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Preface Vol 9

<plain_text><page sequence="1">PREFACE. While the last volume of Transactions appeared beneath the shadow of the War, the present issue is published under a clearer sky. This transition is marked by the Peace Banquet, a full report of which will be found below. Presided over by the Et. Hon. the Earl of Eeading, Lord Chief Justice, now Viceroy of India, and attended by many distinguished guests, the function celebrated at once the Declaration of Peace and the Society's semi-jubilee. The occasion was a memorable one, and its triumph was signal in several ways. It gave the opportunity for the Lord High Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice, and the American Ambassador to offer public testimony to the impor? tant services which Jews had rendered to the Allied cause. It enabled the community to realise the achievements of the Society in organising research into the documents of Anglo Jewish history. Financially, too, the celebration was satis? factory, over ?1000 being collected and added to the funds of the Society after the payment of all expenses. These excellent results were largely due to the energy of the President, Mr. H. S. Q. Henriques, K.C., the Treasurer, Mr. Gustave Tuck, and of the Honorary Secretaries, the Eev. E. Levine, Mr. A. Abrahams, and Mr. C. Picciotto. The Society's appreciation of these services is here gratefully placed on record. Nor was the Peace Banquet the only ground for satisfaction. The three Presidents who have held office during the period under review have maintained that efficiency in research and organisa? tion which their predecessors had firmly established. Unhappily vii</page><page sequence="2">viii PREFACE. the death of Sir Lionel Abrahams has removed one of the most devoted and accomplished students of Anglo-Jewish records. Despite his onerous and responsible duties at the India Office, Sir Lionel Abrahams never forsook the studies which, in earlier years, won for his famous essay on the " Expulsion of the Jews from England " the Arnold Prize in the University of Oxford (1894). Not only by his own essays and addresses, but also by his stimulus to others, Sir Lionel Abrahams was a promoter and organiser of much valuable work. To him is owing also the scheme for research into the period 1206-1290, published in the eighth volume of Transactions; and it is a pleasure to report that some way has already been made in carrying out his design. For instance, the suggestion that account must be taken of the unprinted Latin documents which accompany the Hebrew Shetaroth in the British Museum is in process of accomplishment, A volume of these documents is actually now in type. It was also during Sir Lionel Abrahams' presidency that a scheme for post-expulsion publications was drawn up by a sub-Committee appointed for the purpose. A fuller reference to this is made later on p. xiii, where the progress achieved is explained and the co? operation of members invited. Turning to Sir Lionel Abrahams' successor, Mr. H. S. Q. Henriques, K.C., delivered several addresses of much value (as will be seen from the papers printed in the present volume), and took a most active part in organising the University Extension Courses and other of the Society's activities. Dr. Bedcliffe N. Salaman has continued the work with energy, and his own contributions to the solution of racial problems have reflected the new era in the application of science to anthro? pology. On the day on which Dr. Salaman delivered his Presidential Address, a presentation was made to Dr. M. Epstein, who after eleven years' arduous service resigned from the office of Honorary Secretary. The presentation was a symbol of</page><page sequence="3">PREFACE. ix gratitude for work done and of personal esteem for Dr. Epstein, whose interest in the work with which he was so long associated is not interrupted by his retirement. He was succeeded by the Eev. E. Levine, M.A., whose able services have already earned the Society's appreciation. Dr. I. Abrahams has continued his valued work as Honorary Editor of Publications. Without neglecting its main object, research into and publication of Anglo-Jewish records, there has been no lack of effort in the wider field of general Jewish history. Thus, the series of Arthur Davis Memorial Lectures has proved popular even beyond anticipation. The purpose and conditions of this Lectureship are described in the Appendix to Volume VIII. Pour lectures have so far (1921) been given, and all have been conspicuously worthy of their theme. Members of the Society and the general public have clearly come to regard the Arthur Davis Lecture as an outstanding event in the literary year of the community. On each occasion the Botanical Theatre of University College, London, has been well filled by an enthusiastic and representative audience, and the lectures themselves have continuously reached a high level of excellence. The dates and other details will be found in the list of meetings below. Here it must suffice to recall that the brilliant start made by Mr. Israel Zangwill has been splendidly maintained by his successors in the Lectureship?the Eev. E. Travers Herford, Dr. I. Abrahams, and Professor S. Alexander. The Chairmen were men famous in Politics, the Army, Literature, and Law?in the persons of Mr. (now Sir) Herbert Samuel, Sir John Monash, Sir A. Quiller-Couch, and Viscount Haldane. The Council was materially helped in the organisation of these meetings by the Arthur Davis Memorial Trustees?Mrs. Schryver, Mrs. E. N. Salaman, Mr. H. M. Adler, Dr. E. N. Salaman, and Mr. Israel Zangwill.</page><page sequence="4">X PREFACE. Since those recorded in Volume VIII. of the Transactions, the following General Meetings have been held at the Society's headquarters, the Mocatta Library, University College, London : 1918, Feb. 11. Annual General Meeting. Adoption of Report and Balance Sheet. Election of officers. Paper by Lucien Wolf, Esq., on " The Jewish Question in International Politics." ? Mar. 31. First Arthur Davis Memorial Lecture. By Israel Zangwill, Esq. Subject: " Chosen Peoples : the Hebrew Ideal versus the Teutonic." The Rt. Hon. (Sir) Herbert Samuel presided. ? April 28. Paper by Cyril Picciotto, Esq., on " The Legal Position of the Jews in England, as shown in the Plea Rolls of the Jewish Exchequer." July 1. General Meeting, Rev. S. Levy, M.A., Vice President, in the Chair. Election of H. S. Q. Henriques, Esq., M.A., B.C.L., as President. Paper by the Rev. Dr. H. P. Stokes on " A Jewish Family in Oxford in the Thirteenth Century." ? Dec. 8. Annual General Meeting. Adoption of Reports and Balance Sheets for Sessions 1916-1917 and 1917-1918. Election of officers. Presi? dential Address : " The Special Taxation of the Jews." 1919, Mar. 3. Paper by the President on "The Special Taxation of the Jews in England after the Return." ? April 6. Second Arthur Davis Memorial Lecture. By the Rev. R. Travers Herford. Subject : " What the World owes to the Pharisees." Lieut.-General Sir John Monash presided. ? July 21. Re-election of H. S. Henriques, Esq., as President. Paper by Dr. C. Duschinsky on " Corre? spondence of Rabbi Solomon Herschell." 1920, Jan, 5. Annual General Meeting. Report and Balance Sheet adopted. Election of officers. Paper</page><page sequence="5">PREFACE. xi by the President entitled " Reflections on the History of the Anglo-Je wish Community." 1920, Feb. 22. Paper by Dr. M. Vishnitzer on "The Social and Economic Life of the Jews in Poland in the Eighteenth Century." ? Mar. 21. Paper by Cecil Roth, Esq., on " Sir Edward Brampton: an Anglo-Jewish Adventurer during the Wars of the Roses." ? April 25. Third Arthur Davis Memorial Lecture. By Dr. Israel Abrahams. Subject: " Poetry and Religion.'' Sir A. Quiller-Couch presided. ? July 22. General Meeting. Election of Dr. Redcliffe N. Salaman as President. ? Dec. 14. Annual General Meeting. Adoption of Report and Balance Sheet. Presentation to Dr. M. Epstein. Presidential Address on " The Racial Origins of Jewish Types." 1921, Mar. 7, 14, and 21. Course of three lectures, dealing with Jewish Communal, Political, and Economic Organisation in Eastern Europe, by Dr. M. Vishnitzer. ? May 1. Fourth Arthur Davis Memorial Lecture. By Professor Samuel Alexander, M.A., LL.D., F.B.A. Subject: " Spinoza and Time." Viscount Haidane, O.M., F.R.S., presided. Several of these papers are printed in this volume. Dr. Duschinsky's essay has appeared, in an expanded form, as an independent book. The four Arthur Davis Memorial Lectures were also published independently, and distributed free to members. One of the most important publications ever issued by the Society was Mr. Lucien Wolf's Diplomatic History of the Jewish Question, with Texts of Treaty Stipulations and other Official Documents. A large edition was printed, and copies were presented to the diplomatists engaged in settling the conditions of peace at Versailles. The Society has good gro?nd to congratulate itself on the influence which this publication exercised in the securing</page><page sequence="6">xii PREFACE. of just Minority Eights. Mr. Wolf also prepared for the Joint Foreign Committee, of the Board of Deputies of British Jews and the Anglo-Jewish Association, a companion volume on the Peace Conference, consisting of a Eeport of the Delegation of the Jews of the British Empire on the Treaties of Versailles, Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Neuilly and the Annexed Minority Treaties. These two volumes by Mr. Wolf are a fine achieve? ment, and the Council rejoices that the Jewish Historical Society of England was able to contribute so materially to it. Nor ought a word of praise to be omitted to the Society's first President for his important share in the exposure of the forged " Protocols." With regard to other publications, a number of copies of Mr. E. N. Adler 's " Gazetteer of Hebrew Printing " were placed at members' disposal; a few copies are still available. Attention may also be called to the fact that the present volume contains the deferred facsimiles promised in illustration of Mr. Hilary Jenkinson's earlier essay in Vol. VIII. Mr. Jenkinson has now begun the third volume of the Calendar of the Plea Bolls of the Jewish Exchequer. He has moreover most generously undertaken to instruct in methods of research any students of Anglo-Jewish history who will communicate with him at the Public Eecord Office, Chancery Lane, London, E.C. 2. It is most essential that advantage be taken of Mr. Jenkin? son's offer, for it is imperative that an accession be made to the band of active workers. It is satisfactory to note that of those who contributed papers to the present volume, several are new? comers. A special welcome is due to Mr. Cyril Picciotto (of Trinity College, Cambridge) and Mr. Cecil Eoth (of Merton College, Oxford). Mr. E. L. Lipson has joined the Council, and Professor Tout has been added to the list of Honorary Members. Mr. J. Leveen (of the British Museum) has acted on the Editorial Com? mittee. It is hoped, however, that more workers will be forth</page><page sequence="7">PREFACE. xiii coming. Their help is needed in many directions, particularly with regard to the Biblioiheca Anglo-Judaica. Mr. A. Abrahams has not only planned the work but he has begun it. He has spent an immense amount of labour on the initial steps. Briefly put, the Society has undertaken a complete bibliography of publications bearing on Anglo-Jewish history. With this object, all the Anglo-Judaica in the Mocatta Library and many titles from various other sources have been noted, and a large part of the Bibliography prepared for the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition of 1887 has been fully entered. The Society has a filial duty towards this enterprise, seeing that in a real sense the Society was a child of the Exhibition. The Bibliography was edited by Messrs. Joseph Jacobs and Lucien Wolf, and has proved a starting-point for much research. It is in the highest degree desirable to complete this work by adding new and revising the old entries. There is no need to repeat here the statement published as an Appendix to Volume VIII. of the Transactions. What has been so far done has been to place on a Card Index a very large number of entries, classifying them, and not only rendering these ready (as they are) for immediate use, but making it a simple matter to add to them. Members are invited to co-operate in this most necessary enterprise by inspecting the Index as now begun, by directing attention to corrections neces* sary in the published Bibliography, and by making suggestions as to titles and descriptions of fresh additions. It will be seen that the work which lies ahead is both interesting and important. Indeed, it is difficult in this summary to refer to all the manifold objects that have in recent years engaged the Council's attention. Besides the public meetings, the meetings of the Council and its Executive have been frequent, and much that has been done has not been publicly recorded. Some few incidents may be here recalled. A vote of ?10 was b</page><page sequence="8">xiv PREFACE. made to the Westminster Abbey Restoration Fund. Bepre sentatives were appointed : to serve on the Council of the Jewish War Memorial (Mr. Gustave Tuck and Mr. Elkan N. Adler); to attend the demonstration in welcome of the (i Balfour Declara? tion " (Rev. S. Levy and Dr. M. Epstein); to act as delegates at the Conference of the Union of Jewish Literary Societies (Dr. and Mrs. R. N. Salaman, Mr. Gustave Tuck, the Rev. S. Levy, Dr. M. Epstein, and Mr. Louis Zangwill); to act on the Committee of the Mocatta Library and Museum (on which Sir I. Spielmann has served throughout). A grant of ?5 was made to the League of Nations Union ; another of Five Guineas to the University of London Advanced Historical School. Books have been presented to the Jerusalem Library and to the Louvain Library. A grant of ?5 was made to the Society Shivath Zion of Liverpool as an aid in the scheme lectures on Jewish history. The Society itself has received gifts of books from Sir Stuart Samuel, Mr. Henry Gerson, and Mr. Arthur E. Franklin. To all of these cordial thanks are tendered. A legacy of ?20, the first of its kind in the history of the Society, was received from the executors of the late Mr. F. S. Franklin, a member of very long standing. The usual distributions of prizes for Jewish history have been annually made out of the income derived from the A. I. Myers' Memorial Fund. The Rev. S. Levy, as before, has officially directed the sales of publications as the Society's Honorary Bookseller. At no former period has the Society shown the same activity in promoting a knowledge of general Jewish history. Thus, three series of London University Extension Courses in Jewish history have been held at Toynbee Hall since the last record in the Transactions. As in previous years, the formulation of each syllabus and bibliography has been the work of the Rev. S. Levy, M.A., and Dr. I. Abrahams; the Prefatory Notes referred</page><page sequence="9">PREFACE. XV to later being from the pen of Dr. Abrahams. The duty of superintendence is a heavy task, and volunteers have been reluctant to undertake it. Nevertheless, a considerable amount of success has been attained. The Courses, of which six have now been held in consecutive sessions, have been fairly well attended, and a strong desire expressed for their continuance both in the present local and in other parts of London and in the Provinces. The Council will use its best efforts to satisfy these needs. It has not been found possible to accede to a widely expressed wish to have the lectures printed in volume form ; the cost would be too great, at present prices of printing. But a start was made, with regard to the wider demand, by the delivery of Dr. Vishnitzer's course of three lectures at the Mocatta Library (see p. xi), and of a course of five lectures (capably organised by the Treasurer) at the Hampstead Conservatoire. These five lectures dealt with the Jewish aspects of Folk-lore, Music, Science, Art, and Anthropology. The lecturers were the Bev. Dr. M. Gaster, the Bev. G. Prince, Dr. S. Brodetsky, Mr. Solomon, J. Solomon, B.A., and Dr. B. N. Salaman. At several of these lectures the attendance was excellent, and the experiment may be repeated. It will be realised that these many activities entail much devoted effort on the part of the Society's officials, all of whom work in an honorary capacity. The authorities of Toynbee Hall has also given much valuable assistance. To return to the Toynbee Hall series, a course of ten lectures on " Translations of the Hebrew Bible " was held on Wednesday evenings, from January 22 to March 26, 1919. The Prefatory Note to the syllabus (which we reprint in response to the request of several members) ran thus : The aim of this Course, which will be fully explained in the Intro? ductory Lecture, is to trace historically the progress of the art of translation in so far as the Hebrew Bible is concerned. The chief</page><page sequence="10">xvi PREFACE. translations will be discussed, starting with the ancient Greek rendering known as the Septuagint, and closing with the new English version issued by the Jewish Publication Society of America in 1917. More than 2000 years are covered, but the lecturers will endeavour to avoid technical details, and will throw stress on the most outstanding facts and principles. The lecturers will explain the circumstances which gave rise to the various translations, and (where possible) will record the biographies of their authors. Attention will be drawn to the motives of the translators, to their methods of interpretation, and the extent to which the original Hebrew Text was used, or reliance placed on previous versions. The Course will, in a real sense, also provide a history of the universal interest in the Hebrew Bible, both as literature and as a source of inspiration. Its purposes will, moreover, be twofold : general and particular. In general the magnificent services of scholars of all creeds will be duly presented and appreciated, thus attention will be directed to the translations of Jerome and Luther and particularly to the great English Authorised Version, its precursors and sequels. In particular the Course will treat of the Jewish Versions, with reference not only to their intrinsic worth, but also their influence on other Translations. The part played by the Versions in various epochs of Jewish Re: naissance, as in the ages of Aquila, Saadiah, Rashi, and Mendelssohn, and the domestic import of the charming Yiddish Pentateuch, some? times called the " Bible of the Jewess "?all these and other allied topics will be considered at the appropriate points in the Course* A select list of authorities was appended. The ten lectures were as follows : (i) Introductory, by the Rev. R. Travers Herford, B.A. (Jan. 22, 1919); (ii) " The Alexandrian Greek Translation," by H. St. John Thackeray, M.A. (Jan. 29) ; (iii) " Aquila's Version, and the Later Greek Translations," by the Rev. M. Abrahams, B.A. (Feb. 5); (iv) " The Aramaic Translations," by the Rev. A. Cohen, M.A. (Feb. 12); (v) " Mediaeval Versions (L)," by Dr. I. Abrahams (Feb. 19); (vi) " Mediaeval Versions (IL)," by Dr. I. Abrahams (Feb. 26); (vii) " The English Authorised Version," by Claude G. Montefiore, M.A. (March 5); (viii) " The</page><page sequence="11">PREFACE. xv? Yiddish Translations/' by Miss Helena Frank (March 12); (ix) " Modern Translations," by Elkan N. Adler, M.A. (March 19); (x) " Jewish Translations in English," by the Very Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz (March 26). Following upon this, in 1920 (on Tuesday evenings, April 13 to June 16), a course of ten Extension Lectures was delivered on " The History of the Jews in the Seventeenth Century." The Prefatory Note to the Syllabus ran thus : The Seventeenth Century was marked by several events which have permanently influenced Jewish life. In particular, what happened in Amsterdam, in Poland, in England, and in America played a con? siderable part in moulding the present condition of the Jews in religious, social, political, and economic aspects. The story opens with the romance of the Marranos, their perse? cution in Spain and their freedom in Holland, under the inspiration of the Treaty of Utrecht. Over against the darker experiences in Poland, and the consequences of the Thirty Years' War, may be set the re-birth of toleration which gave the Jews the possibility bf de? velopment in Amsterdam, led to their re-admission into England, and paved the way for their progress in the English Colonies and America. Menasseh ben Israel, Baruch Spinoza, Sabbethai Zebi stand out prominently among many famous contemporaries as individuals of various gifts and character. With Spinoza, the Jews again came into the general creative current of European thought. Sabbethai Zebi, though his vagaries ended in alienating Jewish sympathy, was none the less the leader of a movement full of wide significance. Between these may be placed Menasseh ben Israel, whose mission to Cromwell is one of the most fascinating episodes in the history of the English Commonwealth. The great outburst of European interest in the Jews and their history was also illustrated by the great number of foremost Christian students who devoted themselves to the investigation of Jewish literature. This fact was an echo of the humanistic efforts of Reuchlin. But the Seventeenth was perhaps more fruitful than any other century, before or since, in this regard. Pococke and Seiden in Oxford, Lightfoot and Castell in Cambridge, the Buxtorffs in Basel, may be cited as outstanding representatives of a very widespread movement.</page><page sequence="12">xviii PREFACE. The list of lectures will show the manner and order in which the various aspects of the history of the Jews in the Seventeenth Century have been grouped. A select list of authorities is also appended. The list is not intended to be exhaustive, and is moreover limited to the works available in English. The scheme of these ten lectures was somewhat modified ; as delivered they were as follows : (i) " The Marranos in Amster? dam," by Elkan N. Adler, M.A. (April 13, 1920); (ii) " The Thirty Years' War," by G. W. Kilner, M.A. (April 20); (iii) " The Jews of Poland," by I. Cohen, B.A. (April 27); (iv) " The Jews in the Near East," by the Bev. Dr. M. Gaster (May 4) ; (v) " Menasseh ben Israel and Cromwell," by Lucien Wolf (May 11); (vi) " The Age of Spinoza," by Dr. A. Wolf (May 18) ; (vii) " Sabbethai Zebi," by Bev. S. Levy, M.A. (May 25) ; (viii) " Settlement of the Jews in America," by the Bev. L Mattuck, M.A. (June 1); (ix) " Economic Conditions of the Jews," by Dr. M. Epstein (June 8); (x) " Jewish Conditions at the Close of the Seventeenth Century," by the Bev. E. Levine, M.A. (June 15). The last of the Extension Courses so far held was delivered at Toynbee Hall on Tuesday evenings from May 3 to July 5,1921. The period chosen was the sixteenth century, and the Prefatory Note thus explains the scope of the course. The Sixteenth Century opens under the effects produced on the Jews by the Expulsion from Spain (1492), an event which synchronised with Columbus' discovery of America. Early in the century the first Ghetto was constituted at Venice, and the consequences were felt during the next two or three centuries. But the humanistic movement brought valuable relief, and Reuchlin's championship of the Talmud led to its wider study and to the production of a complete edition by B?mberg. The inner Jewish life was marked by the mystic movement at Safed and the issue of Caro's Code (the Shulchan Aruch). An interesting group of poets (mainly mystical) proved that the Hebrew spirit was still capable of</page><page sequence="13">PREFACE. xix inspiring new songs. On the critical side, too, Azariah dei Rossi begins a fresh era of historical research into such ancient documents as the Hellenistic Jewish Literature. Several striking personalities move over the scene?one of the most arresting was Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, who attained a high diplomatic position in Turkey. Equally important was the statesman Solomon Ashkenazi. Very interesting, too, was Donna Gracia Mendesia, a Marrano Jewess, who won the admiration and affection of her Jewish contemporaries. In the scientific world, Amatus Lusi tanus attained much fame. Other great individualities were the Usques and the Ibn Vergas, poets and historians ; while the traveller David Reubeni and the enthusiastic visionary Solomon Molcho played a considerable role. Though very few Jews resided in England in the sixteenth century, the dramatists used them as subject-matter, as Marlowe's Jew of Malta and Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice testify. The Reformation, which at first only affected the Jews slightly, soon made its influence on them felt. Especially was this the case in the revived interest in Hebrew studies, initiated by Reuchlin and confirmed by Luther 's activities. A friendly bond between Jewish and Christian students was formed by Elias Levita and Abraham de Balmes. In the new translations of the Bible by Christian theo? logians Jews helped both indirectly (in their writings) and directly (as tutors). The list of lectures shows the manner in which the various aspects of the history of the Jews in the Sixteenth Century have been grouped. A select list of authorities (in the English language) is appended. In this course nine lectures were given, as follows : (i) " The Effects of the Expulsion from Spain," by the Rev. Dr. M. Gast er (May 3, 1921); (ii) 44 Reuchlin and the Humanists," by P. S. Spiers, B.Sc. (May 10); (iii) 44 Development of Hebrew Printing," by Elkan N. Adler, M.A. (May 17); (iv) 44 The Mystics of Safed," by the Rev. Morris Joseph (May 24); (v) " The Shulchan Aruch," by the Rev. L. Mendelsohn, M.A. (May 31); (vi) 44 The Ghetto," by Dr. M. Epstein (June 7); (vii) 44 Martin Luther and the Jews," by Dr. Paul Radin (June 14); (viii)</page><page sequence="14">xx preface. " Joseph Nasi and the Jews of the Levant," by Lucien Wolf (June 21); (ix) "Hebrew Poetry in the Sixteenth Century," by Mrs. E. N. Salaman (July 5). On January 20, 1921, the following letter was addressed to Lord Reading by the President and Honorary Secretary. Dear Lord Reading,?On behalf of the Council of the Jewish Historical Society of England, we desire to offer to you the congratu? lations of the Society on your appointment as Viceroy of India. The Society has not forgotten, nor will it readily forget the services you rendered it when, both in 1914 and 1920, you presided at its Festive Dinners, illumining those occasions with the eloquent addresses you delivered, in which you evinced your sympathy and interest in the work of the Society. It is the function of the Jewish Historical Society not only to encourage research in the fields of Anglo-Jewry's historic past but to take cognisance of that History in the making, in the which your Lordship has played no small part. In your own person you have filled in succession three of the highest offices in the State, and in each post your success has been such as to render your tenure memorable; indeed, during the great crisis the world has passed through, the work of your hands and mind was felt by all in the shaping to a successful issue of the destinies of the great Empire of which we are all so proud to be citizens. The Council are well aware of the sacrifice you are about to make in assuming this further exalted but extremely onerous and responsible office, and they sincerely hope that both you and Lady Reading may enjoy good health and strength in order to accomplish the great task before you. The eminent services you have rendered to our country assure you of the gratitude of all your fellow-citizens, but of none more than the Council and Members of the Jewish Historical Society of England who are proud to recognise in the new Viceroy of India not only a fellow-Jew but their Honorary Vice-President. On behalf of the Council of the Jewish Historical Society we have the honour to subscribe ourselves, Yours faithfully, Redcliffe N. Salaman, President Ephraim Leveste, Hon. Secretary.</page><page sequence="15">preface. xxi To this letter the following reply was receive/! : Lord Chief Justice of England. January 24, 1921. Dear Mr. Salaman,?I have received with much pleasure your kind letter of congratulations and good wishes that you convey to Lady Reading and myself on behalf of the Jewish Historical Society. I thank you cordially for all you are good enough to say as to the services I have been able to render in the past and for your hopes for the future, and I wish in return all prosperity and success to your Society. Yours very truly, Reading. Redcliffe N. Salaman, Esq., President, The Jewish Historical Society of England. Later in the year the President addressed to the Jewish Press the following letter, on the occasion of Professor Liebermann's celebration of his seventieth birthday: July 19, 1921. On July 20, Professor Felix Liebermann of Berlin will celebrate his seventieth birthday. Not only the personal friends of Professor Liebermann in this country, and they are numerous, but all scholars of Anglo-Saxon and early English History, will join in good wishes to him on this event. Professor Liebermann, who is an Honorary Doctor of both Oxford and Cambridge, and whose pre-war associations with England were of the most intimate, is not only a profound scholar and a most lovable man, but a loyal Jew who has rendered invaluable services to Jewish science, whilst at the same time he has devoted himself untiringly to the cause of the less fortunate of his co-religionists in Eastern Europe. Professor Liebermann is a corresponding member of the Jewish Historical Society of England, and contributed an article of great interest entitled " King Alfred and Mosaic Law," which will be found in Volume VI. of the Transactions. The war has crudely cut across many of the treasured associations which existed between scholars here and abroad, but a personality such as that of Professor Felix Liebermann, so truly scholarly, so</page><page sequence="16">xxii preface. profoundly honest, and withal so simple, can bridge even the widest gulf. May he and his wife be spared many years to see happier days! I am, Sir, yours faithfully, (Signed) Redcliffe N. Salaman, President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. The following reply from Prof. Liebermann duly appeared in the Jewish Chronicle : Sir,?Allow me to thank you cordially for the congratulations you were so kind as to publish in your issue of July 22. The honour you do me will not fail to incite me the more seriously to devote the rest of my life to the investigations of England's Middle Ages and to the furtherance of Jewish ideals. The letter of my friend, Dr. Salaman, which you have been pleased to print, I fear exaggerates my powers, if it suggests the possibility that I could bridge the gulf that has arisen between Englishmen and Germans since 1914. Did I but know the way to approach this much to-be-desired result, how gladly would I lend my strength to the sacred task ! For as a man, as a German patriot, as a student, and, not least, as a Jew, I am heartily grateful to England for the long series of kindnesses she has shown to me, a foreigner. Towards the end of 1919 the long-wished-for dove of Peace flew into my study in the shape of an English letter from a lady teacher who was unknown to me. She intended, she wrote, to shake hands in the spirit of Christian reconciliation with one who, in 1916, had dared to dedicate the latter end of his life-work to the memory of Maitland and the halcyon and pre-war days. Is the Jew to leave the first-born's burden to his younger brother ? "Was he not the first to receive the gospel of the brotherhood of man ? And must not the Jew, whose brothers are scattered through every land, bethink him? self?having fulfilled to the uttermost his patriotic duties?of his primal mission, Shalom % Felix Liebermann. August 12, 1921. In the light of what precedes, the Society may fairly claim that its record is not unsatisfactory. The membership now numbers five hundred, an unprecedently large total. But a</page><page sequence="17">PREFACE. xxiii considerable increase is necessary if the work before the Society is to be accomplished. Moreover, the loss of workers like Sir Lionel Abrahams and his cousin Eabbi M. Abrahams must, as far as humanly possible, be met by the gain of new devotees to research. For the Society has before it enterprises of vast significance. No allusion has been made, for instance, to the proposal made for a new general History of the Jews, on the Cambridge method. The Cambridge Histories are the joint work of a large combination of specialists, whose contributions are part of a carefully planned whole. Such a History of the Jews from earliest times to the present day would require ten to twelve large volumes. So ambitious a plan could hardly be undertaken without the co-operation of the American Jewish Historical Society. This co-operation has been invited. Even with such help the realisation of the scheme would occupy several years. But if the later volumes dealing with times relatively near our own were first taken in hand, their publication would be the most effective and enduring reply to Anti-Semitism. To tell the full truth is the best answer to half truth and whole falsehood. If the Council had but this scheme alone in mind, it would constitute a complete justification for an appeal for a vast increase of the Society's membership, and for a much more active literary co-operation from the younger generation of students and scholars. For it is in both these directions that the Society must look for the fulfilment of its ambitions and the maintenance of its reputation. December 1921.</page></plain_text>