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Preface Vol 13

<plain_text><page sequence="1">PEEFACE Since Vol. XII of the Transactions was issued, many important events have taken place in the history of the Society. The new centre in the Gustave Tuck Theatre at University College has been opened, two new Memorial Lectures have been instituted and delivered in honour of the late Lucien Wolf and the late Lady Magnus, and an official visit has been paid to Lincoln where the Society was warmly welcomed both by the Cathedral and the civic authorities. In the last volume there was printed an address delivered by the President, Mr. Gustave Tuck, on December 16, 1929, entitled, "Looking Backward?Looking Forward." In this speech Mr. Tuck outlined the past history of the Society, as well as of the growth of the Mocatta Library and Museum, and revealed his hopes and plans for their future development. After three years these dreams have been happily realised and the Society now possesses a permanent home which is the outcome of the energy and generosity of Mr. Tuck, who has dedicated the building to the loving memory of his wife. Prof. A. E. Richardson has designed a beautiful structure and the authorities of University College have been most sympathetic and helpful in carrying out the plans. The inaugural ceremony took place amid a large and representative gathering on December 13, 1932. The Very Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz, the Chief Rabbi, conducted the religious ceremony of consecration and took as the text for his address the verse of Deut. xxii, 7, "Remember the days of old, consider the years of each generation,"?words that are now inscribed as a suitable motto for the Society upon the walls of the Theatre. Dr. Hertz pointed out that "the Society sets out neither to lament nor to denounce, nor to idealise the past, but to understand it. . . . Its main purpose is to prepare the ground for the eventual appearance of an adequate account of Jews and Judaism amongst the peoples constituting the British Commonwealth of Nations. . . . The Library and the Museum vii</page><page sequence="2">viii PREFACE. are indispensable auxiliaries in gathering the building-stones for a complete historical edifice and for popularising historical knowledge among the people. . . . The Library founded by the late Frederick David Mocatta, that Maecenas of Jewish scholarship, is the workshop of the student of Anglo-Je wish history . . . and the Museum, with its objects of beauty and Jewish interest, will bring home even to a casual visitor the truth that Judaism, in addition to being a body of doctrine and faith, a way of life and of salvation, is also a civilisation that had made distinct cultural contributions in every sphere of human life, human thought and human achievement. . . ." Interesting speeches were delivered by Mr. Tuck, Lord Meston, the President of the College, Prof. Sir John Rose Bradford, Chairman of the College Committee, Dr. Alan Mawer, the Provost, and Haham Dr. M. Gaster. Mr. Tuck handed to Sir John Bradford a cheque for the sum of ?3,500, collected from members of the Society and friends1 to be added to the Endowment Fund of ?2,500, the result of the communal appeal made by him and Sir Isidore Spielman in 1905, when the Mocatta Library was first presented to University College.2 This new centre, consisting of the Gustave Tuck Theatre, together with the literary treasures of the Mocatta Library and the valuable Museum of Jewish Art, for which beautiful cases were given by the three daughters of Mr. Tuck, is worthy both of the great traditions of the Society and of University College, and both Council and members are happy to place on record their most heartfelt thanks to Mr. Tuck for the manner in which he has successfully carried out his project for the good of the Society and of the community at large.?This expression of deep gratitude found voice on the retirement of Mr. Tuck from the office of President in July, 1934, after having occupied the chair for five years. Mr. Tuck has also loyally served the Society as Treasurer for a period of thirty years, which latter position he has kindly consented to continue to fill. A testimonial in the form of an illuminated Address (see photograph page xi) and a silver Torah Breast-plate, suitably inscribed, was presented to him on November 1 The text of the University of London Trust Deed is printed on p. 343. 2 A fully illustrated record of the opening of the new building, compiled by the Rev. E. Levine, M.A., was presented by Mr. Tuck to the members of the Society.</page><page sequence="3">II. ? rai ??! HBt-iE HB Entrance from the Gustave Tuck Theatre to the Mocatta Library</page><page sequence="4">PREFACE. ix 19, 1934, as a token of the affection and esteem in which he was held by members of the Society in all parts of the world. The Rev. Michael Adler, who had previously acted as the Honorary Editor for Publications, was elected President of the Society in succession to Mr. Tuck and was re-elected the following year. In connection with the Testimonial presented to Mr. Tuck, a sum of money remained, which Mr. Tuck kindly increased to ?100, in order -to put the following plan into operation. With his approval, it was resolved by the Council to institute a number of "Gustave Tuck prizes" for Jewish history. For this purpose the Asher I. Myers Memorial Fund was added to the amount and a scheme drawn up whereby ten prizes of ten shillings each, together with a book suitably inscribed, will be awarded annually to the pupils of seven denomina? tional schools in London and three in the provinces, for essays upon Jewish history, to be called the "Asher I. Myers and Gustave Tuck Prizes."?In 1932, the subject of the History of Jewish Emancipation in England was set for the Asher I. Myers Prizes, for which nine essays were received. Prizes of ?10 and ?5 respectively were awarded to Messrs. I. Aaronson and B. Cherrick and books were awarded to Miss Spero, Messrs. Siebenberg and Tobias. The successful essays showed evidence of careful research in modern Anglo-Jewish history. In order to mark its recognition of the invaluable labours of the late Lucien Wolf (who died in 1930) as the historian of Anglo-Jewry and its accredited ambassador, the Council published a Memorial Volume of his Essays and founded an Annual Lectureship. The first Lecture was delivered before a crowded audience in the Great Hall of University College by Viscount Cecil of Chelwood on October 8, 1934, the Rt. Hon. Lord Melchett occupying the chair, in the absence of the Rt. Hon. the Marquess of Reading, who was prevented by indisposition from attending. Viscount Cecil gave a notable address on "Minorities and Peace," copies of which were printed and circulated amongst the members of the Society through the generosity of Mr. Gustave Tuck. In the beginning of his speech the Lecturer spoke as follows concerning Mr. Wolf: "Lucien Wolf was a great man. A student and an historian in his earlier life, he became, by force of circumstances, a diplomatist and a statesman. It was in that capacity that I knew and admired him. He was always clear as to what he</page><page sequence="5">X PREFACE. wanted and stated his case with remarkable lucidity and persuasive? ness. He never indulged in those tortuous tricks which less able men regard as appropriate to diplomacy: and he never forgot that he was both a Jew and a British citizen. Unquestionably, in both characters his loss must be long and deeply felt." He then proceeded to consider the important part played by the League of Nations in protecting minorities in different countries and discussed the value of the Minorities Treaties signed after the War. He regarded the League of Nations as a vital element in the preservation of peace, as it had accepted the duty of carrying into effect the new Treaties which themselves proceed from precedents now centuries old. "It would be a thousand pities if this attempt were abandoned," concluded Lord Cecil, "and I believe it would be a serious threat to the peace of the world. I am sure it would be regarded as something like treachery to the principles of international progress." The second Memorial Lecture instituted by the Council was in memory of Lady Magnus, a distinguished writer of works upon Jewish history.1 Her husband, the late Sir Philip Magnus, Bart., M.P., bequeathed a sum of money to the Society for this purpose, the lecture to be delivered biennially near the date of their marriage in the month of March. Dr. Cecil Roth, at the request of the Council, gave the first lecture, which is printed in the present volume. An official visit of the Society to Lincoln on June 24, 1934, was an outstanding success in every way, the members being the guests of the local Architectural and Archaeological Society and the Mayor of the city. The association of Lincoln with medieval Jewish history, and especially with the ritual murder charge concerning "Little St. Hugh" (1255), rendered the occasion particularly memorable. The recent recrudescence in Germany of the infamous blood accusation lent a deeper interest to the visit, which was appreciated by all con? cerned. Headed by the President, Mr. Tuck, some eighty members of the Society were received on arrival by the Mayor, who gave a reception at the Guildhall. Later, the Canon and Chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral, the Rev. Dr. J. H. Srawley, conducted the party 1 Her Jewish writings are as follows : Outlines of Jewish History, Jewish Portraits, About the Jews since Bible Times, Boys of the Bible, Picture Stories from the Bible, and Little Miriam's Bible Stories.</page><page sequence="6"></page><page sequence="7">PREFACE. xi through the Cathedral. Both the Mayor and the Chancellor referred to the "Little St. Hugh" story which they denounced very forcibly as a slander against the Jews, who were entirely innocent of the charges brought against them. The visitors afterwards proceeded to Steep Hill where stand the twelfth century house of Aaron the Jew, regarded as the oldest house in England, and the Jews' House, formerly occupied by Bellassez. In Jews' Court, close by?identified as a pre Expulsion synagogue building?a meeting was held together with the members of the local Society, and Dr. Cecil Roth read a learned paper entitled, "Medieval Lincoln Jewry and its Synagogue?a retrospect and re-construction"?which concluded a most successful pilgrimage to a famous city. A full account of the visit, with interesting photographs, was distributed to the members of the Society by the kindness of Mr. Tuck. The violent outbreaks of anti-Semitism in Germany early in 1933 aroused the deepest sorrow and indignation in the Society in common with world-Jewry. On May 8, a resolution of sympathy and protest was adopted, and on May 29, Dr. Roth delivered a lecture upon the subject of the "German Persecutions in their Historical Perspective." The Society was represented at Corpus Christi, Cambridge, on March 6, 1934, when the Library of the late Canon Dr. H. P. Stokes, a former President (1914-1916), was given to the College by his family. Addressing the Vice-Chancellor of the University who presided, Mr. Tuck spoke of the services rendered by Dr. Stokes to the Society, "whose members had a deep and abiding affection for their former colleague, who served in the office of President?an honour which was justly his right in token of the part he played in the study of Anglo-Je wish history." The present volume of Transactions contains eight papers that have been read before the Society. Four of the authors, the Very Rev. the Chief Rabbi, the Rev. Michael Adler, Dr. Cecil Roth and Mr. Wilfred Samuel, have previously contributed to our publications. The Council cordially welcome the new writers in the persons of Miss Sarah Cohen, MA., Mr. M. J. Landa, Mr. S. A. Rochlin of South Africa, and Dr. J. Rumney, who have dealt with various phases of Anglo-Jewish history throughout the British Empire, and express the hope that other students will engage in research work in the rich mine of the</page><page sequence="8">xii PREFACE. history of our people, and present their results to the Society for publication. The Paper on the Jews of Barbados, by Mr. Wilfred S. Samuel, was read at a meeting of the Society held in 1924, but exigencies of space have hitherto prevented it from being included in the Transactions. The Society has recently issued the following important publications:? (a) "Starrs and Jewish Charters preserved in the British Museum,1 * Vol. II., Supplementary Notes, with five Excursuses; and Vol. III., Indexes. With these two scholarly volumes, Mr. Herbert M. Loewe completes this edition of the British Museum Starrs begun by the late Dr. Israel Abrahams and the late Canon H. P. Stokes; of which Vol. I., containing the Hebrew and Latin texts and translation, was issued by the Society in 1930. These three volumes are of the utmost value to students of the pre-Expulsion days of Anglo-Jewry. (b) "Battle for the Sabbath at Geneva," by the Very Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz, Chief Rabbi, with photographs, (reprinted in this volume.) (c) "The Origin and Growth of the Mocatta Library, Museum and Gustave Tuck Theatre, University College, London," with photo? graphs; by the Rev. E. Levine, M.A. (d) "Medieval Lincoln Jewry and its Synagogue," with photographs; by Dr. Cecil Roth. (e) "Minorities and Peace," by Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, First Lucien Wolf Memorial Lecture. (The above three booklets were printed at the expense of Mr. Gustave Tuck.) (/) "Essays in Jewish History," by the late Lucien Wolf, edited by Dr. Cecil Roth. This volume contains a memoir of Lucien Wolf, together with a bibliography of his historical writings, chapters of his personal reminiscences and twelve of his most famous Essays hitherto scattered in various publications. (g) "Life of Maimonides," written for the Society in 1903 by Prof. David Yellin and the late Dr. Israel Abrahams, was reprinted in honour of the Eighth Centenary celebration of the birth of the renowned philosopher. It was issued at the price of 2s. 6d. per copy, and is obtainable at all book-sellers. The Maimonides celebrations in England were inaugurated on April 8, 1935, by three lectures delivered before the Society</page><page sequence="9">PREFACE. xiii upon various aspects of his greatness, the speakers being the Very Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz, Chief Rabbi, Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein and Dr. S. Rawidowicz. (h) Miscellanies, Part II. This contains twelve short papers, four of which had been read before the Society. These dealt with various subjects of Anglo-Jewish history. An Index of the contents of Volumes I-XII of the Transactions, and of Miscellanies, Part I, (issued in 1925), was also added, which will be found especially useful to students. The future programme of the Society includes the completion of the "Calendars of the Plea Rolls of the Exchequer" to the year 1287 ; a new edition of the "Bibliotheca Anglo-Judaica," first issued in 1887 in connection with the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition; and a book upon the "Archives of the British Consulate in Jerusalem." The Society showed its interest in the purchase by the nation of the Codex Sinaiticus, by making a contribution of ?5. 5. 0. Subventions were also given to the Council for Jewish Adult Education towards the cost of a course of lectures upon Jewish history, and to the Union of Jewish Literary Societies. The Society was represented at the International Conference of Historical Societies at Warsaw in May, 1933, and at Rome in September, 1934. Among other important matters that engaged the attention of the Council was the preparation of a list of suitable books for Public Eree Libraries upon the subjects of Jewish religion, literature and history (see p. 341). It was strongly felt that such a list would be useful in order to help to inform public opinion upon Jewish matters in general?and it is gratifying to b3 able to report that most appreciative letters have been received from librarians throughout the country. The work of the Mocatta Library, now suitably housed in the new building, continues to make excellent progress. The late Mr. Herbert Bentwich bequeathed a sum of ?10 to the Society to form the nucleus for the purchase of Hebrew books printed in Palestine. A portion of the library of the late Mr. Israel Zangwill, a former President of the Society, has been placed on loan for a period of five years by Mr. Louis Zangwill, and the library of the late Dr. Hartwig Hirschfeld, Goldsmid Professor of Hebrew at University College and Professor</page><page sequence="10">xiv PREFACE. at Jews' College, has been purchased for the sum of ?300, by means of a collection made by Mr. Gustave Tuck and the Rev. Michael Adler, assisted by a grant from the Mocatta Library Committee. The Committee is sharing the cost of the publication of the "Bibliotheca Anglo-Judaica" mentioned above, the editorial work having been entrusted to Dr. Cecil Roth, who will include in the book a catalogue of Anglo-Judaica contained in the Mocatta Library. The new library now consists of nearly 16,000 volumes and pamphlets and is certainly the finest collection of books upon the history of English Jewry. Application to borrow books should be made to Mr. John Wilks, M.A., the Librarian, at University College. During the period under review, the following meetings of the Society have been held:? 1932. Mar. 14. Miss Sarah Cohen, M.A.: "The Oxford Jewry in the Thirteenth Century.'' April 11. Dr. L. V. Snowman, M.A.: "Naphtali Herz Imber and His English Associations." June 13. Dr. Cecil Roth, M.A.: "New Light on Menasseh Ben Israel and His Mission to England." Dec. 13. Opening of the Mocatta Library, Museum and the Gustave Tuck Theatre. 1933. Jan. 30. Haham Dr. M. Gaster: "Some Notes on the Ketuboth in the Be vis Marks Registers." Feb. 27. Elkan N. Adler, M.A.: " Pre-Expulsion Jews in the Provinces." May 8. Paul Goodman, F.R.Hist.S.: "The Centenary of the Montefiore Endowment at Ramsgate. 1833 1933." May 29. Dr. Cecil Roth, M.A.: "The German Persecutions in their Historical Perspective." June 22. Dr. Walter Fischel: "The Marranos of Persia? Impressions of a Recent Journey." Oct. 23. Dr. J. Rumney: "The Social Condition of Anglo - Jewry in the Reign of George III." Nov. 13. Rev. Michael Adler, D.S.O., B.A.: "The most Famous English Jew of the 13th Century? Aaron of York."</page><page sequence="11">PREFACE. XV 1934. Jan. 8. Dr. A. Marmorstein: "The Inner Life of the English and German Jews in the 17th and 18th Centuries." Feb. 12. Dr. Helen Rosenau: " The History of Early Synagogue Architecture and Decoration," illustrated by Lantern Slides. Mar. 12. Rabbi Leo Ginsburg: "Jewry of New York?Past and Present." April 9. M. J. Landa: "Kitty Villareal?an 18th Century Romantic Figure." June 24. Visit to Lincoln. July 9. Dr. Cecil Roth, M.A.: "Jewish Loyalties in the War of American Independence." Oct. 8. Viscount Cecil of Chelwood: "Minorities and Peace." First Lucien Wolf Memorial Lecture. Nov. 19. Presentation of Testimonial to Mr. Gustave Tuck. Rev. Michael Adler, D.S.O., B.A.: "The Jewish Woman in pre-Expulsion England." (Presidential Address.) Dec. 10. Herbert Loewe, M.A.: "Solomon Ben Joseph Buzaglo." 1935. Jan. 14. Hilary Jenkinson, M.A., F.S.A.: "Medieval Jewry in English Records," illustrated by Lantern Slides. Feb. 25. F. Ashe Lincoln, M.A., B.C.L.: " History of the Jewish Oath in English Law 1270-1873." Mar. 11. Dr. Cecil Roth, M.A.: "Portsmouth Jewry in the 18th Century." First Lady Magnus Memorial Lecture. April 8. Eighth Centenary of Maimonides; Papers by: The Very Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz: "Moses Mai? monides?a General Estimate." Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein: "Maimonides' Conception of the Law." Dr. S. Rawidowicz: "The Philosophy of Maimonides." May 13. Alfred Rubens: "Anglo-Jewish Prints," illustrated by Lantern Slides. July 1. Dr. E. Rosenthal: "Social Life of the Medieval Jewries of England and Germany."</page><page sequence="12">xvi preface. There has recently been a marked increase in the accession of new members to the Society. It is earnestly to be hoped that, in view of the heavy cost of the many publications now in contemplation, this number will be augmented still more, in order to ensure the continued success of the work of the Society in the field of Jewish historical research that has now been carried on so successfully for a period of forty-three years. Michael Adler, President and Hon. Editor for Publications. December 5696-1935. P.S.?The Council desire to tender their most cordial thanks to M. Georges Lukomski for the beautiful drawing (frontispiece) of the Synagogue at Portsmouth, which he has kindly presented to the Society to illustrate the paper by Dr. Roth. The Council also gratefully acknowledges the courtesy of the Library authorities of Durham Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster in granting permission to publish photographs of important documents from their archives.</page></plain_text>