponsors in 1803 and 1804,13 one for the Hebron Siluhim, Hahamim Abraham Rubio and Michael a Cohen, and the other for Haham Rahamim Jacob ben Reuben from Safed. The Mahamad expressed satisfaction that the Hebron Siluhim had not come to London and granted them ?50 from Cautivos. Safed was given ?20. In 1802, in response to a query from Constantinople, the Mahamad came to the defence of Saliah Raphael Meyuhas, calling himself Saliah of Jerusalem for the Congregations of the Ashkenazim, who was said to have collected an unknown amount of money from them. Meyuhas had lived with strict economy in poor conditions and his health had broken down. The Mahamad had assisted him with money to complete his recovery and to return home. Meyuhas had declared that the money he had collected had been sent to R. Salomon Solomon and forwarded by way of Vienna. The serious situation in Jerusalem and Safed in 1806 led to the Saliah Haham Haim Baruh Maestro being granted ?20 by the Elders for one time and for ten years to come, on the usual conditions. A further ?30 from Cautivos was granted by the Mahamad after Haham Meldola had urged the necessity. Constantinople was told in June 1807 that ?132 2s 6d had been collected by the Saliah 's sponsors from the congregation and that of the Ashkenazim as well. The ?30 collected in the Barbados congregation 200</page><page sequence="5">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land by Isaac de Piza Messiah, which was passed on through London much later in 1822, was assumed by the Mahamad to relate to this mission, because Messiah, now dead, had then been in London. Constantinople, uncertain how to allot the money, was told to apply the proportional system used for Terra Santa offerings. An appeal in November 1807 from R. Jacob Menaseh, Saliah from Hebron, then in Amsterdam, elicited no response, but in February 1810, after strong representations by Haham Meldola, the Siluhim of Jerusalem, Hahamim Cohen and Matalon, then in Amsterdam, were granted ?30 from Cautivos. In October 1813, again on the recommendation of Haham Meldola, Haham R. Isaac bar Ruby, Saliah from Jerusalem who came to London via Germany, was reluctantly granted ?30 from Cautivos plus ?10 for travel expenses, although his credentials contained no reference to London. He collected a further ?59, according to his successor in 1821. The Mahamad's reluctance was doubtless increased by the Saliah's behaviour. The Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi Hirschell told the Mahamad that the Saliah had accused him in writing and in print of not wanting to state the amount collected and of retaining the money to the prejudice of the poor of Terra Santa. He wanted an apology and a cessation of the use of very improper terms. The Saliah1s conduct should be reported to Constantinople and Jerusalem. The Mahamad duly did this in early 1814. They 'saw with much sorrow in the Saliah*s disposition a certain degree of irritability which accorded little with the character of Tamid [sic] Haham and less with that of a missionary who comes to seek charity for the needy.. ..' He had insulted 'the eminent Haham Selomo Bar Zebi [Hirschell] a person of the utmost merit, singular in his piety [Hasidut] and Humility, well known throughout the Galut of Israel', and had also been rude to the Mahamad. Having attempted mediation, the Mahamad declared that the Saliah's complaints were unfounded. 'We were persuaded that the Rabbi is honourable in all his dealings and a friend of Terra Santa*. Later in 1814, Safed was again in great distress because of heavy debt and fears of danger to life, as in 1806. The Saliah, Rabbi Abraham ben Hason, published, with the approbation of the Gentlemen of the Mahamad and sanctioned by Haham Meldola, 'an Humble Address to the Jewish Nation Resident in this happy Kingdom of Great Britain', appealing to individual generosity. He was granted ?30 from Cautivos and ?10 from synagogue funds for his travel expenses. In November 1821 the Amsterdam sponsors14 of R. Joseph David Hayas, Saliah from Jerusalem, requested assistance for his mission. Three years earlier, in Nisan 1818, the rabbis of Jerusalem had movingly described to Amsterdam15 the suffering of the inhabitants - two years of famine and 201</page><page sequence="6">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira great debt at huge interest - to alleviate which Hayas had been sent. Haham Meldola verified Hayas' credentials as Saliah to the Sephardim, as he recognized the signatures from Jerusalem, but on his recommendation, Haham Daniel Cohen d'Azevedo in Amsterdam was asked to certify that Hayas was entitled to approach the London congregation. The Haham replied that Hayas was certainly authorized to collect from Portuguese congregations, though his credentials were rather loosely worded. He also had a book giving details of his predecessor's mission in 1813. The Mahamad then sent ?20 from Cautivos to Amsterdam through the firm of Mendes de Leon in London. They regretted their inability to send more because of the 'increased number of our poor' and of other appeals. Rabbi Mordecai Azeo, Saliah from Safed, was in London at the same time. A Cautivos grant of ?45 was paid through Messrs Bensusan &amp; Co. and Azeo himself received ?10. He also received ?1 Is Od from the estate of Jacob Cardozo 'as usual', apparently from a special legacy. At Shabuot in 1822 Azeo found himself at odds with the Mahamad. He and his servant, Manoah Almaya, took part in morning service, with Minyan, held at the house of Solomon Aloof after study readings [Limmud) there during the previous night. Azeo himself was called to Sepher. Holding this service was a direct violation of Ascama 1, the law of the congregation which forbade under pain of excommunication [Herem] the holding of any statutory service independently within six miles of Bevis Marks synagogue - a law devised in the early days with the understandable aim of keeping the community united. The Mahamad was incensed. All those concerned were summoned to face interrogation and, later, punishment - though in the end, not Herem. Azeo refused to attend, declaring, and repeating publicly when the Ascama was read out in the synagogue, his opinion that it did not apply to temporary residents. Haham Meldola and the Bet Din told the Mahamad that it did. Azeo refused a further summons to answer for his 'disorderly behaviour' and even demanded an apology. In July he was ordered to pay within thirty days a fine of ?10 under Ascama 7, for rising in synagogue and publicly opposing any orders of the Mahamad or Elders. When the penalties on all the participants were promulgated by the Elders (including restrictions to seats behind the Tebah and denial of Mitsvot)f16 Azeo was also deprived of his seat of honour. More seriously, he was declared 'an unfit person to be received in future by this congregation in the Character of Saliah from any congregation'. The Haham was directed to withhold from him the usual certificate granted to Siluhim on their return to their congregations. The Gentlemen of the Mahamad were requested to make known this resolution 202</page><page sequence="7">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land to the Deputies of Terra Santa and also to the several congregations in the Holy Land 'with all possible dispatch'. Four other temporary residents, three of them rabbis (Haim Coriatt, Moses Sussi, Meir Ben Asher), who had expressed sincere contrition to the Mahamad, were merely fined one shilling and admonished. The Mahamad duly wrote to the Deputies at Constantinople (with copies to go to the Hahamim of the Four Holy Cities) and also to the Parnassim at Amsterdam. They explained 'with much sorrow' the Elders' resolution and all that had happened as a result of Azeo's 'extraordinary and reprehensible conduct'. Azeo had left London without paying the fine or making the least apology. He should have used his influence in support of the Ascamot and not encouraged defiance or 'caused disorder in the holy place at the time of public prayer'. In August 1822 the Amsterdam Parnassim replied that they no longer recognized Azeo as Saliah but were trying to get 'satisfaction equal to the offence'. Azeo told them that his words were 'ill interpreted' and that he was seduced into declaring the Law [Din Torah) unaware of the consequences, but he still held to his opinion that the Ascama did not apply to temporary residents. He claimed that others caused the trouble; he had tried to persuade the malcontents to make peace. The Mahamad's response is not recorded. As it was 7 Tisry, just before Kippur, when they discussed this letter, perhaps they just agreed to let the matter drop. A similar incident in 1829 caused much less stir. On Kippur, Rabbi Joseph Israel Levy, Saliah from Jerusalem, took part in prayers with Minyan at the Home for the Aged, the Beth Holim. The Mahamad held a special inquiry but received a letter of apology for 'this reprehensible act' which sufficed to mollify them and the Elders. In 1824, when Jerusalem was suffering 'overwhelming misfortunes' because of the Muslim revolt, Haham R. Jacob David Yekutiel a-Cohen, its 'General Envoy to the several Congregations of Europe', came from Livorno to London. He was granted the large sum of ?200 from Cautivos, to be remitted through M. L. Bensusan &amp; Co. in the best possible manner, but the Elders turned down a proposal to give him a further ?50 for travel expenses while in England. The Mahamad continued to seek ways 'to avoid the inconvenience and expense' attending missions by Siluhim. In April 1825 they had under consideration a proposal to the Deputies at Constantinople that, in order to maximize the benefit of contributions to the Holy Land, Siluhim should no longer be appointed. The Constantinople Deputies should themselves make application or appoint their own agent to do so. But a few years later, in 1830, another solution was adopted. Three interested Elders, 203</page><page sequence="8">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira Judah Guedalla, Moses Montefiore and Samuel Levy Bensusan, were appointed Deputies for Terra Santa for the Four Holy Cities in the congregation. A sum of ?200 granted from Cautivos to Jerusalem, on the application of the Saliah R. Joseph Israel Levy in 1828, had been paid to Guedalla and Bensusan to send, and to be applied for relief 'in the way they may deem proper*. Montefiore had made his first journey to the Holy Land in 1827. In August 1830 R. Joseph David Hayas, who had come to London in 1821, wrote from Paris17 announcing to the Mahamad his mission from Hebron and his intention to come - 'Please have the Kindness to have a suitable lodging prepared for me and let me know it, so that I know where to go when I arrive\ A letter from the rabbis of Hebron18 described the suffering there during the last five years - famine, destitution, heavy debts, threats of imprisonment and 'the most horrid cruelties'. The Mahamad tried to dissuade Hayas; he should address himself to the three Deputies instead. But he was not deterred and arrived in London in October. The Elders voted ?45 from Cautivos to be remitted through the Deputies. He appealed for an increase on the ground of the great need and pointed out that over a number of years four missions had failed. Three of the Siluhim had died and one went home. He instanced the ?200 given to Jerusalem and attached a list detailing the amounts he had collected in communities in Italy and France, over ?800 in Italy and over ?190 in France.19 The Mahamad granted him a further ?10 as Despacho,20 for travel. Similarly, in March 1831, the Mahamad tried unsuccessfully to prevent R. Abraham Selomo Zalman, Saliah from Jerusalem, who was in Livorno, from coming to London, referring him to the Deputies. 'Very liberal assistance' had recently been granted to Jerusalem, and even if he came they could not guarantee a very favourable response. His mission was evidently unsuccessful, despite the pleas he brought from the Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem complaining of increasing persecution and the 'weighty burthen of taxes'. In the event, Zalman21 received ?10 for Despacho for ten years and R. Meir ben Abraham (his companion?) ?5. Two Siluhim who did communicate through the Deputies were evidently disappointed. R. Meir Miranda's appeal from Gibraltar in November 1831 had no effect. No response is recorded either to an appeal in 1834 from the Safed Saliah, R. Haim Asquenazi, then at Mogador. The Deputies system must have been successful however. In February 1832 the Holy Land account was overdrawn. Nearly ?750 had been advanced. In November, S. L. Bensusan, the other Deputies being absent, urged the Mahamad to devise some scheme for assistance to avoid the 204</page><page sequence="9">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land need for Siluhim to come. Picking up a proposal floated three years earlier, he suggested an annual grant from the Elders from the Cautiuos Fund. This was set at ?60, to be applied at the Deputies' discretion. In March 1835 an appeal from R. Moses Sussi from Tiberias was referred to the Deputies. The community there feared for their lives. Heavy taxes imposed by Abdulla Pasha, and a 'dreadful unprecedented grievous famine', had led to enormous debts to the Turks. Another Saliah, Haham Abolaffia from the same city, then in Livorno, also wrote. Sussi said he had been appointed after Abolaffia, but Dayan David Meldola had had his suspicions aroused by letters from Amsterdam. An investigation by an Elders' committee, together with S. L. Bensusan, found nothing amiss and Sussi was granted ?10 by the Elders 'in consideration of his unavoidable detention in this country'. However, a few months later, in January 1836, Dayan Meldola was asked by the Rabbanim of Tiberias to procure the withdrawal of Sussi's credentials as Saliah to America and to receive what money he had collected. Nothing had been sent since he left the Holy Land. Summoned to the Mahamad for questioning, Sussi explained that there had been 'various interruptions' in his mission because of 'representations made against him in Germany'. He had twice sent sums of money from there. The Mahamad accused him of making improper use of the certificate granted him to collect money in this country, and made him return it. In April 1835 the three Deputies resigned, though they declared their continuing deep interest in the welfare of their brethren. The Mahamad informed the Deputies in Constantinople of this, 'in consequence (as we believe) of the non-acquiescence of the Rabbanim of the Holy Land to proposals made to them so as to prevent the disagreeable necessity of sending Siluhim at great cost and inconvenience'. The congregations in the Holy Land should be told that the rejection of the proposals was to their detriment, as the Elders' grants given for the past three years 'have now become null and void'. However, in November the Elders decided to grant ?24 to Tiberias out of the ?180 in hand. A further ?20 was to go to Safed in response to the application by Joshua Levy and Moses de Abraham Finzi, and 'in consequence of the pillage of the Jews by the Turks'. The money was to be remitted by Jacob L. Bensusan. In June 1836 R. Moses ben Simhon, Saliah of Safed, then at Livorno, informed the Mahamad of his impending arrival in London, through S. L. Bensusan, who was asked to dissuade him. His appeal was recommended to the Elders. In September the Mahamad cautioned Simhon again. The Elders' decision not to admit a Saliah was 'fixed and unalterable'; any assistance would be remitted direct to Safed. 205</page><page sequence="10">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira In November the Elders dedded that the sum of ?240 (less ?24 granted to Tiberias the year before), that had been withheld because of a lack of satisfactory answers from the Holy Land, should be at the disposal of the Mahamad, it being fully understood that missions of Siluhim were 'hereby strictly prohibited*. In future, ?60 from Cautiuos was to be granted annually, being remitted either through Constantinople or any other way the Mahamad found 'most advisable and advantageous*. In February 1837 the Mahamad allotted the money (?216) in the proportions 6/15ths to Jerusalem, 4 to Safed, 3 to Hebron and 2 to Tiberias - the proportions fixed earlier by the three Deputies. Constantinople and the Four Cities were informed of this and of the conditions, and of the continuing arrangements to draw the money annually on the Secretary. R. Hirsch Lehrens22 in Amsterdam was also told. Simhon renewed his appeal from Paris in March 1837, supporting his plea with a letter from the Deputies at Constantinople. The Mahamad informed him of efforts going on among several synagogues to respond to 'the unfortunate calamity at Safed' - the earthquake, of which more later - and, as he had not come to London, granted him ?5 travel money23 as a particular mark of its approval of his conduct, not to be given to other Siluhim. The Mahamad took the opportunity to point out rather delicately that the expense of missions 'actually created an indisposition in individuals to contribute'. Furthermore, some individuals he had addressed had 'departed this life some years ago'. In May, Simhon, then in Amsterdam, asked permission to come to London to recoup his expenses, and had to be discouraged. In 1842 the Rabbanim of Hebron and Jerusalem accepted the Mahamad's conditions and agreed, in return for an annual grant, not to send Siluhim. The Deputies at Constantinople were told that Hebron could now draw eight years' arrears - ?96. In June 1844 the Mahamad acceded to the request of R. Nissim Abulafia of Tiberias that grants to Tiberias and Safed should be paid in future through Joshua Benoliel of Gibraltar. No money was in fact then due, as the bills had already been negotiated through Aron L. Bensusan of Beyrouth and paid in London to Messrs Picciotto &amp; Co. In 1845 R. Moses Israel Hazan, Saliah of Jerusalem, came to London soliciting aid for building 'an Hospital' in Jerusalem and received a favourable response. The Elders granted ?25 to any committee appointed for the purpose and ?15 to Hazan as Despacho for travel. The Mahamad promised more if the hospital went well. They expressed sympathy with the efforts made to combat 'the insidious arts and machinations' of missionaries among the poor, i.e., in the Christian mission hospitals. At the same time the Deputies of Terra Santa, and Amarcalim 24 of the 206</page><page sequence="11">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land Israelite Congregation in the Holy Land, resident in Amsterdam, reported allegations against Hazan, which they categorically rejected, that he derived a percentage from what he collected for the hospital. The Mahamad took note, but said they had no knowledge of any such charge; they applauded Amsterdam's readiness to defend the Saliah. Two years later, in 1847, the Rabbanim of Jerusalem were refused any further sums as no committee to govern the hospital had ever been appointed and the project had failed. A hospital was in fact built a few years later. In 1857 R. Nahum a-Cohen, Emissary to the Mahamad from the Congregation at Tiberias, brought an appeal from the Rabbanim for rebuilding their synagogue and yesiboth. He and his son were granted ?3 Despacho for ten years. Later in the year, the Elders voted ?20 from Cautivos, for relief, to be sent to the heads of the congregations at Tiberias. One unfortunate Saliah, R. Abraham Makhluf Hayat, Saliah from Jerusalem to America, died in London in January 1847. The Mahamad took charge of his possessions and money. Some articles and clothes were sold, his Hebrew books were listed and an account kept of everything for his representatives. A grant of ?2 18s 6d was made to the Hebra for his funeral expenses; his friends wished to place a tombstone on his grave. Three years later the late Saliah 's effects were delivered to Dr Frankel from Jerusalem who had been authorized by the family to receive them. Ashkenazi links Cooperation with the Ashkenazim grew gradually during the century, clearly helped by good relations with Chief Rabbi Hirschell. At the time of Saliah Zalman's mission from Jerusalem in 1831, Hirschell came in person to the Mahamad appealing for support for a society with the aims of receiving contributions for the relief of our distressed brethren in the Holy Land and of preventing the arrival of Siluhim in this country. The society was to be managed by a committee chosen from the various congregations in London. The Mahamad and the three Deputies for Terra Santa, who were also present, expressed their approval. A few years later, in early 1837, the whole community was aghast at news of the earthquake which had devastated Safed on 1 January. Alerted by Judah Benoliel of Gibraltar, with information from the British Consul at Beyrouth (Mr G. Chasseaud) who had initiated a relief effort, the Mahamad invited the several London congregations to join them in a subscription for relief of Safed and Tiberias. A committee was set up under the Parnas H. I. Montefiore (Moses' brother), together with the Wardens 207</page><page sequence="12">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira of the Great 'German, Hambro, New and Western synagogues. Rabbi Hirschell, Dayan Meldola and Moses Montefiore (soon to be knighted), the President of the Board of Deputies, David Salomons and the two former Deputies of Terra Santa, Judah Guedalla and S. L. Bensusan, were invited to join. By March, an appeal addressed to the community had raised ?127 14s Od from the Sephardi congregation, ?84 8s Od from the Great and ?30 from the New. The appeal was widened to all synagogues in London and to Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Plymouth and Bristol. In June, the first ?300 was sent to Judah Benoliel for forwarding to the rabbis. The money was to go to those in Safed and Tiberias whose property or persons had been affected, whether 'Sephardim, Ashkenazim, Perushi,25 Hasidean, or of the Russian congregation*. In October 1838 the balance of the fund, ?257 18s 2d, was given to Sir Moses Montefiore either to distribute in person or to forward for distribution as he thought fit. A further ?30 from Cautivos was granted in December 1839 in response to a plea from Tiberias to the former Deputies. Amsterdam (R. Hirsch Lehrens) and Constantinople were kept informed of the arrangements made. In October 1839 a sum of ?10 was granted for the rebuilding of the German synagogue at Jerusalem in response to an impassioned appeal brought by R. Aaron Selig Ashkenasi and endorsed by the Beth Din of our congregation. Jacob Pariente joined Aaron Joseph and Solomon Keyser of the Ashkenazi community in undertaking to collect donations. In 1843 and 1845 the Ashkenazi rabbis at Hebron,26 and in 1845 those at Jerusalem, complained that the Sephardi rabbis were not paying over what they had promised. The Mahamad would not change their own arrangements, but reminded the Sephardi rabbis and the Deputies at Constantinople that local arrangements must be scrupulously observed. They hoped that good understanding would always exist between the communities. A problem over payment to Hebron in 1847 led to an intervention by R. Haim Abraham Gagin, the Haham Bashi in Jerusalem. The Mahamad declared that there had been an error in date (1841 for 1842), but agreed 'under protest' to pay the sum Hebron said was outstanding. They did so in order to save expense and disappointment to the Rabbanim, though insisting on an acknowlegement of the error and 'an end to further correspondence on the subject*. In July 1850 the Rabbanim at Jerusalem complained to the Mahamad about improper interference by the British Consul in their internal concerns. The Mahamad did not attempt to deal with the matter, but handed it over to Sir Moses Montefiore as President of the Board of Deputies. 208</page><page sequence="13">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land In 1848 Tiberias, suffering from an outbreak of cholera and famine, was granted ?25 from Cautivos to be distributed to poor Jews 'without distinction'. In 1854 an appeal 'earnestly soliciting contributions' to a fund under the auspices of Chief Rabbi Dr Adler and Sir Moses for 'our famishing brethren in the Holy Land' was circulated by the Mahamad. Those who did not reply were to be approached personally. A sum of ?30 was also given from Cautivos. This appeal raised over ?20,000 before it was wound up six years later in 1862. Much of the allocation of funds to charities, building a hospital, establishing industry, agriculture and schools was arranged by Sir Moses on his visits in 1855 and 1857. There were calls from Jerusalem and Safed in 1861 to alleviate distress and famine, and also from R. Abraham Malca for help in building a synagogue and schools at Jerusalem. These were turned down, presumably because of the work of the Holy Land Fund. More appeals came in 1863 from Jerusalem, from Chief Rabbi R. Haim David Hazan, for money to repurchase certain properties the congregation had sold, and from R. Isaac Motro for building a synagogue. There is no evidence that they received consideration.27 However, the Moroccan congregation in Jerusalem was granted ?20. Further ravaging famine and cholera afflicted the Holy Land in 1865, and Jerusalem was placed under quarantine. An appeal from its Ashkenazi and Sephardi rabbis to Chief Rabbi Adler and Sir Moses was publicized throughout the country through the Board of Deputies, and resulted in the establishment of the Holy Land Relief Fund in 1867. Dr Adler was Chairman, with both Ashkenazim and Sephardim as members. The Elders granted ?50 from Cautivos as a start. In March 1870, ?100 from Cautivos was given to Sir Moses to be used at his discretion, and at the same time R. Rahamim Franco, a Saliah from Jerusalem, was given ?25 for the Sephardim. The Fund's work continued well into the present century. Sir Moses dealt with the distribution of the Fund from 1872 until his death in 1884. The amounts raised totalled between about ?60 and ?80 annually in the 1870s and 1880s, reaching a high point of ?128 in 1879. In 1893 it was decided that if a sum of over ?50 was raised in any year, the committee could apply the whole or part of the excess to any of the Four Holy Cities for medical relief. This happened only once, in 1901. The closing of the Cautivos fund By the 1870s the Cautivos fund had been seriously depleted. Stock had had to be sold to raise the ?100 sent to Sir Moses for famine relief in Persia 209</page><page sequence="14">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira in 1871 and the 300 guineas for the newly founded Manchester Sephardi Congregation in 1873. The fund now stood at ?1232 in 3 per cent consols. The Mahamad recommended that recourse to the Fund should cease, bearing in mind the continuing claim for ?60 from the Four Holy Cities. In January 1872 the office of Parnas of Cautivos was combined with that of Parnas of Terra Santa. The offices were separated again about 80 years later, and still exist as purely honorific posts. In December 1876, by unanimous Elders' vote, the Cautivos Fund was absorbed into the general synagogue funds. It had 'long ceased to have practical application and (was) unlikely again to have any legitimate call upon its funds'. Trusts The congregation also accepted responsibility for administering trusts. One, accepted in 1856, was set up by Judah Guedalla, Sir Moses Montefiore's kinsman, for a Yeshiba known as Bet Guedalla, which he had founded in Jerusalem. Judah's son Haim was one of the trustees. The sum of about ?80 annual interest was remitted through him in half-yearly instalments. This proved inadequate for the demands of the Yeshiba and in 1892 some stock was sold to finance the purchase of furniture and books. The other trustees refused to countenance further sales. The trust remained in existence until 1971, when it and the Jacob Delmare Trust became part of the Congregation's Holy Land Yeshibot and Education Fund. From the 1880s all the regular outgoings for the Holy Land, i.e. the Delmare money and the synagogue offerings, were routed through Guedalla. Largely to meet requests from the Rabbanim of the Four Cities, other intermediaries had been used between the 1840s and the 1880s28 Joshua Benoliel in Gibraltar and in Beyrouth Aron L. Bensusan, Aron Yedidya Levy, Raphael Aaron Levy (the Levys' agents were Messrs Btesh &amp; Esses in Manchester) and Moses Yedidya Levy (through Messrs David Sassoon &amp; Co.) in London. Several thousands of pounds were remitted to the Holy Land by the congregation during the century, but its philanthropic efforts were dwarfed by the munificent legacy of Sir Moses Montefiore for the Holy Land - his Holy Land Trust, which the congregation still administers. (He left other trusts for the poor of both Sephardi and Ashkenazi communities here, for coals and blankets, as well as the Montefiore Endowment at Ramsgate.) The Holy Land Trust, established in 1885 by the terms of Sir Moses' will as a permanent memorial to his wife Judith, was intended for the benefit of learned and necessitous Jews dwelling in the Holy City of 210</page><page sequence="15">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land Jerusalem and in the cities of Hebron, Safed and Tiberias. The interest on ?32,000 of stock was to be allotted in the proportions 2/5 to Jerusalem and 1/5 to the other cities, and distributed with the advice of the Sephardi and Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis. Amounts varying between ?1250 and ?1380 were available annually up to 1900.29 The first Trustees were Sir Moses* nephew and heir Joseph Sebag Montefiore (knighted in 1896), Alexander I. Montefiore, Haim Guedalla and David de Pass, in conjunction with Dr Lionel Loewe, Sir Moses' trusted secretary and adviser. Lists of intended recipients were required from the rabbis for approval by the trustees before cheques were drawn up and forwarded. The trustees could not entertain other appeals.30 In June 1886 the Mahamad sent the first requests to the Sephardi and Ashkenazi rabbis in the Four Cities asking for lists 'of persons whom you may recommend to be recipients of Sir Moses' Bounty . . . You will please bear in mind that Sir Moses has ordered that the learned and necessitous Jews of every Congregation in your city without any exception whatsoever shall be considered qualified to be recipient of his Bounty.' 'Necessitous' included widows and orphans.31 Joseph Sebag-Montefiore 'spontaneously' waived his rights as residuary legatee so that a distribution could be made in 1886, a year early. For that year 13,379 persons (over 60 per cent were Ashkenazim) plus 90 families in Hebron, were listed. Hebron was thus entitled to far more per family and per head than the other cities. The trustees wryly observed 'it would not be surprising to find that in future there will be an exodus from the other places to that city'. This did not happen, but in 1889 it was calculated that Hebron recipients received 5 shillings per head, about five times as much as others. In 1888 over 23,000 persons in the Four Cities received assistance from the trust and the next year over 1000 more were helped. There are in the Congregation's archives a few of the lists that were sent.32 They are beautifully written in Rashi Hebrew script. The list of Sephardim in Jerusalem for 1897 contains the names of heads of families, in alphabetical order of first name, beginning with the Abrahams, and giving the total number of persons in each family - 8292 in all. Two lists from Tiberias for the same year total 4631; they include 2783 Sephardim (about 60 percent), and 1848 Ashkenazim. In 1898 the rabbis were all reminded to send complete lists of names indicating how much money each would receive. That year the Ashkenazi rabbis at Jerusalem were slow to respond and their cheque was delayed for three months, from June to September. In 1893 a postbag from Jerusalem was stolen, but Joseph Sebag-Montefiore, who signed all the letters and cheques, told the rabbis not to trouble to send duplicate lists. 211</page><page sequence="16">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira Further aid As well as helping whole communities, the congregation gave aid to individuals - rabbis and others.33 Two unusual cases are worthy of note. In July 1806 an unfortunate traveller, Haim de Zebi from the Holy Land, received ?5 5s Od as Despacho for ten years. He had been taken by the Spanish and robbed while on board an English ship from Barbary to Gibraltar. In August 1859 Rabbi Solomon Abulafia, son of the Haham Bashi of Jerusalem, who had arrived in England suffering from blindness, was given ?10 as Despacho. In the period 1884-1900 about 20 people from the Holy Land, mainly from Jerusalem, were assisted with small sums to travel to or from their homes. This survey has attempted to show how, despite many problems and difficulties, the leaders of the Sephardim of London in the 19th century continued to fulfil their perceived obligation to their less fortunate brethren in the Holy Land, establishing a more reliable system of aid and extending cooperation with the Ashkenazi community. It is an aspect of the congregation's work which, Sir Moses Montefiore's activities apart, is little known. NOTES 1 R. D. Barnett, "The Correspondence of the Mahamad . . Trans JHSE XX (1964) 1 50, which covered the period up to 1794. 2 This paper is based almost entirely on the 19th-century Minute Books of the Mahamad (Wardens) and Elders of the Congregation (in Portuguese until 1819 and English thereafter) and the correspondence of the Mahamad (in English, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and French). 3 'Livro de Promesas para Misvah de Terra Santa' (MS 404). 4 E.g. in 1795, ?25 was sent to Livorno for the ransom of 5 captives at Malta. 5 Cautivos Funds grants: ?5 for Daniel de Abraham de Joseph Nunes Martines captured and taken aboard a warship, June 1811; ?10 for 5 captives on application of R. Menahem Mandel, June 1827; ?30 for members of Haim Cohen's family captive in Greece, May 1829; ?5 for R. Abraham Belaish's son in captivity at 'Constantina' (?= Constantine, Algeria), June 1835. 6 Formalized in the congregation's Laws [Ascama no. 20) in 1821. There had been a few cases earlier, see R. D. Barnett (see n. 1) 23,24. 7 Solomon Solis, collector for Terra Santa, did not wish to continue. 8 See Appendix 1,1. 9 He served in 1798-1805 and Thomas Prior in 1808-10. 10 See Appendix I, 2. 11 Hebron was at the time entitled to % of the Terra Santa money (?47 13s Od). 12 See R. D. Barnett (see n. 1) 32. 13 David Teixeira d'Andrade and Joseph de Ishac Teixeira de Mattos in 1803 and David Franco Mendes and Moses de Samuel Mendes da Costa in 1804. 14 D. H. de Castro, Moses Henriques de Mesquita, Jacob de Abraham Lopes Salzedo. 15 Rabbis Raphael Joseph Hasan, JomTob Danon, Salomon Hatem, Moseh Suvin, Jeudah Uziel, in a letter (which was printed) in Spanish, addressed to the 212</page><page sequence="17">Relations of the Mahamad Parnassim of the Amsterdam Congregation. 16 A heavy fine of ?40 was imposed on the main culprits. 17 From Rue Quincampoix 25 (letter in French), 23 August 1830 (MS 293, folio 53). 18 Chief Rabbi Haim Jacob Benyakar, Rabbis Haim Levi, Eleazar Benorcah, Isaac V. Raphael Saul Cohen, Haim Isachar Has son, Yom Tob Elyakim (English translation, MS 295, item 21). 19 See Appendix II. 20 Despacho grants given, at the Mahamad*s discretion, originally for those on a public mission, at least 2/?of the sum to be applied to secure a passage and necessaries on the voyage. 21 He may have been the Saliah from whom the Mahamad resolved to purchase about 10 lbs of sacred earth [terra santa) in May 1831, at the lowest possible price, the quantity remaining in the synagogue then being very small. 22 With Abraham Prinz and Solomon Reuben responsible for forwarding to Palestine the annual contributions from Amsterdam; from 1822, one Saliah served both Sephardi and Ashkenazi congregations, and all money collected was allocated in proportion to the numbers in the two congregations in Palestine [Jewish Encyclopedia). 23 Seda la dar eh, to be collected from M. Almosnino in Paris, brother of the congregation's Secretary, S. A. Almosnino. 24 H. Lehrens, E. Ab. A. Prins, S. B. Rubens, Myer Cohen, see n. 22; Amarcalim - trustees. 25 Ashkenazim from Lithuania. 26 R. Nathan Hamram, Saliah from Hebron to Europe, also made a complaint. 27 The effects of a disastrous fire at Monastir, Salonica, were then the Mahamad's chief concern. 28 See Appendix I, 3. 29 MS 315. 30 Dr Pinsker, of Odessa in Russia, who in 1896 sought assistance for the Agricultural Colony of Jews in Palestine, was referred to the Executors of Sir Moses* Estate. 31 Some difference of opinion had arisen among the trustees as to the precise meaning of 'learned and necessitous', one trustee even envisaging recourse to Counsel. 32 There are other lists in Jews' College Library. 33 See Appendix III. APPENDICES Appendix I Payments for Terra Santa, extracted from the correspondence of the Mahamad, 1794-1900 1. Mainly via Constantinople, 1794-1864 [MS 30] 5554 To David Franco, Livorno. From the Promesas made in this 21 Kehila in 3 years to Rosh Hodes Sivan last, to be remitted Elul to the Srs. Pequidim [Constantinople] to bedivided in the 1794 following manner 6/24 to Hebron, 11 /24 to Jerusalaim &amp; 213</page><page sequence="18">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira 16 Sept. 7/24 to Safet P [pesos] 150-9-3 ?30 5s 5555 To Illus. Srs. H.H.R. Yomtob Algazi &amp; Jacob Burla and other 24 Srs. Rabanim of the Holy Kehila of Jerusalaim. Kislev Weduly received your letter of 28 Nisan last and, 16 Dec having examined the Will of the late Jacob del Mare we declare that the income bequeathed for the 4 Kehilot in Terra Santa and which our Mahamad is charged to remit annually to be divided among the Poor of the said Kehilot, as we wrote to you 19 Kislev 5551 - and today we r emit - to the Srs. Parnassim of the K.K. of Talmud Torah in Amsterdam to be passed to your Kehila for the saidPurpose. To David Franco [Livorno]. Enclosed we remit to you PP [pesos] 297-13-6 [by] Sr. Samuel Piciotto - which at 48 and 3/8 to be remitted to the Srs. Pequidim of Constantinople for them to divide in equal portions among the poor of the Kehilot of Tebariat, Hebron and Safet ?20 to each Kehila, being the Annual income bequeathed by the late Jacob Delmare. 5557 To the Srs. Pequidim of Terra Santa in Constantinopoli. 29 Sivan [refers to letter of 23 Sept. last, received on 22 April, 1797 the methods of making remittances and the above 23 June payments in 5554-5]... and now we hold in our hands the income from the said Sr. Delmare for the 4 Kehilot in equal portions for 2 years to Oct. 1795 and Oct. 17% promesas in this Kehila for 3 years to be divided 11/24 Jerusalaim 7/24 Saphet 6/24 Hebron, to Iyar 57 ?20 ?60 ?160 ?30 12s ?190 12s 5558 To the Srs. Pequidim of Terra Santa in Constantinople. 14 Sivan We received yours of 3 Tebet and 22 Dec last with 1798 notification for payment on our Gabay of ?190 12s 29 May at the order of Sr. Juan Prior which was presented to us with the required documents and promptly paid, since then we have collected the following one year's income from the late Jacob del Mare to Oct. 1797 to be divided in equal portions among the Kehilot of Jerusalaim, Safet, Hebron and Teberia promesas made in this K.K. for Terra Santa to be divided as follows 11/24 Jerusalem 7/24 Saphet 6/4 Hebron ?80 ?13 17s 6d ?93 17s 6d 5559 To Srs. Pequidim of Terra Santa in Constantinople. 29 Sivan [refers to] prompt payment of ?93 17s 6d. This is tonotify you 1799 that we have collected in due time one year's income from 1 July the late Sr. Jacob Del Mare to be divided in equal portions between the four Kehilot of Jerusalaim,Safet, Hebron and Tebaria to Oct. 1798 promesas made in this K.K. 11/24 Jerus. 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron ?80 ?69 10s ?149 10s 214</page><page sequence="19">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land 1802 To Deputies of Terra Santa in Constantinople. 24 Sept. We have received yours of 25 June [refers to] Sr. Raphl Meyuhas, Saliah from Jerusalem... we have in our hands ?35 10s promesas for Terra Santa 11/24 Jerusalaim 7/24 Safet 6/24 to Hebron 5563 To Snres. David Teixeira D. Andrade and Joseph de Ishac 15 Elul Teixeira de Mattos [Amsterdam]. Sr. Ishac de Aron Capadose 1803 passed us yours of 17 July last with the letter from the Snres. 2 Sept. Hahamim R. Abm Rubio R. Michael ACohen Siluhim of Hebron and in consideration of what you told us we are resolved to allot from the Fund of Pidyon Zebuim or Seja Cautivos the sum of ?50 which we will pay to the said Snr. Capadose to be remitted to you. 1804 To Srs. Parnassim of K.K. of Talmud Tora [Amsterdam] 10 July [refers to] H.H.R. Ab. Eliezer Levy Saliah of Safet in 5559 ?50 1804 To Sres. David Franco Mendes and Mos. van SamuelReuben 6 Nov. Mendes da Costa [refers to] Raharnim Jacob Ben Saliah of Safet. In view of the urgency of the case ... from Cautivos Fund ?20 which we will pay to the Friend Sr. Abraham Teixeira 5565 To Sres. Deputies of Tierra Santa in Constantinople. 3 Nisan This is to notify you that we have in our Hands the 1805 following amounts collected for the Account of the Misva 2 April of Tierra Santa Promesas in our Kehila Iyar 5563 ?11 7s 6d Iyar5564 ?17 10s 11/24 Jerusalaim 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron ?28 17s 6d Ma tana [Gift] of Sr. Ishac Lopes in Barbados by Hands of Sr. Joseph Baruh [to be similarly divided] Legacy of the late Gabriel Israel Brandon ?8 15s and Income bequeathed by the late Jacob del Mare for ?10 Tierra Santa from Oct. 1798 to Oct. 1804 inclusive 6 years to bedivided between the 4 Kehilot of Terra Santa ?480_ ?527 12s 6d 5567 To Sres. Deputies of Tierra Santa in Constantinople. 28 Iyar This is to notify you that we have in our possession 1807 the following amounts of the Cupa of Terra Santa for the 5 June Promesas in this K.K. to be divided as usual 11/24 for the K.K. of Jerusalaim 7/24 for the K.K. of Safet and 6/24 for the K.K. of Hebron to Sivan 5566 ?25 17s 6d Legacy of the late Ishac Lopes of Barbados in equal portions between the Kehilot of Hebron Safet and Jerusalaim ?55 12s 3d Legacy of the late Isaac Rodrigues Nunes ?10 Received from the Executors of the Estate of the late Jacob del Mare for Jerusalaim Safet Hebron and Tebariah in equal portions ?200_ ?291 9s 9d 215</page><page sequence="20">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira collected by the Sres. who sponsored Sr. Haham Haim Baruh Maestro the last Saliah ?132 2s 6d allotted for his Misva from the Fund of Pidyon Zebuim (Cupa de Cautivos) ?30_ ?162 2s 6d ?435 12s 3d 5570 To the Deputies of Tierra Santa in Constantinople. 10 Veadar In consequence of the representations made by our most [1810 Reverend Haham Morenu Rabenu Raphael de Mos. 16 March] Meldola as advocate of the Srs Haham im Cohen and Matalon, Siluhim of Jerusalaim in Amsterdam we remit enclosed two Accounts - one of the Cupa of Tierra [sic] which consists of the Legacies to be divided as noted in the said Account 11 /24 to Jerusalaim 7/24 to Safet 6/24 to Hebron the total of which is the other of the income bequeathed by the late Sr. Jacob Del Mare to be divided in equal portions among the Poor of the 4 Kehilot, and must be separated from the General Account of Tierra Santa the total is [to be remitted through the Parnassim of the K.K. of Talmud Tora of Amsterdam] and that is all that came to our hands. ... in April 5568 we paid your Letter of ?320 at the order of Sr. Thomas Prior of which From the income of the late Sr. del Mare relating to the 4 Kehilot of Jerusalaim, Safet, Hebron and Tebariat in e qual portions and for the Kolel of Tierra Santa between Jerusalaim, Safet and Hebron also note that we subscribed ?30 allotted for the Misva of the H. Hm. Cohen and Matalon ?193 3s Od ?180 ?200 ?120 1810 To Senrs Parnassim of the Portuguese Jewish Nation of 16 March Amsterdam [as above, for our Brethren of Tierra Santa] ?373 3s Od 1813 To the Deputies of Tierra Santa in Constantinople. 23 Nov. This is to notify you that we have collected the following amounts for the Account of Tierra Santa Promesas made in this K.K. from Iyar 5569 to Iyar 5573 for Tierra Santa to be divided according to Ascama in the following manner 11/24 Jerusalaim 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron ?81 14s 6d for income to be divided between the 4 Kehilot, Jerusalaim, Safet, Hebron and Tebariah in equal portions ?186_ ?267 14s 6d 1814 To the Sres. Pequidim of Terra Santa in Constantinople, [not dated] [allotted to] Sr. H.H.R. Isaac Bar Ruby Saliah of Jerusalaim for Germany, for his Misva for zada la dareh [provision for journey] 1817 To the Srs. Pequidim of Tierra Santa in Constantinople. 12 Dec This is to notify you that we hold the following amounts for ?30 ?10 216</page><page sequence="21">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land 1818 3 April [MS 68] 5580 20Adar 1820 15 March accounts of the K.K. Tierra Santa - Protnesas made in this K.K. from Sivan 5574 to Sivan 5577 to be divided according to Ascama in the following way 11/24 Jerusalaim 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron ?75 collected from the Executors of the late Jacob Del Mare by hands of Sr. Abraham Jalfon to 25 Kislev 557 [-] to be divided between the 4 Kehilot Jerusalaim Safet Hebron and Tebariah ?243 9d ?318 10s 9d To Sres. Deputies of Tierra Santa in Constantinople. We have received from the Sres. executors of Fund bequeathed by the late Jacob del Mare ?160 income for two years for the 4 Kehilot, Jerusalaim, Safet, Hebron and Tebaira in equal portions. To Sres. Pequidim of Tierra Santa in Constantinople. This is to advise you that we have collected the following amounts for the account of Terra Santa, viz: Protnesas made in this K.K. from Sivan 5577 to Sivan 5579 which must be divided according to Ascama in the following way 11/24 Jerusalaim 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron ?31 2s 6d collected from the Executors of Jacob del Mare by hands of Sr. Abrm. Jalfon as income for two years which is to be divided between the 4 Kehilot of Jerusalaim Safet Hebron and Tebariah ?160 Qs Od ?191 2s 6d 5581 7Tebet 1820 12 Dec 1822 15 Jan. 5582 29 Menahem 1822 To Sres. Pequidim of Terra Santa in Constantinople. [with a copy of previous letter - no reply received - awaiting notification for the tax] since then we have received from the Executors of the Funds of Sr. Jacob Delmare ?40 for a further half-year [making ?200 in all] ?40 we also hold from promesas to Sebuoth last to be divided [as above] ?10 total ?241 4s(sic] 6d To Sres. D. H. de Castro, Mos. Henriques [de] Mesquita, Jacob Van Ab Lopes Salzedo. Having received the letter of Sr. Hm. Hm. Ribi Daniel Cohen de Azevedo with the information we asked for, we have taken into consideration the case of Saliah R. Joseph David Hayas and have conceded from Caixa of Cautivos which we are remitting today - by way of Sres. Mendes de Leon &amp; Co. of this city - to the Sres. Parnassim of your K.K. to be passed to you as Sponsors of said Sr. Saliah. [same info, also sent on same day to the Parnassim of the Portuguese Jewish Nation in Amsterdam] To Sres. Pequidim of Tierra Santa in Cons-pie. This is to advise you that we have collected the following amounts for the Account of Tierra Santa: ?20 217</page><page sequence="22">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira 15 Aug. Promesas made in this K.K. from Sivan 5580 to Sivan 5581 5581 to M 5582 Collected from the Executors of Jacob Delmare by hands of Sr. M. G. da Costa as income for two years which is to be divided between the 4 Kehilot of Jerusalaim Hebron Safet and Tebariah Remitted from the K.K. of Nidhe Israel of Barbados for a collection made in the said Kehila by Sr. Isaac de Piza Massiah in 5566 [1806] ?9 ?10 Os 12s Od 6d ?160 Os Od ?30 fc Od ?209 12s 6d 5584 29 Tamuz 1824 25 July 1826 8 Jan. 5586 29 Menahem 1 Sept. 1828 14 Jan. 1829 7 Sept. To Sres Pequidim of Tierra Santa in Cons-pie. This is to advise you that we have in hand for the Account of Tierra Santa ?216 12s 6d made up of the following amounts: Promessas made in the Ka'al from Sivan 5582 to Sivan 5583 5583 " 5584 A Legacy from the late Sra. Ester Benhacok Two years' income collected from the Executors of the late Jacob Delmare to be divided in equal portions between the Kehilot of Jerusalaim Hebron Safet &amp; Tebariah [Mahamad Minutes] Legacy for Terra Santa from Sarah Rey Lara, formerly wife of Jacob Rey deceased, sent by M. Lara, her brother ?18 ?12 ?25 To Sres. Pequidim de Tierra Santa in Cons-pie. We have in hand the funds set out below pertaining to Tierra Santa . . . From the Executors of the late Jacob Delmare by hand of Sr. Ab. Jalfon for 2 years* income to be divided between the 4 Kehilot to 5 April last ?160 Promessas made in this Kehila from Sivan 5584 to Sivan 5586 to be divided 11 /24 Jerusalaim 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron ?32 ?192 To Sres Pequidim de Tierra Santa in Cons-pie. This is to inform you that we have in hand pertaining to Tierra Santa the sum of ?172 5s Od as set out below: One year's income from the late Jacob Delmare to 5 April last from offerings in the Kehila to Sivan 5587 from a Legacy of the late Orabuena Cohen of Gibraltar, to be divided like the offerings of this Kehila 11/24 to Jerusalaim 7/24 to Safet 6/24 to Hebron ?80 ?24 ?68 ?172 To the most Must. Signori Isack Hatem and Isaac Camondo Deputies of Terra Santa in Cons-pie. With reference to yours of 25 May last delivered to us by the worthy subjects to whom it was sent, we are informing you that having now at our disposition the sum specified below, we authorise you to claim from us in the usual way ?180 14s 18s 0d 6d Os Od ?160 Os Od ?216 12s 6d ?2 10s Od Os Od 13s_Od 13s Od Os Od 5s Od fc_(H 5s Od 3s Od 218</page><page sequence="23">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land [MS 69] 1834 To Messrs. Judah Guedalla, Moses Montefiore and Saml. L. 25 Sept. Bensusan, Deputies of Terra Santa. I beg to acquaint you that the sum at present in possession of the Synagogue belonging to 'Terra Santa' is ?105 18s as per particulars afoot which will be paid on being drawn for as usual. From the legacy of the late Jacob Delmare ?81 reed, for offerings ?24 18s Od ?105 18s Od The former to be divided in equal proportions between the 4 Kehilot of Jerusalem, Saffet, Hebron and Tebariah. The latter according to Ascama 11/24 Jerusalem 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron. The addition of 20/- to Delmare Legacy proceeds from a Divd. to that amount received on the Estate of the late Isaac Aguilar a former Trustee of the property of the Deed. 1835 To the Deputies of Terra Santa in Cons/pie. 27 Dec Vh year Legacy of the late Jacob Delmare to Oct. last to be divided in equal shares to each of the Congregations of Jerusalem, Safet, Hebron and Tebariah ?120 0s Od 1 yr Offerings to be divided 11/24 Jerusalem 7/24 Hebron 6/24 Safet ?17 16s Od a vote to the K.K. of Tebariah by the Elders of the Congregation on an application made by the Rabanim of that Community recommended by you ?24 Qs Od ?161 16s Od 1837 To the Signori Deputies of Terra Santa, Constantinople, 3 March [marked 'For post via France'] (according to resolution adopted by the Elders, annual payment to Jerusalem ?24, Safet ?16, Hebron ?12, Tebariah ?8 on condition that no further Siluhim were sent to this Keila) 4 years'payment -Jerusalem ?96 0s Od -Safet ?64 0s Od -Hebron ?48 0s Od 1 year's payment - Tebariah, because that Keila received 3 years' payment last year ?8 Qs Od ?216 OS Od For account of Terra Santa Income for a year legacy of the late Jacob Delmare to be divided in equal shares - Jerusalem ?20 Safet ?20 Hebron ?20 Tebaria ?20 ?80 0s Od Offerings for the year 55% to be as follows Jerusalem 11/24 Safet 7/24 Hebron 6/24 ?13 Is Od ?93 Is Od 1839 To the Deputies of Terra Santa in Constantinople. 23 May We have pleasure in informing you that we have received ?104 5s Od from the legacy of the late Jacob Delmare one year's to be divided between the 4 Kehilot ?80 0s Od Offerings to Elul last to be divided as usual 11/24 Jerusalem 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron, and including a Legacy 219</page><page sequence="24">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira of ?5 from the late David Guedalla ?24 5s Od ?104 5s Od 1840 To the Pequidim of Terra Santa, Constantinople. 19 June We have pleasure in informing you that we hold one year's income from the legacy of the late Jacob Delmare to be divided as usual 1 /4 to each of the 4 Congregations of Jerusalem Saf et Hebron and Tebaria offerings of the past year to be divided between the first 3 Congregations 11/24 Jerusalem 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron ?80 0s Od ?17 10s Od ?97 10s Od 1841 To the most Illust. Sigri Deputies of Terra Santa Cons-pie. 20 May In accordance with our usual annual custom we are making it our duty to advise you that we find in our hands in favour of Terra Santa the sum of ?105 8s Od.... particulars are as follows: 1 year's interest bequeathed by the late Jacob Delmare to be divided in equal parts. 4 Kehilot Jerusalem, Hebron, Safet, Tebaria Offerings of our Keila to be divided 11/24 Jerusalem 7/24 Hebron 6/24 Safet ?80 ?25 &amp; Od ?105 Od (1824) To the Pequidim of Terra Santa in Constantinople. 28 Feb. According to our usual annual custom we state that the sum 5602 pertaining to Terra Santa in our hands today is 18 Adar 1 year's legacy of the late Jacob Delmare to be divided in equal parts Jerusalem Hebron Safet Tebariah 1 Year's of our offerings to be divided as follows 11/24 Jerusalem 7/24 Safet 6/24 Hebron ?12 p.a. for 8 Years for Hebron to Tebet last 1843 To the Pequidim of Terra Santa at Const-pie. 26 June Agreeably to our usual custom, we beg to advise that the Amount in our hands for account of the Holy Land is ?103 12s 6d as per particulars 1 Year's interest of Delmare for 4 Congs. Offerings in this Cong0, for the year 5602, say, 11/24 7/24 6/24 (8 years' allowance to Jerusalem to Tebet 5602 reed, some months back) (present year's allowance for Jerusalem (?24) and Hebron (?12) to Tebet 5603 is available) ?80 0s Od ?17 17s 6d ?97 17s 6d ?96 Os Od ?80 ?23 12s 6d ?103 12s 6d ?192 0s Od 1844 To the Pequidim of Terra Santa at Constantinople. 28 March Agreeably to our annual custom we beg to inform you that we have in hand for account of Terra Santa ?80 for the year's Interest on the Legacy of the late Jacob Delmare to be divided in equal shares between the 4 Kehilot of 0s Od 220</page><page sequence="25">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land Jerusalem Safet Hebron &amp; Tebariah &amp; for offerings to Elul last ?15 ?95 6d 6d [1845] To the Pequidim of Terra Santa Cons-pie. 13 May Agreeably to our Annual Custom, we beg to inform you that 5605 we have in hand for account of the Holy Land, the under? mentioned Sums, say: for one year dividend on the legacy of the late Jabob Del Mare to be divided in equal shares between the 4 Congregations of Jerusalem Safet Hebron &amp; Tebariah for one year's offerings to Elul last, say, 11/24 to Jerusalem, 7/24 to Safet 6/24 to Hebron ?80 ?15 0s Od 2s_6d ?95 2s 6d [1846] To the Pequidim of Terra Santa, Constantinople. 20 July In conformity to our annual custom, we beg to advise that we 5606 have in hand for account of the Holy Land ?94 10s Od, for 21 Tamuz one year's Interest on the Legacy of the late Jacob Del-Mare to be divided [as above] for offerings in the year 5605 to be divided as usual ?80 0s Od ?14 10s Od ?94 10s Od 5607 To the Deputies of Terra Santa in Constantinople. [1847] We have to inform you that we have received for the 13 July account of Terra Santa the sum of ?95 12s 6d, made up as follows: Interest for one year from the legacy of the late Jacob Delmare to be divided in equal shares [as above] Offerings made in the year 5606 distributed [as above] ?80 0s Od ?15 12s 6d ?95 12s 6d [1848] To the Deputies of Terra Santa in Consple. 12 July We inform you as we do annually that we have received for 11 Tamuz the account of Terra Santa the sum of ?9815s 6d 5608 Interest for one year from the legacy of the late Jacob Delmare to be distributed in equal shares [as above] Offerings made in this synagogue in the past year [as above] ?80 ?18 15s 6d ?98 15s 6d [MS 67] 5609 29 Tamuz 1849 19 July 5610 24 Tamuz 1850 4 July To the Deputies of Terra Santa in Con-pie. for legacy Delmare for Offerings for Terra Santa for last year To [as above] one year Int. on Legacy of Delmare offerings ?80 ?16 10s 0d ?96 10s Od ?80 0s Od Q7 10? Od ?97 10s Od 5611 To [as above]. 5 Ab one year's income from the legacy of the late Jacob 1851 Delmare to be divided among the 4 Kehilot [as usual] ?80 221</page><page sequence="26">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira 3 Aug. Offerings in the Ka'al in the past year to be divided [as usual] ?18 ?98 1852 [Secretary] To Neth-1 Lindo, Esq. 19 March I have laid before the Gentlemen of the Mahamad your letter with your cheque for left by your late lamented Father [D. A. Lindo] to be distributed amongst 60 Jewish families of the poor of Jerusalem ... they will take the earliest opportunity of remitting the same to the Holy Land.... 1854 To Sig-ri Abram Camondo, R. A. Pallaci &amp; Haim 24 Jan. R. Pallaci, Constantinople. [ref.] your letter of 25 Kislev requesting to draw 2 years of the Delmare legacy, because of the famine and misery in the Holy Land ... the Gentlemen of the Mahamad ... have consented to pay out together 2 years of the said Legacy for 5613 and 5614 even if the money has not yet reached us first 1 authorise you ... to draw for the sum of offerings for Terra Santa during 5613... 1857 To [as above] stating that on the 5th Sivan last we 6 Jan. addressed them mforming them that the Synagogue had in hand for account of the Holy Land a sum of ?10313s Od, that not having since heard from them, we begged now to advise that the amount now at their disposal is as follows: 2 years' interest on the Legacy of the late Jacob Delmare to be divided [as usual] to Hesvan-Oct. last 2 years' Offerings in Synagogue ?15 ?160 ?22 (?182) ?160 ?41 &amp;_Od ?201 5s 0d 5618 To [as above]. 11 Ab advise of Amount in hand [1858] one year Delmare Legacy to Oct. 1857 ?80 22 July one year offerings 5616 ?12 &amp; ordered to draw as usual to Messr. Cammondonet Cie 5620 To the Rabannim of Tebaria - in Hebrew informing Ab them that in accordance with their application the [1860] Mahamad had forwarded them the amount due to them Jul/Aug. from this Synagogue, say 7 years allowance from 5614 to 5620 inclusive being ?56 which had been kindly taken charge of by Messrs Benoliel Bros, to remit to them, &amp; for which they would be pleased to send a regular receipt. 7s_6d ?92 7s 6d 222</page><page sequence="27">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land 2. Mainly via merchants, 1864-1874 [MS 70] 1865 3 Sept. 1866 24 Jan. 1866 30 Nov. 5627 9 Sebat [1867] 15 Jan. 5630 8Adar Rishon [1870] 9 Feb. To Messrs. Btesh &amp; Esses, Manchester, [Ref.] a letter dated 27 Tamuz 5625 from the Rabbis of Tebariah sent by Mr A. I. Levy of Beyrouth ... you may draw on me at sight for for account of Mr A. I. Levi... To Messrs. Benoliel Bros. Would you kindly transmit to the Rabanim of Safet the undermentioned sums due to them - one year interest of legacy Delmar " allowance from this Synagogue share of Offerings for what amount I beg to hand you a cheque inclosed [note added: withdrawn] To Messrs. Btesh Esses &amp; Co. Manchester. [Ref.] letters ... of 28th inst. and in conformity with directions received I beg... to hand you a Bill for ... payable to your Order... please to receive for Account of Mr Raphl. Aaron Levy of Beyrout and advise thereof. I shall write direct to Mr Levy. To Rabanim of Safet. Finding that you had not received the allowance from this Synagogue for the year 5626, 1 have forwarded this day to Messrs. Btesh Esses and Co. the agents of Mr Aaron Yedid. Levy for Delmare Legacy due this year ... the last Bill you drew on me was in Tebet 5625 for thro* Messrs. Benoliel... adding thereto [i.e.] 1 year allownace... to Tebet 5625 Delmar Legacy Offerings In the last year 5626 we remitted thro' Mr. Valero of Jerusalem various sums for the Kehilot... amongst them for your Account for Delmar for balance of Offerings ... In your next you may draw for your share of Offerings in the last 2 years To... Rabbanim of Jerusalem_ 2 years return of Delmar for 5628 and 5629 2 Years Offerings To Rabbinim of Safet 1 year Delmar having drawn last year ?20 Offerings ?40 ?20 ?16 ?2 14s ?38 14s ?16 ?16 ?20 ?40 ?0 10s ?16 ?20 ?A 10s 6d 6d ?40 10s 6d ?20 ?2 14s ?22 14s ?12 15s ?40 ?12_2s ?53 2s ?20 ?8 fe_6d ?28 6s 6d 223</page><page sequence="28">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira To Rabbanim of Hebron 2 years Delmar 2 years offerings To Rabbanim of Tebaria 2 years Delmar having no share of offerings 5632 To the Illus. Rabbanim of Jerusalem. I am instructed to 3 Adar notify you that the Gentlemen of the Mahamad have Rishon today in their hands the following funds pertaining to [1872] Jerusalem 12 Feb. for 2 years' income from Jacob Delmare offerings in this Kehila to be drawn as usual at 7 days' sight. [similar letter] to Hebron for 2 years Delmare Trust " Offerings ?40 2s 64 ?47 2s 6d ?40 ?40 m i6s ?52 16s ?40 ?7 Is_6d ?47 Is 6d [similar letter] to Tebariah 2 years Delmare Trust received 1 year in Sebat last Synagogue 1 year allowance to Tebet last ?40 ?20 ?20 ?8 ?28 To Rabbanim of Safet for annual grant from this Synagogue to Tebet for 2 years Delmare proportion of offerings 2 years ?16 ?40 ?8 6d ?64 2s 6d 1873 [Secretary] to Moses Jeded. Levy, Beyrout. 31 Jan. In conformity with your letter of 14 Tebet last which accompanied a letter of the Rabbanim of Tebariah of 11th ... I have this day paidto Messrs David Sassoon &amp; Co the amount of for your account, in conformity with the authority of the said Rabbanim. ?28 1874 [Secretary] to Moses Yedid. aLevy, Beyrout. 3 Jan. On Friday last I paid into ... Messrs David Sassoon &amp; Co for your account... for Safed the sum of paid in full although they have overdrawn for their share of offerings for 5632 and 5633 ... they will remain indebted for ?3 4s 6d which will be deducted from the next payment... 5634 To the Illus. Sres. Rabbanim of Jerusalem. 11 Sebat I have the pleasure to inform you, by order of the 1874 Mahamad, that they have in hand pertaining to Jerusalem 29 Jan. the sum of ?52 4s viz: ?42 224</page><page sequence="29">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land for 2 years income from the late Jacob Delmare for offerings in 5632 and 5633 to be drawn as usual at 7 days' sight [same letter] to Rabbanim of Hebron mis day Legacy ?40 ?12 4s ?52 4s ?40 ?6 13s 6d ?46 13s 6d 3. Amounts forwarded to the Four Holy Cities, Guedalla 1880-1900, through Haim [MS 1697] 1880 12 Jan. to Jerusalem grant by Jacob Delmare by Synagogue share of offerings ?10 ?12 ?3 17s lid ?25 17s lid to Saf ed - grant by Jacob Delmare grant by Synagogue share of offerings ?10 ?8 7d ?20 9s 7d to Habron - grant by Jacob Delmare grant by Synagogue share of offerings ?10 ?6 ?2_% 6d ?18 2s 6d 8 July 1881 5 Jan. to Tiberias to Jerusalem to Safed to Hebron to Tiberias to Jerusalem to Safed to Hebron to Tiberias grant by Jacob Delmare grant by Synagogue ?10 ?4 ?78 10s Od ?23 16s 8d ?19 3s 4d ?17 A4_ ?74 ?26 16s 3d ?21 Is 3d ?18 12s 6d ?14_ ?80 10s Od 18 May [due in July] to Jerusalem to Safed to Hebron to Tiberias ?24 5s lOd ?19 9s 2d ?17 5s Od 04_ ?75 225</page><page sequence="30">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira being ?40 from the grant of the late Jacob Delmare, ?30 from the Misva of Cautivos, ?5 offerings for Terra Santa. 1882 to Jerusalem - ?27 14s 7d 4 Jan. toSafed - ?21 12s lid to Hebron - ?19 2s 6d to Tiberias - 04_ ?82 10s Od 3 July to Jerusalem - ?25 4s 2d toSafed - ?20 0s lOd to Hebron - ?17 15s Od to Tiberias - 04_ ?77 In 1883-9, the sum of ?74 on average was sent every six months [MS 1703,1704]; in 1893-1900 the sum averaged ?6610s Od [MS 1705,1706,1699,1708]. The money was divided in the same proportions as above. Appendix II Letter to the Elders from R. Joseph David Hayas, November 1830 (MS 297) To the Worthy Elders of the Nation Gentlemen I trust you will not deem me presumptuos [sic] in addressing these few lines to you. It is with feelings the most heartrending that I have been informed you have been pleased to vote the sum of ?45 to the unfortunate City of Hebron. I feel it the duty I owe to my God &amp; the Sacred place I represent to lay before you a few facts in the hopes that it will induce you to amend your grant by a larger amount [Sentence in Hebrew:] Pray remember what you have forgotten. A great number of years has now elapsed without any Missionary appearing before you for Hebron and the reason will bare [sic] some explanations. The first Hajam Celiby Abolafia was sent on his Mission &amp; died on his journey at Constantinople. The 2d R.Yomtob Eliakim went as far as Constantinople &amp; returned without proceeding on his Mission. R. Jeudah Cohen died on his Journey at Ferrara in the year 1823. The Rab of the Mekubalim [= cabbalists] of Jerusalem Hm.R. Abraham Esrahy proceeded on his Mission as far as Alexandria &amp; returned sick &amp; died 30 days after. It is true that the last Missionary that was here received from you ?50 after an 226</page><page sequence="31">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land intermission of Fifteen years elapsing from one Missionary to another, but I can cite instances where altho' a grant had been voted to Jerusalem a very short time after upon an explanation of the very miserable situation being given to you of their calamity, you charitably granted them the sum of ?200 - rest assured Gentlemen that the Condition of our Brethren there is far more miserable than they were at that Epoch and loudly calls for your charity. To prove to you how great the misery must be there, I take the liberty of laying before you at the other side a short statement of the Monies I have received from other congregations in Italy and France far inferior to yours and the major part of whom are in want of assistance themselves. Fervently hoping that this statement may be thro' the medium of God the means of your increasing your charitable grant, with due respect I remain Gentlemen Your most ob[edien]t &amp; h[um]ble Servant Josseff David Ajas 5Kislev5591 [21 November 1830] Sketch of the monies received from the different Keilot of Italy &amp; France - viz Romanie Modonese Estate $332 73 120 55 47 50 47 165 $889 ... ?163.4. Venetian Estate Venezia Padoa Rovigo Verona Mantova Spalatro other small Keilot $107 70 46 31 65 29 91 $439 Reggio Modona Coreggio and other small Keilot Firenze Livorno Pisa and other small towns Genoa Piemonte $122 84 ... 87 $293 , Toscanie ... $443 ... 979 .. U4 $1536 . $163 819 $982 . ?58.12. ?307.4. ?196.8. ?87.16. 227</page><page sequence="32">Miriam Rodrigues-Pereira France other Keilot Massiglia ... $285 of France ... 686 Paris and $971 ?194.4. Appendix III Grants made by the Mahamad and Elders to Siluhim and others (other than those mentioned in the text) 1794 To H. Hm. Samuel da Costa, Saliah of Tebaria 22 Oct. for the Islands[?West Indies] for the journey 1796 (seda la dareh) ?3 3 0 6 Nisan to H. Hm. Meyuhas, Saliah of Jerusalem for the 1798 Asquenazim for the journey ?2 2 0 14 Feb. to H. Hm. R. Raphael Haim Meyuhas for the journey ?2 2 0 6 Sept. (raised to:- ?3 0 0 1805 to R. Raphael H. Meyuhas ?110 26 Dec. 1806 to R. Raphael Meyuhas, despacho for 10 years ?10 10 0 10 Sept. 1806 to Hm. Haim Baruh Maestro, Saliah of Saphet and 23 Nov. Jerusalem, for the journey ?10 10 0 1811 to Moses Bar Semuel, of the Holy Land, for the 21 Feb. journey ?110 1815 to R Isahar Judah bar Mordehay, Saliah of Jerusalem for 7 May Jamaica, for the journey ?4 0 0 7 May to Moses Bar Judah, servant of H. H. R. Abraham Ben Hassan Saliah of Tiberias, for once ?110 1828 (by Elders) to R. Joseph Israel Levy, Saliah of Jerusalem ?20 0 0 30 Nov. 1829 to R. Jacob Levy of Safet, for once ?2 0 0 -Sept. 1831 to R. Elyakim Getz, Saliah from the Holy Land, 1 Dec. in consequence of strong recommendation from Haham Heirschel [Chief Rabbi Hirschell] who attended the Mahamad on his behalf, Despacho for 10 years ?3 0 0 1832 to R. Hanoh Hersch, Saliah from the Holy Land, 228</page><page sequence="33">Relations of the Mahamad with the Holy Land 1 Jan Despacho for 10 years ?3 0 0 1835 (by Elders) to R. Moses Edrenghi, Despacho to - Nov. enable him to proceed to the Holy Land ?10 0 0 1847 to R. Nahum Misrahi of Safet, Despacho for 10 years ?3 0 0 2 May. to R. Nathan Coronel [?of same place] ? ? ?3 0 0 1854 to the widow of our late Dayan R. Abraham Haliva, as 12 Mar. Despacho for herself and all members of her family to emigrate to the Holy Land ?30 0 0 1862 to R. Nissim Askenazi from Jerusalem, Despacho ?5 0 0 23 Oct. to R. Mordecay Acram from Jerusalem, Despacho ?2 0 0 229</page></plain_text>