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More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain

Martin Sugarman

<plain_text><page sequence="1">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain MARTIN SUGARMAN No attempt has yet been made to describe the part played by Jewish aircrew in the Battle of Britain during that distant, hot summer of 1940. The gen? teel anti-Semitism of the British establishment - and that of other Western societies - has always been subtly keen at best to play down and at worst to ignore completely any Jewish contribution. At the same time this lends understated credibility to the comments of those such as the author Roald Dahl, who alleged that he 'never saw a Jew in the front line'. This statement bestows a great responsibility on Jewish historians to dis? pel the racist myths and prove beyond any doubt, through carefully sourced research, that Jews in Britain and other nations have indeed participated in the defence of countries in which they have lived. Furthermore, as I shall show, this participation has frequently been out of proportion to their num? bers in the general population. The Allied victory in the Battle of Britain was a major turning point in the Second World War. The RAF, assisted by Allied squadrons, defeated the might of a numerically far superior German Luftwaffe in an air battle that lasted (as officially defined) from 10 July to 31 October 1940. As a result, Hitler indefinitely postponed his planned invasion of Britain, because he and his High Command understood that without control of the air, German losses in a sea and air invasion would have been unacceptably high and the project would probably have failed. This decision changed the course of the war, as Churchill's 'Few' held back the tide so that Britain and its allies could fight another day, and ultimately win the struggle. A participant in the Battle of Britain is defined as one of those 2917 Allied men of 71 squadrons or units who flew operationally on at least one authorized sortie with an eligible unit of RAF Fighter Command, Coastal Command or the Fleet Air Arm, as a pilot or aircrew, between 10 July and 31 October 1940. Those thus defined were awarded the Battle of Britain clasp worn on the 1939-45 Star, or a silver gilt rosette if medal ribbons only are worn. Of the Allied participants (see list below for the breakdown by nation), 544 were killed and a further 794 killed before the war's end.1 1 Kenneth G Wynn, Men of the Battle of Britain (London 1999) i-x i83</page><page sequence="2">Martin Sugarman Great Britain Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Australia Belgium South Africa France USA Ireland Rhodesia Israel Jamaica Newfoundland 2333 145 126 98 88 33 29 25 13 10 11 3 1 1 1 Using this data, the inclusion of thirty-two definitely Jewish airmen among 'The Few' represents undoubtedly a large proportion (1.09 per cent overall and 1.1 per cent of the British contingent) compared to a figure of under 0.5 per cent of the general population of Britain, a figure more or less unchanged today. This is surprising in that most RAF pilots at the time were prewar regular, commissioned officers, or NCOs who had been air? craft apprentices, tradesmen or non-pilot aircrew. As Jews have traditional? ly rarely served in peacetime regular military units to follow military careers, there was an in-built numerical bias against Jewish participation.2 Fliers included also men of the Auxiliary Air Force (AAF), the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve (RAFVR) and University Air Squadrons - mobi? lized shortly before the outbreak of War - most of whom were 'weekend' fliers. Few Jews in a predominantly working-class Jewish community at that time would have had either the time or the considerable financial resources needed to learn to fly. In addition, few Jews were then at universi? ty or the public or grammar schools to take advantage of the opportunities available there to learn to fly. A generally lower level of formal education in the sciences and mathematics among the Jewish male population of enlist? ment age - owing to the social conditions of the Jewish community in Britain at the time - was also an obstacle at interviews for the RAF and RAFVR pilot training. Then, as now, this was more technologically demanding than that required for entry into the more ordinarily skilled Army and Navy. 2 Researcher Bill Bond, founder of the Battle of Britain Society, alleges that 100 Jewish air? crew served in the Battle and that some of those killed are buried at Hoop Lane cemetery in Golders Green (Jewish Chronicle 12 November 1996). However, I have been unable to establish the truth of this claim. 184</page><page sequence="3">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain After the Battle of Britain, when conscription got under way, thousands of Jews volunteered for the RAF, and even those with only basic schooling could be accepted for flying courses - if fit - so long as they showed what was then called an aptitude for learning. But in 1940, the core of the RAF and RAFVR pilot elite consisted basically of highly educated middle- and upper middle-class non-Jews, among whose ranks Jews were disproportionately poorly represented. The same can be said of Jewish representation among the Australian, New Zealand, South African and Canadian contingents. The large (5 per cent) Polish contribution to the Allied pilots who took part in the Battle, introduced other more sinister barriers to Jewish partici? pation. Blatant anti-Semitism can be added to the class and education barri? ers outlined earlier, which made it particularly difficult for Jews to get into the Polish Air Force, or indeed to obtain a commission in any of the Polish Forces at the time. There were indeed Jewish officers as well as thousands of Polish Jewish other ranks in all the Polish Forces in 1939, but promotion and entry to the more glamorous positions such as flying was excessively difficult for Polish Jews. Added to this, many Polish Jews hid their religious affiliation on enlistment and even changed their names, both because of Polish and anti-Semitism and to reduce the dangers to which they would be exposed if captured. The records of religious denomination for Polish pilots therefore gives no real picture of who really was Jewish; as a result, we shall never know. The same may be said of the French (0.03 per cent of the Allied pilots), Czech (3 per cent) and Belgian (0.1 per cent) Air Forces. Bias, however, is difficult to prove, although based on the well-known general discrimination that existed against Jews in most, if not all, European countries at that time and especially in the armed forces. Benjamin Meirtchak's seminal work on Polish-Jewish casualties3 is a valuable contribution to the generally known high level of Jewish participa? tion in the Polish forces, but since it includes casualties only, the Jewish Polish pilots who survived the Battle are missing. Given all these factors it is remarkable that so many Jewish airmen could be identified as having been in the front line of pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain. The present author's research, however, is based also on the official pub? lication entitled The Battle of Britain Roll of Honour, issued by the Air Ministry in 1947, which includes the names of those killed during the Battle or who died of wounds later. Here were found Jewish names not noted in Wynn's book, perhaps because the Ministry defined either the time-scale of the Battle or the term 'operational flight' differently, or both. The Roll also 3 Benjamin Meirtchak, Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Armed Forces in the Second World War (Tel Aviv 1995). i85</page><page sequence="4">Martin Sugarman includes a large number of Bomber Command and Coastal Command crew killed in action, but not included by Wynn in his study. There is, of course, far from universal agreement among historians about either the dates of the Battle or the squadrons that took part. Again, this Air Ministry list contains only those killed, so excludes many more who took part, but survived. If these Air Ministry names are included then the percentage of Jewish pilots and aircrew is greater still. I discovered 10 Jews among approximately iooo names not included by Wynn - a i per cent participation, therefore - which, as the figures above show, is at least double the proportionate repre? sentation of the British Jewish community. The names of these men are indicated here as 'Air Ministry Rolf. The 42 Jewish aircrew still made up 1.07 per cent of the new 3917 participants - again more than twice the pro? portion of Jews in the general population. The problem is compounded by lists in two further books. F. Mason's Battle over Britain dates the start of the Battle to 1 July; while J. Foreman's Battle of Britain: The Forgotten Months, November to December iQ40 4 includes additional names on the grounds that the dates fixed by the RAF are relevant only to those entitled to wear the Battle of Britain clasp. He argues that the scale of the fighting on some days in December and November 1940 exceeded some of the worst days of the summer period. The sources used The main details came from checking the almost 3000 biographical entries in Wynn's 595-page book, including 2333 British personnel, against the Jewish chaplain cards held at the AJEX (Association of Jewish Ex Servicemen and Women) Military Museum in Hackney, London, to iden? tify the British Jewish airmen who took part. Having extracted and typed alphabetically all the non-British men (full name and number) by nationality (583 entries) I sent these to RAF Personal Records Department at Innsworth, Gloucester, where the staff looked up the religious denomination of each man. Disturbingly, Innsworth's records showed Nelson (RCAF), van Mentz (SAAF) and Mamedoff (USA) as Church of England, although my searches showed them to be Jews (see below), and the Polish-Jewish pilot Klein as Roman Catholic. Further detail came from the AJEX Jewish chaplain cards and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission registers, admirably available on their website. The Jewish Chronicle for 1940-6 revealed more pilots' names and personal details, complementing the AJEX cards. Henry Morris's 4 F. Mason, Battle over Britain (London 1969);}. Foreman, Battle of Britain: The Forgotten Months, November to December 1940 (London 1988). I??</page><page sequence="5">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain books,5 which contain details of those killed from the Jewish chaplain cards, also include names submitted by relatives of the fallen who did not neces? sarily have chaplain cards, for whatever reason, providing a separate source for the names of Jewish personnel killed. Jewish RAF participants in the Battle of Britain6 116515 Cyril Stanley 'Bam'7 Bamberger was a Sergeant Pilot of Jewish ori? gin (telephone conversation with author), later Squadron Leader, of 610 and 41 Squadrons. Born in Port Sunlight on 4 May ioiQ, he joined the RAFVR in 1938. He shot down two Mei09s in his Spitfire (at Hawarden and Hornchurch). In 1941 he volunteered for Malta and shot down two JU87S. He was commissioned in 1942 and then volunteered for North Africa. He shot down one JU87 (Sicily) and damaged another (Italy, 1943), and was awarded the DFC on 28 September 1943. In Italy he shot down another Me 109 and damaged another. On 3 July 1945 he was awarded a Bar to his DFC at Buckingham Palace by the king. During the Korean War he served in RAF Intelligence. His AJEX Jewish chaplain card mentions an article on him in the Jewish Chronicle (henceforth JC) of 24 September 1943 581137 Alfred James Baum (Air Ministry Roll) was a Sergeant Observer in 49 Squadron. He was killed in action on 11 August 1940 and is buried at Reichswald, grave 30-B-7. No more is known about him, since he is not mentioned in Morris and an AJEX card has not been found. However, his name is inscribed on a memorial to Jewish personnel killed in the Second World War from the northeast of England. 751790 Louis Lionel Benjamin (Air Ministry Roll) was a Sergeant Observer in 53 Squadron Coastal Command, RAFVR. He was the son of Hyam and Bessie and his wife was Elizabeth Betty who lived at 170 Cotsbach Road, Clapton, London E5, formerly at 4 Cavendish Mansions, Mill Lane, London NW6. His AJEX card says he volunteered on 6 June 1939 and was stationed at Hamble, Hampshire. He is named in Morris and was officially reported missing killed in action aged twenty-two on 31 August 1940 by the RAF and in the^C on 28 March 1941. The JC also published a letter on 30 5 Henry Morris, We Will Remember Them (London 1989) and We Will Remember Them-An Addendum (London 1994). 6 These profiles are taken mainly from Kenneth Wynn (see n. 1), with further information added where indicated. The following abbreviations are used: 'Me' (Messerschmitt); 'Ju' (Junkers); 'He' (Heinkel); 'Do' (Dornier). 7 See website on Bamberger, 'RAF Aces'. i87</page><page sequence="6">Martin Sugarman September 1949 from Arthur Levy about there being a cross on his grave (plot LL-2-5) and that this was being referred to the War Graves Commission at Crosswijk, Rotterdam, by the Jewish chaplains. 44271 David Henry Davis (AFM, MiD February 1938, North-West Frontier, India) (Air Ministry Roll) was Pilot Officer and Observer with 59 Squadron Coastal Command. He was the son of Albert Edward and Harriette Bertha of Thorn House, Smarden in Kent. Mrs A. E. Davis (mother?) lived at 19 Haven Green, Ealing, London W5 and previously at 46 West End Lane, London NW6. David was a regular who had joined the RAF as LAC 562061 in 1928 and served at RAF Kohart, North-West Frontier, India, during the 1930s. His AJEX card shows he attended many functions for Jewish personnel between 1928 and 1939 both at home and abroad. By 1940 he was with 59 Squadron flying missions with the BEF in France and had attended No. 1 Observer School, Northcoates, near Grimsby. He was killed in action on 1 August 1940 aged twenty-seven and is buried at St Valery-en-Caux, grave A-B. His name appears in Morris and his card states that his death was notified to the^C on 5 February 1941 and published on 14 February 1941. 123055/759128 Frank Samuel Day was a Sergeant Observer in 248 Squadron and came from Chesham, Buckinghamshire. He was the son of Nathaniel and Rika and is buried at St Illogan churchyard, Cornwall, 1-20. He had been a guinea pig for the plastic surgeon Archibald Mclndoe. His name is in Morris but there is no AJEX card for him. He fought throughout the campaign, was commissioned in May 1942, but was killed in action on 24 July 1942 with 86 Squadron, aged twenty-eight. 79166 John Lionel De Keyser (Air Ministry Roll) was a Pilot Officer with 206 Squadron RAFVR, Coastal Command. His name occurs in Morris and his AJEX card says he was a former member of Stepney Jewish Boys Club. He was the son of William and Asneth of Johannesburg, South Africa. He was killed in action on 15 October 1940 aged twenty-five and his name is inscribed on the Runnymede Memorial on panel 8. His death was announced in The Stepnian club journal in August 1941 and in the JC of 13 February 1941. 42598 George Ernest Goodman was Pilot Officer, later Flying Officer in No. 1 Squadron. His story is exceptional in that he was born in Haifa, on 8 October 1920. Wynn remarks that he was British solely because he had a British passport - like most born under the Mandate - but in Mason's book8 8 Mason (see n. 4) 506. lOO</page><page sequence="7">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain he is described as 'Palestinian', in another9 as 'Israeli' and likewise in a third.10 He was in fact a Sabra and the only Palestinian Jew in the Battle of Britain. The RAF Museum researcher John Edwards testified to these facts in an article by the reporter John Kaye in London Jewish News of 22 September 2000.11 Educated at Highgate School, London, he was the son of Sydney and Bida Goodman, was in the OTC and took a commission in the RAF in early 1939, joining his Hurricane Squadron in France in March 1940, where he shared a kill of an Hei 11 and later shot down another which had helped sink the SS Lancastria off St Nazaire. Flying from Northolt he shot down an Me 109 and shared in another, shot down an Hei n, shared a Do 17 and shot down another Hei 10. On 18 August he was hit in his Hurricane P3757, but managed to land safely.12 On 6 September 1940 he shot down another Hei 10, but was himself shot down, baling out with an injury. His plane crashed at Brownings Farm, Chiddingstone Causeway. He later shared a Ju88, damaged a Do 17 and was awarded the DFC on 26 November 1940. In November 1940 he flew the ferry route for the Middle East with 73 Squadron and stopped at Lagos where his parents were working in the diplomatic service. There he saw his mother for the last time (his father was away), and as the Squadron later flew out they did a roll over the Goodman home and were away. In February 1941 he shot down an Italian CR42 in the Western Desert and a no at Tobruk, but was himself shot down, crash landing behind the British lines. He then shared an Italian HS126, destroyed a JU87 and shared another, all over Tobruk. In April he took leave in Haifa with his two sis? ters, but on 14 June 1941 he was shot down and killed by flak over Gazala. He is buried in Knightsbridge cemetery, Acroma, Libya, grave 10-C-21. 135476 Maurice Venning Goodman was a Sergeant Air Gunner with 604 Squadron, later Flight Lieutenant. He was born in Hendon on 13 April 1920 and educated at King's School, Colindale. He joined the AAF and was called up at the outbreak of war. He served on air operations throughout the Battle of Britain and then in 1942 on special operations over Germany, severely damaging a 110. He then served on special operations in North Africa and Italy and was awarded the DFC on 12 November 1943. He died in 1988. His Jewish chaplain card mentions an article on him in the^C on 12 November 1943. 9 P. Kaplan and R. Collier, The Few (London 1989) 222. 10 'RAF Personnel in the Battle of Britain', MoD, Imperial War Museum, n.d. 11 AJEX Battle of Britain file, AJEX Museum. 12 W. G. Ramsay (ed.) The Battle of Britain Then and Now (London 1980) 366. This was the same day that Solomon (see below) was killed. 189</page><page sequence="8">Martin Sugarman 78684 Eric Stewart Issacson Hallows (Air Ministry Roll) was a Pilot Officer in 99 Squadron Bomber Command. He was the husband of Mrs M. Hallows of Russley, Wood Ditton Road, Newmarket. His AJEX card says he was first with 79 Squadron and had been stationed at Harwell, Didcot and Mildenhall. He was killed in action on 30 October 1940. His AJEX card states that the JC was notified on 1 November 1940 and published notifica? tion of his death on 8 November 1940, and that he was buried on 4 November 1940 at Willesden Jewish cemetery, London, in grave FX-13 554, the funeral being taken by the Reverend Gollomb, HCF (Honorary Chaplain to the Forces). He is named in Morris's book. 37970 Eustace cGus' Holden was a Flight Lieutenant, Pilot and later Wing Commander, with 501 Squadron. Born in Doncaster on 28 December 1912, he was commissioned in the RAF in 1936. In May 1940 in France he shot down a Ju88, a D07 and an Hem. Later from Croydon he damaged a Do 17, but was himself wounded on 22 July. He was awarded the DFC on 16 August 1940. In September or October he shot down two 109s, a no, two more 109s, damaged a Ju88 and damaged two more 109s. As command? ing officer of 501 Squadron he took them to West Africa in June 1941 and then became a Staff Officer (Fighter Training) at the Air Ministry. In 1944 he was posted to HQ^Far East, Kandy, staying in the RAF until 1964. His Jewish chaplain card mentions his being based at Tokoradi and seeing Senior Jewish Chaplain Rabbi Brodie.13 90705 Kenneth Holden (older brother of Eustace) was a Flying Officer, Pilot and later Wing Commander with 616 Squadron. With Eustace they were the only Jewish brothers who flew in the Battle. He joined the AAF in 1939 and was called up at the outbreak of war. Over 28 May - 1 June 1940 over Dunkirk he shot down three 109s and in September damaged two more and shot down another. In May 1941 he was made Squadron Leader and later shot down three more 109s, damaged two more and shared anoth? er. Awarded the DFC on 15 July 1941, he later moved to Staff HQ^of 12 Group. Retired from the RAF in 1950, he died in 1991. No Jewish chaplain card seems to have been written for him. 748158 Lewis Reginald Isaac, a Sergeant Pilot with 64 Squadron, was from Llanelli, South Wales, son of James and Blodwen. He joined the RAFVR in May 1939 and fought throughout the Battle. He failed to return from a Channel sortie in his Spitfire L1029 after a surprise attack on his airfield on 5 August 1940, having been shot down by an Meiog off Folkestone at 0850. 13 There is an eye-witness anecdote from Holden in N. Gelb, Scramble (London 1986) 165. 190</page><page sequence="9">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain He was twenty-four years old. He is remembered at Runnymede, panel 15. His loss is mentioned in the^C on 25 April 1941, but no Jewish chaplain card appears to exist, although he is in Morris's book. 78685 Henry Jacobs was a Pilot Officer, Air Gunner and later Squadron Leader with 219 and 600 Squadron. He was born on 15 April 1907 in Great Yarmouth. His Jewish chaplain card states his parents were Mr and Mrs J. Jacobs of The Cottage, Hingham, Norfolk, and that he met several Jewish chaplains in his postwar career. In September 1940 he shot down a Ju88. In 1942 he shot down two Ju88s and damaged another. He was awarded the DFC on 9 October 1942 (appearing in the^C on 16 October 1942). In 1943 he shot down three nos, a D0217, a no and damaged a Ju88. He was awarded a Bar to his DFC on 5 November 1943 (announced in the JCon 26 November 1943) and an AFC on 3 April 1945. He retired from the RAF in 1958 and died in 1978. His DFC citation says: 'for valuable service ren? dered as chief signals instructor of 264 Squadron, Duxford; has destroyed two enemy aircraft - a source of inspiration to his men'. The citation for his bar says: 'has helped destroy six enemy aircraft; he is a model of efficien? cy'.14 He retired from the RAF in 1958 and died in 1978. 1050704 Norman Jacobson was an AC2 Radio Operator with 29 Squadron and came from Grimsby, the son of Alfred and Olive Jacobson. He joined the RAF in June 1940 and was in an aircraft which shot down an Hei 11 in August. But on 25 August his Blenheim was shot down near Wainfleet and all the crew were killed. Jacobson was just eighteen years old, the youngest Battle of Britain casualty.15 His body was recovered by a trawler (the Alfredian) near the Inner Dowsing and he was buried at sea on 27 August. His name is engraved at Runnymede, panel 27.16 85010 Arthur Harold Evans Kahn was a Pilot Officer, later Flight Lieutenant Observer, with 248 Squadron. He was born in Sutton, Surrey, the son of Joseph and Mai and husband of Helen Margaret. He joined the RAFVR in May 1939 and fought throughout the Battle. He was killed in action on 15 June 1944 with 172 Squadron, aged twenty-five. His name is inscribed on the Runnymede Memorial, panel 202, and he is in Morris's book.17 14 Jacobs's unpublished autobiography, 'Jacob's Ladder', mentioned in R. Collier, Eagle Day (New York 1966) 306 bibliography (unobtainable by me). 15 Ramsay (see n. 12) 380. 16 No AJEX card found. 17 No AJEX card found. igi</page><page sequence="10">Martin Sugarman 780685 Zygmunt Klein18 was a Sergeant Pilot with Polish 234 and 152 Squadrons.19 He was born on 24 August 1918 and joined the RAF in February 1940. He shot down one 109, shared a no and damaged another no. He crash-landed in Spitfire P9427 out of fuel near Torquay on 26 November 1940 and was declared missing on 28 November, believed killed in action, in his Spitfire in the Isle of Wight area, by 109s. His name is inscribed on the Polish Air Force memorial at Northolt. 118438/903367/902927 Lennert Axel, (or Aexel) Komaroff, was Sergeant Air Gunner with 141 Squadron, flying Defiants and Beaufighters. He was the husband of Helen Komaroff of Prestwick. With Flying Officer I. H. Cosby he shot down a Ju88 south of the Isle of Wight on 25 August 1941. Flying throughout the Battle, he was commissioned in March 1942. He was killed on 19 September 1944 flying Mosquitoes with 29 Squadron, aged twenty-six. He is buried at Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, in grave 28-A-2. Morris names him and his AJEX card states that he had previously been wounded in action. 77345/746721 Marcus Kramer was a Pilot Officer with 600 Squadron. A pharmacist from Thorpe Bay, Essex, he had been born in Bermondsey in 1911 and was active in the local Jewish community. His parents were Mr and Mrs Emmanuel Kramer of 3 Marine Parade, Southend-on-Sea.20 He joined the RAFVR in March 1939, and was commissioned in February 1940. On 10 May 1940 he flew as gunner with Pilot Officer R. C. Haine with 6 Blenheims on an attack on Rotterdam (Waalhaven) aerodrome, captured by German paratroops that morning. After the attack they were shot down by 110s, but he evaded capture and was evacuated with his crew by the RN. He was awarded the DFC on 9 July 1940 (mentioned in the JfC on 15 May 1942, p. 3, and his AJEX card), but he was killed in action on 21 May 1941 with 29 Squadron, aged twenty-nine. His name is on the Runnymede memorial, panel 29. His AJEX card states that the Jewish chaplains wrote to the father, who replied, that 'his plane was seen to crash into the River Severn near Chepstow and his tunic was washed up almost immediately'. He was there? fore believed to be dead. The Times reported his death on 31 December 1941. 81940 Alfred Lammer(s), born Alfred Ritter von Lammer, attended Munich and Innsbruck universities.21 He was Pilot Officer and Air Gunner, 18 Benjamin Meirtchak (see n. 2) 118. 19 B. Arct, Polish Wings in the West (Warsaw 1971) 88, spells his name anagramatically as 'Kinel', perhaps to disguise his Jewish-sounding name. 20 jfC 12 July 1940, front page. 21 See 'RAF Aces' website on Lammer. 192</page><page sequence="11">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain later Squadron Leader with 141 Squadron. An Austrian Jewish refugee, he was born in Linz on 28 November 1909 and was active in the anti-Nazi movement in Austria in the mid-i930s. After escaping to Britain he volun? teered in September 1939 and was given an Emergency Commission in March 1940, fighting throughout the Battle in Hudsons and Defiants as an expert in radar navigation. He transferred to North Africa and in late 1942 helped destroy an Hei 11, two Italian Cant 1007s and two Ju88s, crash-land? ing on at least one occasion. He was awarded the DFC on 16 February 1943. He later helped shoot down another Cant 1007. He returned to the UK in late 1943 and was in charge of Radar and Navigation at 62 Officers Training Unit.. He was awarded a Bar to his DFC on 29 October 1943, a Mention in Despatches (MiD) on 14 June 1945 and another subsequently.22 Lammer died in 2000.23 83269/54454 Emanuel Barnett Lyons, Pilot Officer and Flight Lieutenant with 65 Squadron, was born in London in 1918. His AJEX card shows he was the son of Mrs R Lyons, c/o E. Barnett and Co., 27-83 Middlesex Street, London Ei and 38 South Lodge, Circus Road, London NW8. He joined the RAFVR in June 1939 from Magdalene College, Cambridge,24 fighting throughout the Battle. He was later posted to North Africa in sup? port of ist Army. In 1944 he fought in many air battles in Europe, being wounded in April 1945. He was awarded the DFC on 8 May 1945 and the Netherlands Flying Cross on 21 April 1947, for gallantry when some of his squadron included Dutch pilots. There were articles about him in the^C of 10 March 1945 and 9 June 1947. He died in 1992. 81621 Andrew 'Andy' B. Mamedoff was a Pilot Officer from the USA and with 609 Squadron. An American researcher has confirmed with AJEX that he was Jewish,25 the son of Natalie and husband of Alys nee Craven of London. He was born on 24 August 1912 and brought up in Thompson, Connecticut. He performed in air shows and at the outbreak of war tried to fight with the Finnish Air Force and later the French Air Force, but failed and had to stowaway to the UK where he was given an Emergency Commission in the RAF and sent to a Spitfire squadron on 8 August 1940 with two other Americans he had met in France. They became the first three members of 71 Eagle Squadron, USA Volunteers, fighting through 22 The Times, Nov. 2000, obituary. 23 Lammer's name occurs in Peter Leighton-Langer, X steht fur unbekannt (Berlin 1998) and in MS form in English as 'The King's Own Loyal Enemy Aliens', AJEX files, 2000, index of Austrian and German Jews who fought for Britain and the Allies. 24 AJEX Jewish chaplain card. 25 See USA file at AJEX Museum. 193</page><page sequence="12">Martin Sugarman out the Battle. On a flight to a posting in Northern Ireland on 8 October 1941 he failed to arrive and his body was later recovered for burial at Brook wood cemetery, grave 21-A-7. 39675 William 'Bill' Henry Nelson26 was Flying Officer with 24 Squadron. He was born in Montreal, Canada, on 2 April 1917, the son of Henry and Sarafina Nelson of 4885 Cote Street, Catherine Road. He was educated at Baron Byng High School and Strathcona Academy and joined the RAF in 1937 after working his way to England. On 8-9 September 1939 he took part as Captain of a bomber in the RAF's earliest operation, with 8 Whitleys, dropping leaflets in northwest Germany. After other operations he took part in raids on Sylt and over Dunkirk during the evacuation. He was awarded the DFC by the king at Buckingham Palace on 4 June 1940, and was the first Canadian Jew to be decorated in the Second World War.27 His citation read: 'Nelson carried out many flights over enemy territory, always showing the greatest determination and courage. After one attack on Stavanger, Norway, he encountered a balloon barrage and sent a report to base HQjn time to warn following aircraft'. He wrote home to say that 'I thank God that I shall be able to help to destroy the regime that persecutes the Jews . . .'. Volunteering for Fighter Command and returning before his leave expired, he flew Spitfires from Hornchurch, shooting down a 109, no and damaging another 110 on 11 August 1940, when he took on six 109s single handed.28 He also damaged a Do 17 on 13 October and destroyed three more 109s on 17, 27 and 29 October. He was killed on 1 November 1940 by a 109 attack over Dover at 1400 hours, in Spitfire P7312 which crashed into the Channel. He was listed as missing on the 52nd RAF casualty list on 14 November, but was officially presumed killed on 26 May 1941. He was twenty-three years old and left a wife (Marjorie Isobel) and young son. His name is inscribed on the Runnymede Memorial, panel 4. He has an AJEX chaplain card. 42076 Reginald Tony Pareezer (Air Ministry Roll) was Pilot Officer with 204 Squadron Coastal Command. He was the son of Reginald and Florence of Thorpe, Norfolk. He was killed on 21 July 1940 aged twenty-one and is remembered at Runnymede on panel 9. He is named in Morris, but no AJEX chaplain card was found. 26 A. Bishop, The Splendid Hundred(Toronto 1994) 154. 27 Canadian Jews in the Second World War (Canadian Jewish Congress 1947, Montreal) 1:29. 28 Among the Few: Canadian Airmen in the Battle of Britain (Air Historical Section, Air Ministry, 1948) 22. 194</page><page sequence="13">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain 41735 Frederick Hyam (Hyman) Posener was Pilot Officer with 152 Squadron, having joined the RAF from South Africa in December 1938. His AJEX card states that he was the son of J. Posener of East London, South Africa. He fought through the Battle and was wounded in action.29 He was shot down on 20 July 1940, aged twenty-three, in his Spitfire K9880 at 1635 hours off Swanage, by Luftwaffe Oberleutnant Homuth. His name is inscribed on the Runnymede Memorial, panel 9. RAF Innsworth records show that he was Jewish30 and his death was announced in the JfC of 18 April 1941. 40138/40404 Roderick Malachi Seaburne Rayner was Flying Officer and Wing Commander with 87 Squadron. He was born on 6 January 1918, joined the RAF in 1937 and was in France at the outbreak of War. During the Battle he shot down a 110, 109, Do 17, another no and 109 and shared an He 111. Over Britain he shot down two other 110s, but on 23 December 1940 had to bale out of his Hurricane in bad weather near Brize Norton. He was awarded a DFC on 11 February 1941, though his AJEX card says it was gazetted on 30 July 1943. He damaged another unidentified German air? craft in the Gloucester area in April 1941. He died in 1982. 39683 Reginald Frank Rimmer was a Flying Officer of 229 Squadron. He was the son of Launcelot (a First World War pilot) and Cecilia of Hoylake. The family were living in Wirral at the outbreak of war. He joined the RAF in 1937 and on 2 June 1940 over Dunkirk damaged an Hei 11, later destroy? ing a Do 17 and sharing an Hei 11. Aged twenty-one he was shot down and killed in his Hurricane V6782 'T' by 109s at 1530 hours on 27 September 1940 over Franchise Manor Farm, Burwash, where he is remembered on a plaque. He is buried at Hoylake Grange, Cheshire (grave D79). He is named in Morris's book but there is no AJEX card for him. A photograph of his grave shows a cross, but this was a common error for many Jewish servicemen killed in both world wars where incorrect information was sup? plied about religious affiliation.31 41209 Geoffrey Louis Ritcher was a Flying Officer and Squadron Leader with 234 Squadron. His AJEX card says he graduated from No. 1 Air Observer's School, North Coates, Grimsby. He joined the RAF in July 1938, fought throughout the Battle and shot down a D017 in France. 29 AJEX card information. 30 Posener also appears in the Roll of Honour in South African Jews in the Second World War (Johannesburg 1950) xii. 31 Files at the AJEX Museum testify to several other examples of this. i95</page><page sequence="14">Martin Sugarman 41472 Jack Rose was a Flying Officer and Wing Commander with 3, 32 and 232 Squadrons. He was born in London on 18 January 1917, attended Shooters Hill School, studied science at University College London and joined the RAF in 1938. From Biggin Hill he was sent to France and shot down three enemy aircraft in May 1940. He was shot down in his Hurricane V6547 by a 109 on 25 August at 1900 hours over the Channel and rescued. He was awarded the DFC on 9 October 1942 and commanded 113 Squadron in Burma from November 1944. In 1946 he was awarded the MBE and CGM. His DFC citation on his AJEX card states: 'He has been on operational flying since Sept. 1939. During May 1940 whilst serving with fighters over France, he destroyed three enemy aircraft. Posted to his present unit, he has led squadrons in 15 sweeps over France. He has dis? played courage and devotion to duty and rendered valuable assistance to allied wing commanders.' 900030 Maurice Rose was a Sergeant (Air Ministry Roll) in 102 Squadron RAFVR. His father was J. Rose of 46 First Avenue, Selby Park, Birmingham. His AJEX card says he was first in Hut 756, B squad, No. 2 Wing, No. 2 School, Yatesbury, and then at No. 7 Bombing and Gunnery School, Porthcawl. He was killed in action on 29 October 1940. He is in Morris's book and is remembered at Runnymede on panel 19. 84970 Francis Herbert Schumer was a Pilot Officer with 600 Squadron. He was educated at Giggleswick School and Worcester College, Oxford, and was a member of the University Air Squadron. His AJEX card gives his mother as Mrs J. Schumer of 107 Hodford Road, London NWn. He joined the RAFVR in June 1939 as trainee 754291 and was commissioned in September 1940. He crash-landed in a Blenheim on 12 September, fought throughout the Battle and was killed in action on 12 July 1941 aged twenty two. He was cremated in London at Golders Green cemetery. His death was notified to the JfC on 18 July 1941. 37870 Lionel Harold Schwind, who was Pilot Officer with 257, 43 and 213 Squadrons, was the son of Lionel and Florence nee Dayton of Crowborough, Sussex, and husband of Georgina nee Trueman. He joined the RAF in 1936, was posted to Iraq, but flew Hurricanes throughout the Battle of Britain. He was shot down and killed aged twenty-seven over Gatwick in Hurricane N2401 'O' on 27 September 1940 at 0925 hours - the same day as Rimmer. The plane crashed on Wildemesse golf course, Seal, near Sevenoaks. He is buried at Crowborough cemetery, grave 1723. His brother, 581353 Sergeant Gordon Louis Schwind RAF, was killed aged twenty-one on 26 May 1940 and is buried at Comines-Warneton, Hainaut, 196</page><page sequence="15">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain Belgium.32 No AJEX card was found for Lionel or Gordon, but Gordon's name was submitted to Morris's second book, An Addendum?3 78257 Herbert Ronald Sharman was Pilot Officer and Squadron Leader with 248 Squadron. Born in Wood Green, London, on 22 October 1907, he was educated at Trinity County School. He joined the RAFVR in 1939, was commissioned in March 1940 and fought throughout the Battle. He then trained in Canada and returned to the UK in 1943 as an instructor in navi? gation. With 297 Squadron he flew Whiteleys, inserting agents into occu? pied Europe, and then flew VIPs to summit meetings in Casablanca, Tehran and Yalta. From March 1944 he undertook other VIP flights in the Far East and was awarded the AFC on 7 September 1945. He has an AJEX Jewish chaplain card. 85241 Leslie Mark Sharp was Pilot Officer with in Squadron, the son of Mr and Mrs M. Sharp of 53 Adelaide Park, Belfast. He joined the RAFVR in August 1939 as trainee 758214. Commissioned on 7 September 1940, he flew Hurricanes with 96 and 111 Squadrons. Fighting through the Battle, he took off on the night of 28 December 1940 and crashed suddenly into the sea one mile offshore. He is buried at Carnmoney Jewish cemetery, Co. Antrim. He has an AJEX card and his photograph and announcement of his death are in the^/C of 10 January 1941. 563391 William Gerald Silver was Sergeant Pilot with 152 Squadron. He had been educated at Portsmouth Technical School and joined the RAF in 1929, flying Spitfires throughout the Battle. On 25 September 1940 he did not return from a dogfight over the Portsmouth area in Spitfire P9463 at 1115 hours. He is buried at Milton Road cemetery, Portsmouth, U-23a-i3? He was twenty-seven years old.34 79731 /742006 Neville David Solomon, who was Pilot Officer with 29 and 17 Squadrons, joined the RAFVR in September 1938. He was the son of Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Baron Solomon and Ethel Betsy of 69 Woodbourne Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, and 3 Livery Street, Birmingham. He was commissioned in September 1939. After flying Blenheims, he converted to Hurricanes and flew both types throughout the Battle. He was reported missing in Hurricane Li921 on 18 August at 1305 32 They are one of thirty-three sets of Jewish brothers killed in the Second World War; I am grateful to Harold Pollins for providing this information in Shemot: Journal of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain, September 2001. 33 See Ramsay (see n. 12) 755 for a photograph of a memorial to him at the crash site. 34 No AJEX card and his religious affiliation is to be confirmed. 197</page><page sequence="16">Martin Sugarman hours35 after a dogfight with 109s off Dover in which he had crashed into the sea. The incident is described in The Hardest Day?6 He is buried at Pihen-les-Guines, Calais, in grave A-4. His Jewish chaplain card states that when reported missing in action condolence letters were sent to his family on 23 September 1940 and again on 10 February 1941. A report was pub? lished in the JfC on 29 September 1940 (the same day as Wilk - see below) and he was mentioned in The Times. The JfC had published a photograph of him on 3 May 1940, noting that he was serving in the RAF. The Jewish chaplaincy continued correspondence with the father until June 1948. 749478 Aubrey H.Spiers, who was Sergeant Wireless Operator, Air Gunner and Wireless Officer with 236 Squadron, had joined the RAFVR in May 1939. He flew twenty-one sorties throughout the Battle. No further information was found on his AJEX card. He died in 1988. 37306 Robert Roland Stanford Tuck, known as 'Lucky Tuck',37 was Flight Lieutenant and Wing Commander with 92 and 257 Squadrons. He was born in Catford on 1 July 1916, the son of Captain Stanley Lewis Tuck (of the Royal West Surreys in the First World War) and Ethel Clara. He was educated at St Dunstan's College, Reading. He was at sea for two years as a cadet and then joined the RAF in 1935. While training at Grantham he was almost killed in a mid-air collision caused by turbulence.38 He had to bale out, severely scarring his face. At Duxford in 1938 he became one of the RAF's first qualified Spitfire pilots. As a Flight Commander, on 23 May 1940 over Dunkirk he shot down in his Spitfire three 110s and a 109, on 24 May two Do 17s, on 25 May shared a D017 and on 2 June a 109 and Hem and two 109s damaged. He was wounded in this incident. His Squadron Leader at this time was Roger Bushell of'Great Escape' fame, whom he later met again at Sagan camp after capture. When Bushell was shot down over Dunkirk, Tuck took over as Squadron Leader. He was awarded the DFC on 11 June 1940 from the king at a special ceremony at Hornchurch, Essex, for 'initiative and person? al example over Dunkirk'. On 8 July he shared a Do 17, on 25 July damaged a Ju88, on 13 August shared a Ju88, on 14 August destroyed two Ju88s and two more on 18 August, but the same day was shot down, baling out with an injury over 35 Ramsay (see n. 12) 366. 36 A. Price, The Hardest Day (London) 92. 37 From an interview with Tuck by Bob Cunningham published in Code One, the journal of the General Dynamics Company, Fort Worth, USA. 38 Larry Forrester, Fly for your Life (London 1956, 1990) describes Tuck's life and exploits in detail; see esp. 24-6. 198</page><page sequence="17">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain Horsmonden (his Spitfire crashing at Tuck's Cottages, Park Farm) on the estate of Lord Cornwallis, who then invited him to tea. On 25 August he shot down another Do 17, but his plane was shot up off St Gowan's Head and he glided fifteen miles to the coast with a dead engine and crash-landed. On n September, commanding 257 Squadron, he shot down a no and 109, on 23 September a 109, on 4 October a Ju88, on 12 October a 109, on 25 October a 109 and two damaged and on 28 October two more 109s. He was awarded a Bar to the DFC on 25 October 1940, The Times writing that 'In the face of constant death he preserved a lightness of heart which was not simply bravura but allied to precise and ruthlessly applied technical skill.' On 19 December, now flying Hurricanes, he shot down another Do 17, on 22 December a 109 and on 29 December a Do 17. He was awarded the DSO on 7 January 1941 'for leading 257 Squadron with great success ... his outstanding leadership, courage and skill have been reflected in its high morale and efficiency'. The king awarded the DSO and the announced Second Bar to Tuck on 28 January 1941, and at the same ceremony awarded the DFC to his good friend Brian van Mentz (see below) - a unique occa? sion on which two Jewish RAF officers were decorated together.39 He continued: on 2 and 19 March 1941 two more Do 17s, on 9 April a Ju88, on 27 April he damaged a Ju88, and on 11 May he shot down two more Ju88s. Awarded a Second Bar to his DFC on 11 April 1941 'for con? spicuous gallantry and initiative in searching for and attacking enemy raiders, often in adverse weather conditions', he was only the second RAF pilot to win such a distinction. On 21 June he destroyed two 109s and damaged another, but was himself wounded and shot down in the Channel, only to be picked up in his dinghy by a Gravesend coal barge after two hours. As Wing Leader at Duxford commanding three squadrons, he shot down three more 109s. He was then sent as a Liaison Officer to the USA with other aces, including 'Sailor' Malan, returning to Biggin Hill as Wing Leader. On 28 January 1942 he was shot down by flak on a low-level strafing attack outside Boulogne and made a POW. He was interviewed by Adolf Galland and after the war - ironically for a Jewish pilot - made an honorary member of Galland's old German Squadron.40 He was sent to various camps and helped plan the 'Great Escape' from Sagan, but was moved before the breakout.41 He finally escaped on 1 February 1945 with Flight Lieutenant Kustrzynski, met up with the Russians and spent two weeks fighting with them. They then made their 39 Ibid. 234. 40 Bob Cunningham (see n. 37). 41 Larry Forrester (see n. 38) dust-cover summary. 199</page><page sequence="18">Martin Sugarman way to the British Embassy in Moscow and were sent to Southampton by ship via Odessa. Tuck was awarded the USA DFC on 14 June 1946. Tuck was shot down four times, collided twice, was wounded twice, baled out, crash-landed and dropped in the Channel.42 The official history of the RAF (volume 1) states that 'They had that restless spirit of aggres? sion, that passion to be at grips with the enemy, which is the hallmark of the very finest troops. Some - like Bader, Malan and Stanford Tuck - were so fiercely possessed of this demon, and of the skill to survive the danger into which it drew them, that their names were quickly added to the immortal company of Ball, Bishop, Mannock and McCudden.'43 Tuck is probably the most highly decorated Jewish Second World War pilot after Louis Aarons VC, DFM. He is credited with thirty kills - one not added till 198244 - ranking him eighth among the aces of the RAF and with more victories than any other British pilot.45 His portrait hangs at Bentley Priory RAF base at Stanmore (Fighter Command HQJn the war), along? side many other Battle of Britain pilots. He died aged 70 on 5 May 1987. His Jewish chaplain card mentions an article on him in the JfC in January 1941. He was a close friend of the Jewish Fighter Pilot Ronnie Austin Jar vis (killed in 1941), with whom he visited the Barnato family.46 70826 Brian van Mentz was a Flying Officer with 222 Squadron. He was born in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1916, the son of Sidney and Rosine and nephew of Samuel Mence of Burghclere, Hampshire. He was commis? sioned in the South African RAF Reserve in 1937 and the RAF in 1938. In France he shot down a Ju88 on 14 May 1940, a JU87 and He 126 on 15 May and damaged two 109s on 16 May. From Hornchurch he shot down a 109 on 31 August, a no and damaged another on 3 September, downed a 109 and shared a Do 17 on 7 September, a Ju88 and damaged a 109 on 11 September, damaged a Ju88 on 15 September, shot down a 109 on 23 September and damaged a 110 on 12 October. He was awarded the DFC on 25 October 1940. The JC report of November says: 'This officer led his section with great skill and courage, and showed great determination in pressing home his attacks against large enemy formations. He has been engaged in flying operations against the enemy since the outbreak of war.' It was also reported in the^C on 17 January 1941. On 30 October 1940 he damaged a 109 and on 30 November shot down a D017. He was decorated by the king at Bircham Newton on 28 January 42 Ibid. 14. 43 Quoted in Larry Forrester (see n. 38) frontispiece. 44 Bob Cunningham (see n. 37). 45 See Larry Forrester (see n. 38) 14. 46 Diana Barnato-Walker, Spreading my Wings (London 1994) 139. 200</page><page sequence="19">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain 1941, together with Tuck (see above). On 2 February he shot down a Ju88, damaged an Hei 11 and on 18 March shared a Do 17. Having flown seventy-five sorties,47 he was killed on 26 April 1941 aged twenty-four when a bomb hit the Ferry Inn pub in Coltishall, not half an hour after Robert Tuck had left him to drive to Norwich.48 He is buried at Brookwood cemetery, Woking, grave 25-A-9.49 The JC of 17 January 1941 says he was the son of Major van Mentz, adjutant of the Witwatersrand Rifles, killed in action in the First World War. 115547/754595 Jack Weber (Webber) was Sergeant Pilot and Flight Lieutenant with 1 and 145 Squadrons, having joined the RAFVR in July 1939. His Jewish chaplain card states that his father was Mr J. Weber of 521 Finchley Road, London NW3, and that he was seen by several chaplains. Fighting from Tangmere throughout the Battle, he was shot down by an Me 109 over the Isle of Wight in his Hurricane on 6 November 1940 in the afternoon, but survived. Commissioned in 1942 he was Mentioned in Dispatches while fighting in the Middle East. He was protecting Kittyhawk bombers on 15 July when he was shot down and again wounded. He died in 1988. 76932/78451 Jack Wilk (Air Ministry Roll) was a Pilot Officer and Air Gunner with 149 Squadron RAFVR, Bomber Command. He was the son of Abraham and Fairie Wilk nee Mindelsohn and was a barrister, living at 73 Westfield Road, Birmingham. His name is in Morris and his AJEX card says he was born in 1904 in South Africa and volunteered for the RAF on 30 December 1939. He was at No. 1 Air Armament School, Manby, Lincolnshire, and then No. 11 OTU at Bassingbourn. He was killed in action on 17 August 1940 aged thirty-six. His death was announced in the^C on 27 September 1940, and an obituary with a photograph says he was a Cambridge graduate who had served in the Civil Air Guard before the war and was active in the Birmingham Jewish community. A second obituary appeared on 4 October 1940. He is buried at D?rnbach, Germany, grave 6-H-6. 755989 Israel Winberg, a Sergeant with no Squadron RAFVR Bomber Command (Air Ministry Roll), is listed by Morris. His AJEX card says he volunteered on 5 November 1939 and was at Training School 32 in West Hartlepool, followed by Prestwick, Bicester and Wattisham. He was the son of Morris and Anna Winburn, or Winberg, of 11 The Oakes West, 47 E. Burton, Go Straight Ahead: Diaries of the 222 Naval Squadron (London 1996) Appendix 3; see also 169-73. 48 Larry Forrester (see n. 38) 254-5. 49 Van Mentz appears as von Mentz in the Roll of Honour, South African Jews in the Second World War (see n. 29) xiii and 177. 201</page><page sequence="20">Martin Sugarman Sunderland, and he was killed in action on 24 July 1940 aged twenty-eight; his name is inscribed at Runnymede, panel 21. His death was reported in The Times on 26 March 1941 and in the^Con 13 August 1940 and 4 April 1941. 749523 Ian Alexander Zamek was a Sergeant with 58 Squadron RAFVR Bomber Command (Air Ministry Roll). He was the son of Mr A. Zamek of 16 Pendennis, Derby Road, Bournemouth, is named in Morris and his AJEX card says he volunteered in April 1939 and was at London No. 2 Centre and later at Abingdon. He was reported as missing, killed in action, by the RAF on 2 October 1940, but deemed officially killed on 3 October, aged twenty-two. This was notified to the^C on 18 October 1940 and again on 28 February 1941. He is buried in Berlin CWGC cemetery, grave 7-K-1-4. His brother Norman Henry was also killed in action in the RAF in 1942 (see note 32). Probable Jews As well as the men listed above, Wynn's book reveals others who have Jewish names, but whose records show them as having enlisted under other denominations. This is especially true of Polish and Czech pilots for rea? sons I mentioned in the introduction. As I cannot prove religious affiliation, I give below only brief details which may aid future researchers. There are many others in this category. 76568 Jack Henry Bachman, Pilot Officer 145 Squadron. Killed in action on 9 April 1943 in Burma. 81884 Vaclav Bergman, Pilot Officer and Squadron Leader 310 Squadron; Czech. Awarded the DFC and MiD. 1052310 Bernard Canon, Radar Operator 604 Squadron. Awarded the DFM. 111486 Derrick C. Deuntzer, Pilot Officer 79 and 247 Squadrons. Pi296 Franciszek Jastrzebski, Pilot Officer 302 Squadron; Polish. Awarded the VM, KW with 3 bars and the Croix de Guerre. Killed in action. 745292 Stephen Austin Levenson, Sergeant Pilot, 611 Squadron; British. Killed in action. 76728 Jan Piotr Pfeiffer, Flight Lieutenant 32 and 257 Squadrons; Polish. Killed in action. 78256 Edward C. Sch?llar, Pilot Officer 248 Squadron. 84299 David Stein, Flight Officer 263 Squadron; British. Killed in action. 202</page><page sequence="21">More than just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain Morris records four Polish-Jewish pilots as having fought in the Battle who do not appear in Wynn's book:50 Ryzrad Bychowski, Navigator. Killed when his plane crashed on landing. Zygmunt Glass, Navigator. Killed in action over Holland in 1943. Rubin Lipszyc, Navigator. Killed in action over Holland on the last day of the war. Eljasz Posner, Navigator. Killed in action over the Channel in 1942. Conclusion This study is a tribute to the Jewish pilots and aircrew who served during the Battle of Britain, including those who died serving. It is to be hoped that historians with the drive and patience will tell similar stories about the Jewish contribution to other major battles of the Second World War on land, sea and in the air, a contribution that should always be remembered. Summary of awards to Jewish aircrew in the Battle of Britain DSO-1 AFC-2 USA DFC-1 DFC-11 AFM-i MBE-i DFC and Bar - 3 (3) Netherlands DFC - 1 CGM - 1 DFC and Two Bars - 1 (2) Polish KW and Bar - 1 MiD - 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AJEX Jewish Military Museum, London Staff of the Imperial War Museum Library, London Staff of the Tower Hamlets History Library, London Staff at RAF Innsworth, Gloucester The author would welcome any further information about the men described here, and especially about other Jewish Battle of Britain pilots not named here. Please contact him at: AJEX HCL East Bank, London N16 5RT. 50 Henry Morris, Addendum (see n. 4) 52 203</page><page sequence="22">Martin Sugarman ADDENDUM Since this article was in proof, further information has come to light. 58063/46170 Pilot Officer, later Squadron Leader, Ben Bardega, of 20 Cheyne Walk, London NW4 (AJEX card), joined the RAF in February 1939, No. 50 Squadron, DFM 14 September 1940 {The Times), died 25 May 1958, buried in Golders Green. George Goodman is described as a Palestinian by R. T. Bickers, an RAF veteran of the Second World War, in his fifiteth-anniversary publication, The Battle of Britain (London 1990) 197, and also by Hough and Richards in The Battle of Britain (London 1965) 191. Moshe Dolev of Tel Mond, Israel, informs me that The Israel Air Force Bulletin, 1997, describes him as 'our first Ace, born in Israel'. The statistical conclusions of the article have to be altered to take account of this data. 204</page></plain_text>

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