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Medieval Jewish MSS. In the Library of St. Paul's Cathedral, London

Rev. Michael Adler

<plain_text><page sequence="1">3 Medieval Jewish MSS. in the Library of St. Paul's Cathedral, London By the courtesy of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's Cathedral,1 photographs of seven documents of the utmost value for medieval Anglo-Jewish history are here given?together with transcriptions, translation and notes. The first deed (A) is the oldest original record in existence, being earlier than 1152,2 and sets forth an agreement concerning sale of land in the city made by the Canons of St. Paul's with Benedict3 of London. It is contemporaneous with a second "conventio" (B), arranged with Abraham the son of Simon,4 which exists in a copy contained in a Cartulary of the Cathedral.5?Two others (C,D), dated before 1202, tell of transactions in land of Peter Blund,6?with the Dean of the 11 desire especially to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Gerald W. Henderson, Sub-Librarian and Keeper of the Muniments, for his most valuable help. 2 The earliest Starr given by Jacobs, Jews of Angevin England (A.E.), p. 58, is dated 1176. Concerning the date of this deed, see note 17. 3 Mentioned in Richard de Anesty's story, A.E. p. 40 (c. 1160). In the earliest list of London Jews, ibid. p. 89 (c. 1186), Benedict, the son-in-law of Master Moses, is included. In the Northampton Donum list (1194), three men of this name are mentioned, Benedict Quatrebuches, B. Parvus and B. son of Vives. (See Miscellanies, i, lxxii.) 4 Jacobs, A.E. p. 260, conjectures that he was the son of Rabbi Simon Chasid. In the 1186 list, I.e., the richest London Jew is Abraham fil Rabbi, who paid over ?1,000 towards the Guildford Tallage. 5 The original of this Agreement (B) is not extant. See note 22. 6 Mentioned in Pipe Roll, 1191 (A.E. p. 277), Pipe Roll, 1198, (p. 183). Fine and Oblate Rolls, 1206, (p. 241). In the Donum list, he is included among the Bedford contributors {Miscellanies, i, lxxi). Among the London Jews, there is a Peter son of Isaac. See Loewe, Starrs and Charters, ii, 21.</page><page sequence="2">16 MISCELLANIES. Cathedral, the famous Ralph de Diceto,7 in the first,?and with Roger the son of William Fitz Isabel,8 a prominent London citizen, in the second. The general outlines of these four charters are briefly given in Jacobs, Jews of Angevin England, pp. 177 and 260. E and F are Latin charters and their Hebrew Starrs?published for the first time, and relate to transactions in land and money in the districts of Acton and Shoreditch, both prebends of St. Paul's, by a well-known London Jew, Aaron the son of Abraham the son of Avegay (d. 1256)9. The older of these two is dated in the Hebrew text?"the seventh year of the coronation of king Henry the son of king John," i.e. 1223, and mentions the name of Eustace de Fauconberg10 (or Faucon bridge), Bishop of London. The date of the second is 125511 and it refers to certain individuals who contracted debts with Aaron, and whose property in Shoreditch and Haggerston afterwards passed into the possession of the Dean of St. Paul's and of Peter de Newport, Archdeacon of London.12 The document G, with the seal of king Edward I attached, is the 7 Dean of St. Paul's, 1181-1202. See Dugdale, History of St. PauVs, p. 224. Newcourt, Repertorium of St. PauVs, i, p. 34. Le Neve, (Hardy), Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, ii, p. 307. Dictionary of National Biography, vol. xv, p. 12. In de Diceto's history of England, Ymagines Historiarum (Rolls Series, edited by Stubbs), there are two friendly references to Jews: vol. ii, p. 4, concerning the Jews of France; and p. 76, where, in describing the massacre at Bury St. Edmund's in 1190, he declares, "it cannot be believed that so sad and fatal a death of the Jews can have pleased prudent men, since that saying of David often comes to our ears, 'Slay them not'" (Psalm lix, 11). 8 Roger was the owner of considerable property in Old Fish Street. Cp. Historical MSS. Commission, Report, ix. Appendix (H.M.C.), pp. 19.a, 24.b. His father was Sheriff of London 1193. Stow, Survey of London (ed. Kingsford), ii, p. 150. 9 A full record of his career from 1218-1256 is given in Loewe, I.e., 62-68. 10 Newcourt, I.e., p. 13. Le Neve, I.e., p. 284. Foss, Judges of England, ii, p. 324. D.N.B., vol. xviii, p. 240. Victoria County History, London, p. 186. After being a judge and Treasurer of England, he held office as Bishop of London from 1222 to 1228. 11 The date is derived from the documents mentioned in H.M.C., p. 14.b. No. 1696 and No. 1695 refer to demises by Alan of land in Shoreditch; in 1250 and 1252. In No. 1692, Peter, the Archdeacon, receives from Alan a garden in Shoreditch, of which he was the Rector; 1252. In No. 1703 (of the year 1255), Alan is outlawed and king Henry gives his property to Paulinus de Bampton, who (in No. 1702), proceeds to sell it (by Latin charter F) to St. Paul's,?after Aaron, the Jewish creditor of Alan, had surrendered his claims upon it by Starr F. Aaron died in 1256. See Loewe, I.e., ii, 67. 12 Newcourt, I.e., pp. 36 and 59. Le Neve, I.e., p. 319. Peter held office as Arch? deacon 1231-1259, when he was elected Dean.</page><page sequence="3">medieval jewish mss. in library of st. paul's cathedral. 17 only original charter extant of 85 grants given by the king in 1291 in dis? posing of the Jewish houses throughout the country after the Expulsion. Copies of all these charters are set out in the Lansdowne Transcripts13 in the British Museum. The text of this royal order has been printed in a slightly different form14 in The Question whether a Jew born in the British Dominions was ... a person capable by law to hold lands. . . . by P. Carteret Webb, 1750. Appendix, p. 11. Michael Adler. A. MUNIMENTS, ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL (ANCIENT DEED, 71.A. 1801. )15 (See Jacobs, A.E., p. 260.) Agreement concerning land between the Canons of St. Paul's and Benedict the Jew. c. 1152. Text. Haec est conuentio inter canonicos beati pauli Lond' et benedictum iudeum . vide 7 licet quod concedunt ei et heredibus suis in feodo et hereditate terciam partem ter 7 re quam tenuit de eis alricus parole, illam nominatim . quam ante eum tenuit osbertus faber . 7 reddendo inde singulis annis . iii. solidos et ii denarios. infra octabas pasce . xix denarios in 7 fra . iii dies festi beati michaelis . xix . denarios . et teneant ipse et heredes eius earn 7 terram ita libere et quiete et honorifice sicut alii tenentes de eis in ciuitate . 7 Huius conuentionis testes sunt . Gaufridus archidiaconus . Ricardus archidiaconus de middelsexi 7 a . Robertus de auco . Nicholaus . teodoricus . Walterus . Willelmus de calna . Magister 7 Radulfus . Magister Henricus . Archoidus . Baldewinus . Walterus films . teodorici . Alwoldus 7 campanarius . Teobertus de abbetuilla . Baldewinus . Abraham filius sansonis. CYROGRAPHUM. Note?The lines 7 indicating new lines in the original MS. 13 Vol. 826, part 5, transcript 4. See Transactions of the Society, ii, 86. The only other example of an original charter of a grant of property of the expelled Jews is that of the clergy of Christ Church, Canterbury, written by the same scribe as G.-but, in the St. Paul's deed, the gift by the king is to an individual. See Transactions viii, 94: and photograph of the Canterbury charter in the Catalogue de Luxe of the Anglo-Jewish Exhibition, p. 12, No. 508. 14 Transcribed from Chancery Roll, C.67.4 in the Public Record Office. 15 H.M.C., p. 50.b.</page><page sequence="4">18 miscellanies. Translation. This is an agreement between the Canons of St. Paul's, London, and Benedict the Jew, to wit, that they grant to him and to his heirs in fee and in inheritance a third part of the land which Alric Parole15* held of them, that is to say, which, before him, Osbert the Smith held, by paying each year three shillings and twopence; within the octave of Easter nineteen pence, within three days of the Feast of St. Michael (29th September) nineteen pence; and that he and his heirs should hold that land freely and quietly and honourably like others holding (land) of them in the city.16 Of this agreement the witnesses are, Geoffrey archdeacon, Richard archdeacon of Middlesex,17 Robert de Auco,18 Nicholas, Theodoric, Walter, William de Calne (Wilts), Master Ralph, Master Henry, Archoid, Baldwin, Walter son of Theodoric, Alwold the bell-maker,19 Theobert de Abbeville, Baldwin, Abraham son of Sanson.20 CHIROGRAPH21 B. MUNIMENTS, ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, W.D.4. 55.b?56." (See A.E., p. 260.) Agreement concerning land between the Canons of St. Paul's and Abraham the son of Simon, c. 1152. Text. Hec est conuentio inter canonicos sancti pauli londonie . 7 et Abraham iudeum filium Symonis . videlicet quod 7 concedunt ei et 15a His family name is found in the earliest list of City Wards in London?that of Edward Parole, in the first half of the 12th century. H.M.C., i.e., p. 66.b. 16 This phrase is of interest for the subject of land tenure by Jews in the twelfth century. The relations between the Clergy of St. Paul's and the London Jews appear to have been very friendly. 17 Richard de Belmeis (thus written in full as a witness to a deed dated 1145. See H.M.C., p. 66.a.) was Archdeacon of Middlesex and Prebendary of St. Paul's before the year 1152, when he became Bishop of London.?This defines the date of the Charter.?See Newcourt, I.e., p. 77. Le Neve, I.e., ii, p. 282. D.N.B., vol. iv. p. 200. 18 After Richard, the names of ten Canons of the Cathedral are given. 19 The "bell-maker" or "bell-ringer." 20 In the 1186 list, A.E., p. 89, two men, Moses and Jose "de domo Samsonis" are named. In the Donum list, we find a Samson fil Abraham of London, and the "heirs of Abraham fil Samson" in Northampton. Miscellanies, i, lxxiv. 21 The word "Cyrographum," chirograph, according to usage, is cut through, in order that the counterpart should tally. It is generally done in a zigzag manner</page><page sequence="5">ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL LIBRARY. A (p. 17) -? *?V*ffiS&lt; B (p. 18) XT I J 1 JEOC CDUUCJIQO uUtf CattiHUuJl W zWulOw ^ADfttbdnt udtum teoniSjfiiibQif*VidA0 qotf CDootdunc q tfrbcrabbof fiof tnftofe ^ buuJuuo . oDMixttA tpfini ctntnD dtctf llncnf jMrolt-jhff ribbnpsnf &lt;p8m qmd BciwfeAuf MkufAnfeba~ etc dpoflct doiniif uifiuf 9cMdrfh v^fldiogni ivbI* ftddfiHte mdt togtn 3ooif*tyS#&lt;?yt? Mr mi * town Mm wll^.^^pw^^ 90S. l^dt^ ^tt*.^</page><page sequence="6">MEDIEVAL JEWISH MSS. IN LIBRARY OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 19 heredibus suis in feudo et hereditate 7 totam terram quam tenuit de eis Alricus parole . propter 7 illam partem quam tenet Benedictus iudeus . videli 7 cet a poste domus ipsius Benedicti usque ad uiam regiam 7 reddendo inde singulis annis . vi . solidos et x . denarios . infra octa 7 has pascbe . iii . solidos . et v . denarios . et infra . iii . dies festi beati 7 Michaelis iii . solidos et v . denarios . et teneant ipse et heredes eius 7 terram illam ita libere et quiete et honorifice . sicut alii tenentes de eis in ciuitate. Huius conuentionis 7 festes sunt . Gaufridus archi diaconus . Ricardus archidiaconus de Middel 7 sexia . Robertus de auco . Nicholaus . Teodoricus . Walterus . Willelmus de Calna . Magister Radulphus . Magister Henricus . Archoidus . Baldewinus . Walterus filius Teodorici . Alwoldus campanarius . Teobertus . de Abbetuilla . Baldewinus . Abraham filius Samsonis. Translation. This is an agreement between the Canons of St. Paul's, London, and Abraham the Jew son of Symon, to wit, that they grant to him and to his heirs in fee and in inheritance all that land which Alric Parole held from them, next to that part which Benedict the Jew holds, to wit, from the post of the house of the said Benedict to the via regia2Z (King's highway); by paying each year six shillings and tenpence; within the octave of Easter three shillings and fivepence, and within three days of the Feast of St. Michael (29th September) three shillings and fivepence; and that he and his heirs should hold that land freely and quietly and honourably like others holding (land) of them in the city. Of this agreement the witnesses are Geoffrey archdeacon, Richard archdeacon of Middlesex, Robert de Auco, Nicholas, Theodoric, Walter, as in deed D. In deed C the lower part of " Cyrographum " is shown, whilst here the upper part appears. See photographs. Cf. A.E., p. 315. Loewe, ii, xlii. 22 H.M.C., p. 68.a. This is not an original charter, but a copy contained in the Cartulary (Register) of the Cathedral, which also sets out a replica of deed A. Its contents show it to be of the same date, and the hand-writing is of the twelfth century. 23 The Via Regia was the road from Cripplegate to Bishopsgate, which marked the northern boundary of the City. See Besant, Medieval London i, p. 390, and map in Loftie, London (Historic Towns).</page><page sequence="7">20 miscellanies. William de Calne, Master Ralph, Master Henry, Archoid, Baldwin, Walter son of Theodoric, Alwold the bell-maker, Theobert de Abbeville, Baldwin, Abraham son of Samson. C. MUNIMENTS, ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 13.A. 264" (See A.E., p. 177.) Ralph De Diceto, Dean of St. Paul's and his Chapter rent land to Peter Blund the Jew and his wife Miriam, c. 1197. Text. CYROGRAPHUM Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Radulphus de diceto ecclesie sancti Pauli Lundonie Decanus et eiusdem ecclesie Capitulum 7 concessimus Petro blundo Iudeo et Miriam uxori sue et heredibus eorum terrain illam quod deulesaltus tenuit in Parrochia 7 sancti Laurentii de Iudaismo . tenendam de nobis in perpetuum reddendo nobis inde singulis annis . xiii. solidos . in duobus terminis . 7 scilicet in Pascha . vi. solidos et vi. denarios . et in festo sancti Michaelis . vi. solidos et vi. denarios . Et si idem Petrus uel heredes sui non reddider 7 int nobis censum predictum infra xv . dies termini prescripti . licebit nobis sine omni contradictone in domo sua nammum capere 7 ad valenciam census illius termini. Et si nammum in domo non invenerimus . lieebit nobis sine omni contradicto et impedimento 7 terram nostram in manum nostram seisire . sine omni causa et meskenninge . Pro hac autem concessione . dedit nobis predictus Petrus 7 duas marcas argenti in gersumam . Et ut haec nostra concessio firma sit et stabilis . presentis scripti pagina et sigilli nostri 7 impressione roborauimus . His testibus . Radulpho de diceto ecclesie sancti Pauli Lundonie Decano . Magistro Alardo Archidiacano Lundonie . Ricardo de Storteford magistro scolarum Lundonie . Magistro Rogero . Magistro Benedicto . Alano . Capellanis . Ricardo Iuniore . Gileberto Banastre . Iohanne de sancto Laurentio . Ricardo de humfravilla . Henrico de Ciuitate . Iohanne de Gerlande. 24 H.M.C.. d. 14.a. A cross extends across the deed?as if for cancellation.</page><page sequence="8">ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL LIBRARY. C (p. 20) Ii Iii*- ?'</page><page sequence="9">MEDIEVAL JEWISH MSS. IN LIBRARY OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 21 Translation. CHIROGRAPH Know (all) present and to come that I, Ralph de Diceto, Dean of the Church of St. Paul's, London, and the Chapter of this Church have granted to Peter Blund the Jew and to Miriam his wife and their heirs that land which Deulesalt25 held in the Parish of St. Lawrence in Jewry26 to be held from us for ever by paying us each year thirteen shillings at two terms, that is, at Easter six shillings and sixpence and at the Feast of St. Michael six shillings and sixpence. And, if the said Peter or his heirs do not pay us the above-mentioned amount within fifteen days of the prescribed term, it will be lawful for us, without any objection, to distrain upon his house to the value of the amount payable for that term. And if we do not find anything in the house which could be distrained, it will be lawful for us without any objection or hindrance to take our land into our hand without any legal proceedings or fine exacted for a mistake in the pleadings (mishenning)21 For this concession the said Peter has given us two marks of silver by way of earnest (in gersumam).28 And in order that this our grant should be firm and stable we have confirmed it by the document of the present writing and by the impression of our seal. Witnesses: Ralph de Diceto, Dean of the Church of St. Paul's, London, Master Alard29 Archdeacon of London, Richard de Storteford,30 Master of the schools of London, 25 A.E., p. 15 (1130), ibid., p. 88 (1185), ibid., p. 89 (c. 1186 in London list), ibid., pp. 163, 164 in Donum list, where he pays the largest amount among the Jews of London. 26 Near the Guildhall. 27 Cp. Murray, Oxford Dictionary, vi, part ii, p. 517, Norton, City of London, p. 295. 28 Gersuma was a "fine, earnest-money, or fee paid to one's lord for any con? cession." See Loewe, I.e., i. 84. 29 He succeeded de Diceto in the office of Dean, dying in 1216. Newcourt, I.e., p. 35. Le Neve, I.e., p. 308. 30 Prebendary of Harlesden, d. 1215. The "Magister Scholarum" was Chancellor of the Cathedral, and, besides being in charge of education in London, kept the Cathedral seal and acted as Secretary of the Chapter. Newcourt, i.e., p. 108. Le Neve, I.e., p. 358. Dugdale, I.e., p. 249. W. Sparrow Simpson, Begistrum Statutorum Ecclesiae S. Pauli, p. 23. The remaining witnesses were Canons. Milman, Annals of St. PauVs, p. 12.</page><page sequence="10">22 miscellanies. Master Roger, Master Benedict, Alan,31 Chaplains, Richard the younger,32 Gilbert Banastre,33 John de St. Lawrence,34 Richard de Humframvilla,35 Henry de Civitate,36 John de Gerland.37 D. MUNIMENTS, ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 21.A. 1574.38 (See A.E., p. 177.) Roger son of William Fitz Isabel grants a quit-rent for land in London and also a shop in Old Fish Street, to Peter Blund. 1202.39 Text. CYROGRAPHUM40 Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Rogerus filius Willelmi filii Isabele . concessi et demisi et presenti carta mea 7 confirmaui . Petro Blundo Iudeo de London' . viginti solidos quieti redditas scilicet illas viginti solidos quieti red 7 ditas quas Willelmus Norensis mihi reddidit de terra quam Willelmus filius Turstani de me tenuit pro lx . 7 solidis . que terra est in Parochia sancti Nicholas in corneria piscarie ex opposito fronti ecclesie sancta Marie 7 magdalene . et preterea concessi eidem Petro totam illam soppam quam Gilebertus Franciger piscator 7 de me tenuit in piscaria predicta iuxta soppam quam Gilebertus de Archis de me tenuit versus orientem . J scilicet quicquid in illis viginti solidis quieti redditis et in predicta soppa habui in terris in lignis et lapidibus in rebus 7 cunctis . Habendas et tenendas eidem Petro et heredibus suis de me et de heredibus meis In feodo 7 et hereditate libere quiete Integre finabiliter. Reddendo inde annuatim mihi et heredibus meis pro omni 7 seruicio et exactione et pro omnibus rebus . unam libram piperis 81 Prebendary of Mora (St. Giles, Cripplegate). Dugdale, I.e., p. 261. 32 Prebendary of Holborn, ibid., p. 251. 33 Prebendary of Islington, ibid., p. 250. 34 Prebendary of St. Pancras, ibid., p. 267. 35 Prebendary of Chamberlayne Wood, Willesden, ibid., p. 240. 36 Prebendary of Reculverland, Essex, ibid., p. 271. 37 Prebendary of Newington, ibid., p. 264. 38 H.M.C., p. 22.a. The beautiful caligraphy of this deed deserves notice. 39 The date is fixed by the names of the Sheriffs who are witnesses?Walter Brun and William Chamberlain?who held office in 1202. See Stow, I.e., p. 151. 40 Note the zigzag form of the word in the photograph.</page><page sequence="11">ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL LIBRARY. D (p. 22) t^UW^ycttta erntest ^ ^ UUw Wttt ^^Jg^fj^iJjQ^^ ^</page><page sequence="12">MEDIEVAL JEWISH MSS. IN LIBRARY OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 23 infra Octabas Nativitatis sancti Iobannis Baptisti 7 sine omni occasione et meskenninge . Et predictus Petrus et heredes sui finabiliter acquie tabunt predictam ter 7 ram et soppam predictam pro me et pro heredibus meis uersus capitales dominos feodi . scilicit uersus Rogerum de 7 Toni et heredes suos de septem solidis . et sex denariis . ad tres terminos anni. scilicet infra viii. dies festi Sancti Michaelis de . ii. solidis . et dimidia . et infra Octabas Purificationis sancte Marie . de . ii . solidis et dimidia . et infra . viii. dies Pentecostes 7 de . ii . solidis . et dimidia . sine omni occasione. Et sciendum quod prenominatus Petrus et heredes sui poterunt predictas viginti solidos 7 quieti redditas et soppam predictam dare vendere et dispendere Ecclesie sancti Pauli si eis placuerit uel allii ecclesie 7 uel cuicumque uoluerint Christiano uel Iudeo saluis predictis seruiciis prenominatis seinuragiis per annum . 7 Has autem viginti solidos quieti redditas et predictam soppam cum pertinenciis suis ego Rogerus predictus 7 et heredes mei finabiliter warrantizabimus predicto Petro et heredibus suis uel cuicunque illas dedint 7 vendidint uel assigna verint. contra homines et feminas . et hec mea carta eis fiat warantum . sicut 7 predicto Petro . Pro hac igitur concessione et dimissione et warantizione et presentis carte mee confirma 7 tione dedit mihi pre? dictus Petrus Iudeus Triginta Marcas argenti In Gersumam . et eundem Petrum 7 iude saisiui coram Hiis testibus . Willelmo de Hauerilla . Thoma filio suo . Iohanne Bocuinte . Iacobo al 7 dermanno . Waltero Bruno . Willelmo camerario tunc tempore vicecomitibus Lond\ Rogero de desert . arnoldo filio Alulfi . Michaeli 7 filio Iohannis . Ricardo filio suo . abraham filio avigai . abraham filio Bruni . Isaac filio Margalicia . Flemingo Iudeo. Translation. CHIROGRAPH Know (all) present and to come that I, Roger, the son of William Fitz Isabel, have granted and demised and confirmed by this my charter to Peter Blund the Jew of London twenty shillings paid in acquittance, namely, those twenty shillings paid in acquittance which William the Norseman41 used to pay to me for the land which William the son of 41 Cp. Loewe, Z.c, ii, 126.</page><page sequence="13">24 MISCELLANIES. Turstan42 held of me for sixty shillings?which land is in the parish of St. Nicholas in the corner of Piscaria (Old Fish Street)43 opposite to the front of the church of St. Mary Magdalene; and in addition I have granted to the said Peter all that shop which Gilbert Franciger,44 the fishmonger, held from me in the aforesaid Piscaria next to the shop which Gilbert de Archis45 held from me towards the East,?namely, whatever I possessed in respect of those twenty shillings paid in acquittance and in respect of the aforesaid shop?in lands, in wood, and in stones, and in all things. To be had and held by the said Peter and his heirs from me and my heirs in fee and in inheritance quietly, completely, finally, by paying hence annually to me and to my heirs for every service and exaction and for everything one pound of pepper within the octave of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, (24th June) without any legal proceedings or fine exacted for a mistake in the pleadings (miskenning). And the aforesaid Peter and his heirs will finally acquit the aforesaid land and shop for me and for my heirs towards the lords-in-chief of the fee, namely, towards Roger de Toni46 and his heirs concerning the seven shillings and sixpence payable at three terms of the year, namely, within the octave of the Feast of St. Michael (29th September) two shillings and a half, and within the octave of the Purification of St. Mary (2nd February) two shillings and a half, and within the octave of Pentecost two shillings and a half, without any legal proceedings. And know that the aforesaid Peter and his heirs may give, sell and dispose of the aforesaid twenty shillings paid in acquittance and the aforesaid shop to the Church of St. Paul's47 if it pleases them, or to any other Church or to whomever they wish, 42 Turstan was the first Alderman of London. H.M.C., p. 26.a (1091), p. 62.b. Loftie, I.e., p. 78. 43 Stow, I.e., ii, pp. 2-4, Victoria County History, I.e., p. 184. In Queenhithe Ward, now Knightrider Street. See Herbert, The Twelve Great Livery Companies, ii, p. 16. 44 Two men of the name of Francigena, i.e. the Frenchman (which might be the reading of Francig' of the text) are mentioned in H.M.C., p. 67.a. Gilbert also held land in "veteri piscaria," ibid., p. 26.a. 45 ibid., pp. 3.a, 26.a?witness to deeds. 46 ibid., p. 352.b?R. de Toenio witness. 47 Roger had sold land and a stone-built house in Old Fish Street (Piscaria) to the Dean and Chapter {ibid., p. 19.a), and probably hoped that Peter Blund would do the same.</page><page sequence="14">medieval jewish mss. in library of st. paul's cathedral. 25 Christian or Jew, save only the above-mentioned services to the above named over-lord of the fee each year. These twenty shillings paid in acquittance and the said shop with its appurtenances I the aforesaid Roger and my heirs will finally warrant to the aforesaid Peter and his heirs or to whomever they give, sell or assign them, against all men and women; and this my charter becomes for them a warranty even as to the aforesaid Peter. Therefore, for this grant, demise, warranty and confirmation by this my charter the aforesaid Peter the Jew gave me thirty silver marks by way of earnest (in gersumam); and I have given possession (seisin) to the said Peter in the presence of the following witnesses, William de Haverilla,48 Thomas his son, John Bocuinte,49 James (Jacob) the Alderman,50 Walter Brun, William Chamberlain,51 at that time Sheriffs of London, Roger de Desert,52 Arnold son of Alulf,53 Michael son of John, Richard his son, Abraham son of Avegai,54 Abraham son of Brun,55 Isaac son of Margalicia,56 Fleming57 the Jew. e. MUNIMENTS, ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 28.A.231.5* Peter, son of William, son of Alulf59 and Aaron, son of Abraham60 concerning the grant of forty acres of land in acton to eustace de Fauconberg, Bishop of London61. 1223. Text Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Petrus filius Willelmi filii Alulfi dedi et eoneessi et hae earta mea confirmaui Domino Eustaehio Lundoni ensi Episcopo quadraginta 7 acras terre arabilis in Actona . in campo 48 The witnesses were all prominent in London civic life. William de Haverilla was Sheriff in 1190 and Alderman in 1203. Stow, I.e., p. 150. 49 Sheriff in 1190. 50 J. Fitz Bartholomew, Alderman and Sheriff in 1199. Mayor in 1216. 51 Brun and Chamberlain, Sheriffs in 1202. 52 Sheriff in 1199. "Sheriffin 1198. See note 59. 54 Father of Aaron, who signed the two Starrs on pp. 27, 30. See Loewe, I.e., ii, 63. In A.E., he is mentioned on p. 80 (1183), p. 88 (1186), p. 138 (1189), and he is among the London contributors to the Donum. 55 See Donum list (Miscellanies i, lxii, lxxii). 56 For Margaret. (See Loewe, I.e., i, 25.) In 1183, her daughter married a son of Samuel of Northampton (A.E., pp. 85, 144). Her sons Leon, Vives and Elias are in the Donum list. c</page><page sequence="15">26 MISCELLANIES. qui uocatur pulle . in Sinistra parte uie que se extendit de Actona uersus Gilling' . Et dimidiam acram terre ad 7 habendam uiam suam uersus terram illam . Habendas et tenendas ipsi Eustacbio uel cui illas dare uel assignare uoluerit iure hereditario . reddendo inde mihi 7 e^ heredibus meis annuatim . vnam libram Cymini . uel in optione episcopi uel eius assignatorum duos denarios ad festum Sancti Michaelis pro omni seruicio et 7 exactione . Saluo forinseco seruicio quantum pertinet ad quadraginta acras in eadem uilla . Et ego Petrus et heredes mei warantizabimus predicto Eustachio 7 et eis quibus predictam terram dederit uel assignauerit in perpetuum contra omnes homines per pre dictum seruicium . Pro hac autem donatione et concessione et waranti 7 zatione predictus Eustachius adquietauit me de Deeem Marcis . uersus Aaron filium Abrahe filii Auegaie . Et ut hec mea donatio concessio et waran 7 tizatio perpetuam optineant firmitatem . presentem cartam sigilli mei appositione communiui . Hiis Testibus . Magistris Reginaldo de Radenors 7 ? Johanne de Reigate . Roberto de Archis . David de Thoke . Hugone de Davintre . Ricardo Haket . Ricardo de Berking*. Ricardo de Linton . Waltero de 7 Stebbeh' . Ricardo de Hulleburn' et multis aliis. Translation. Know (all) present and to come that I, Peter, son of William, son of Alulf, have given and granted and confirmed by this my charter to Lord Eustace, Bishop of London, forty acres of arable land in Acton62 57 Cp. A.E., p. 241?name of a resident of Hertford (1204). 58 H.M.C., p. 31.b. "A Hebrew starra is also attached." This was folded small in the loops of the seal-strings. 59 The family of Alulf (Aluf, Athulf, Arnulf) was famous in the City. William, father of Peter, was Sheriff in 1193, Arnold (a witness of D., p. 23) in 1198, and their brother, Alderman and Sheriff Constantine, was hanged for high treason?together with a nephew?in 1222. See Besant, I.e., i, p. 22, Stow, I.e., ii, p. 150. Peter granted many estates to St. Paul's, including twenty acres of ground in Acton and a manse?through Geoffrey de Lucy, Dean, 1231-1241. (See H.M.C., pp. 31.a, 34.a.) He had business dealings with Aaron in land at Watford (Lit. Claus., ii, p. 200. in 1227) and borrowed money in 1235 (Close Bolls, p. 113): also with Aaron le Blund who bought a house from him in Colechurch Street (ibid., 1228, p. 54. ibid., 1234, p. 484). A younger Constantine, son of Aluf, owed money to Aaron Blund, Leo of Milk Street, Moses of Milk Street and his sons and Jose, in 1236. (Close Bolls, p. 298.) See Loewe, I.e., ii, 71, 72, 125. 60 See note ?. 81 See note 10. C2See " Acton, Middlesex," by W. King Baker, p. 35.</page><page sequence="16">ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL LIBRARY. E (p. 25) F {p. 28)</page><page sequence="17">MEDIEVAL JEWISH MSS. IN LIBRARY OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 27 in the field that is called Pulle on the left side of the road that leads from Acton to Ealing,63 and half an acre of land to have his way towards that land. To be had and held by him, Eustace, or by whomever he wishes to give or assign that property by right of inheritance, by paying hence to me annually and to my heirs one pound of cumin, or, at the option of the Bishop, or, of his assigns, two pence at the Feast of St. Michael for all service and exaction, saving only any external service that apper? tains to the forty acres in that town. And I, Peter, and my heirs, will warrant to the aforesaid Eustace and to whomever he gives or assigns the aforesaid land for ever against all men by the above-mentioned service. For this gift and grant and warranty the aforesaid Eustace has acquitted me of ten marks against Aaron son of Abraham son of Avegai. And in order that this my gift, grant and warranty may obtain perpetual validity?I have made this my charter sure by the affixing of my seal. Witnesses: Master Reginald de Radenors, John de Reigate, Robert de Archis,64 David de Thoke, Hugo de Daventry, Richard Haket, Richard de Barking, Richard de Linton, Walter de Stebbeh,65 Richard de Hulleburn,66 and many others. Text of Starr. ?map^o? pxaanK jnarw nnw n*mn mia n&amp;a own *m i tmirVa pain miw? ina nna ?nVo?? m??? oyipt in?? ^ sno 2 ^ n^n rpiW larnx ntr?*? rrsrnt? tm Vip^ nbwb p aa1?^ p tn^a 3 Y?an owx tV "?moo d*?pipT mwn iVk Torrn jrr *]bnn p *nin * tnpa nsnV nxt tpVa p m1?^ p ?n*?? p^ma ?mwpDp? tm apnpa 5 sin nW?a mpa d^ik oma Vs; in dip Vikp1? "tnm na e ??nann wnrw nai nV^aV naman ?n^d 7 1 omaa n t?onn n nnx 1 I_:_:_i 63 Ealing, previously called Gilling or Ylling. Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names, p. 149. 84 In a deed, dated 1217, he obtains land in the parish of St. Faith of St. Paul. H.M.C., pp. 9a, and 11a. 65 Or Stebbenheth, Stepney. 66 Holborn.</page><page sequence="18">28 miscellanies. Translation. 1 Behold I, the undersigned, make unqualified acknowledgment that the Lord Eustace de Ealeoberge,67 Bishop68 of London, 2 has paid me ten marks, of coin sterling,69 from a certain debt of ten pounds due to me 3 from Peter70 son of William son of Aluf payable at Michaelmas71 in the seventh year72 of the coronation of our Lord the King 4 Henry the son of King John; and on account of these ten marks I have released to him forty acres 5 of land in the town of Acton which he holds73 from Peter son of William son of Aluf, this to wit, 6 that neither I nor my heirs74 may make any demand upon these forty acres by reason of any debt 7 from the aforesaid Peter; and what I have acknowledged I have signed I Aaron son of the pious75 Rabbi Abraham. I F. MUNIMENTS, ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 14.A.1702.7? Paulinus de Bampton sells land, etc., formerly the property of Alan of Shoreditch77 to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's and to Peter, Archdeacon of London.78 1255. Text. Omnibus Christi fidelibus . Magister Paulinus de Bampton' salutem . Noueritis me vendidisse concessisse sursumreddidisse 7 et quietum 67 See note 10. f K?tflK =Eustats, Eustachius, K3H!lKj?^D = Falcoberge* Newcourt, I.e., spells Fauconberg. Le Neve, i.e., p. 284, Fauconberge; Foss, I.e., has Fauconberg (p. 186) and Fauconbridge (p. 324). D.N.B., I.e., Fauconbridge. Other members of the family are spelt in Le Neve (as in the Starr)?Falconberg or Falkeberg. 68 pDJin Bishop. A title common in medieval Jewish literature. Cp. Ben Jehuda, Thesaurus, ii, p. 1039. 69 BrH7BtfK=e*feZre? for tfl^l?tfK, sterling. Cp. M. D. Davis, Shetaroth, p. 322. Loewe, i.e., ii, 1 and 335. vo tp*v?? and K??^?usual forms for Piers (Peter) and Gilma, Gillelmusi (William). 71 7^V=Ikul for 7*p*ti= Michael (Michaelmas). Loewe, i.e., ii, 296. 72 Henry III was crowned in 1216. 73 p^TIl?, i.e. has seisin. Loewe, I.e., ii, 286.</page><page sequence="19">MEDIEVAL JEWISH MSS. IN LIBRARY OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 29 clamasse dominis Decano et capitulo Sancti Pauli Londonie et Petro archidiacono Londonie eorum fratri et concanonico annum et 7 diem et Wastum cum redditibus et omnibus pertinenciis . de terris et tene mentis que fuerunt Alani de Soresdich 7 m parochia de Soresdicb . iuxta Londoniam . qui utlagatus est pro escapio Johannis de frome . a gaiola domini regis de Neuga 7 te . que dominus rex . Henricus . mihi dedit per literas suas patentes . Pro hac autem venditione concessione . sursumredditione et 7 quietumclamatione . dedit mihi dictus . Petrus viginti marcas sterlingorum . Testibus . Simone tune vicecomite Middelsexie . Willelmo 7 de Cornheir Stephano Garasso . Willelmo de Mora . Waltero de Wandleswothe . Radulfo de Gardin' . Roberto de Mon 7 tepessulan' Roberto de Linsted et aliis. Translation. To all faithful in Christ Master Paulinus de Bampton sends greeting. Know ye that I have sold, granted, surrendered and quit-claimed to my lords the Dean79 and Chapter of St. Paul's, London, and to Peter, the Archdeacon of London, their brother and fellow Canon, a year and a day and waste80 with rents and all appurtenances of the lands and tenements which belonged to Alan of Shoreditch in the parish of Shore ditch by London, who was outlawed because of the escape of John de 74 Note the double to indicate the plural ending. 75 The only other known example of the title "POH is in Davis, I.e., p. 5. Cp. Loewe, I.e., ii, 165. 76 H.M.C., p. 14.b. "Attached to the deed is a Hebrew 'Star' relating to the same property." The Latin charter does not name Aaron, but, from the Hebrew it is clear that, until Aaron had released his claims upon Alan of Shoreditch, as he also did for Sir Thomas de Bassingburn, mentioned in the same Starr, Paulinus could not sell the property of Alan to the Cathedral. The two documents are fastened together by string. 77 ibid. Pive deeds relating to Alan are mentioned; see note u. 78 See note 12. 79 Walter of London (de Salerne). Dean 1254-1256, Later Archbishop of Tuam. Newcourt, I.e., p. 37. Le Neve, I.e., p. 309. Mentioned together with Peter of New? port, H.M.C., p. 31.a. (1256). 80 See Wharton, Law Lexicon, p. 921, "The Crown had for a year and a day the profits of lands and tenements of those attainted of petit treason or felony . . . and the right to lay waste such property by destroying the houses and doing much other damage . . . unless the lord of the fee agreed for the redemption of such waste." Cp. Chester, Modern Real Property, p. 167.</page><page sequence="20">30 MISCELLANIES. Frome from the King's prison of Newgate,81 which my lord King Henry gave to me by his letters patent.82 For which sale, grant, surrender and acquittance the aforesaid Peter has given me twenty marks sterling. Witnesses: Simon, then Sheriff of Middlesex,82a William de Cornhill, Stephan Garass (le Gras),83 William de Mora, Walter de Wandsworth, Ralph de Gardin (Gray's Inn), Robert de Montepessulan, Robert de Linsted and others. Text of attached Starr. oitaVi /t pnnw Tva wvra omaa o'KaV? d'aipn wdVi nt^DpVi * -w-na ]w nsnV akt pmw trwi?a Knatmnn pip? mp?a * ttronV Sm ow nsnaVi bwwb viaa d^am o^ia* ?"anm ? d'aipn viaoniDun Va nv o^oan *?a Vs; n^aipin m*!)^ uropVi * ca^n vn pniwr ?Krt k ik amaraan woww am nw nWw ? ja jn* -nann wnnv nai idio oVw rmnaa "i^V ik ^ * onaa p pnx Translation. 1 Behold I, the undersigned, make unqualified acknowledgment that I have released and remitted to the Dean84 and to the Chapter85 81 The details of the story of Alan's outlawry through the escape of John de Frome from Newgate prison would make interesting reading, if known. 82 H.M.C., p. 14.b., No. 1703?King Henry grants to his "well-beloved servant" Master Paulinus de Bampton the lands of the outlawed Alan (1255). 82a jYom the time of Henry I until recent days, the Sheriffs of London acted as Sheriffs of Middlesex. There is no mention of this Simon in any list of Sheriffs. The Sheriff for the year 1255 was Stephen de Oystergate, who was a witness in the deed of Sir Thomas de Bassingburn (No. 62?see note 89) of the same year, and the scribe may have made an error in writing Simon. 83 Alderman of St. Botolph, Aldgate. See Besant, I.e., p. 396. H.M.C., pp. 14.b., 15.b. 84 fcWNT. Dean. Form of the Norman-French deien or dien, from decanus (Cp. Oxford Dictionary, s.v.), with X silent added. 85 Chapter. Form of N.F. capitre or chapitre, from capitulum (ibid.). The phrase "Dean and Chapter" occurs in no other Starr, hitherto discovered.</page><page sequence="21">medieval jewish mss. in library of st. paul's cathedral. 31 2 of St. Paul's86 of London and to Peter (Piers) the Archdeacon87 of St. Paul's of London and to those who act 3 on their behalf all the rights88 with all appertaining thereto that Thomas de Bassigburne89 granted to the aforesaid Dean. 4 and to the Chapter and to Peter and to those who act on their behalf in inheritance in the town of Shoreditch90 5 in the place that is called Haggerston91 in the parish of Shoreditch; this to wit, that neither I ??er92 6 nor my heirs nor any persons who act on my behalf are able to make any claim or demand whatsoever on the aforesaid Dean 7 and Chapter and Peter, regarding all the aforesaid rights with all appertaining thereto 8 by reason of any debt that Thomas de Bassigburne or Alan(e)93 of Shoreditch owed 9 to me or to my children94 from the creation of the worlcl to its end, and what I have acknowledged I have signed, Aon con of95 I Aaron son of Abram. 88 T71D. Puls (Paul's)?unusual form. 87 7pWm*)X=artsdecal. Note curious Hebrew form with V (I) instead of 3 (n), from archidiaconus. See Loewe, I.e., ii, xxi. 88 Literally, taxes, i.e. feudal rights and services. 89 Sir Thomas de Bassingburn (spelt in Hebrew without the n) was the son of Sir Nicholas, who held a fourth part of a knight's fee in Haggerston (c. 1240, Testa de Nevill, p. 877). In 1255, Sir Thomas presented his property in " Haregotistone in the parish of Soresdich by London" to the Dean and Chapter. (H.M.C., p. 32.b., No. 62.) Among the witnesses to this deed are the same seven City men as in F,? William de Cornhill, etc.?which points to F being of the same year (1255). Before he could do this, Aaron?to whom he was in debt?had to give him by this Starr a quitclaim for all his liabilities. Cp. L.C.C., Survey of London, Shoreditch, p. 31. 90 p'HTlty ?Shordilc. Other spellings are Sordige (1204), Soresdic, Soresdich. See list ibid. 91 Hebrew is Hargerstone (or Hargedstone). Other spellings are Hergotestane (Domesday Book), Haregodeston, Hargarston (from Haggerston in Northumber? land), ibid. Cp. Sir H. Ellis, History and Antiquities of the Parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch (1798), p. 95. 92 The writer finds he has not sufficient room for the word VWTP'I on the line, so he strikes out what he has written and writes the full word on the next line. 93 Xl^K for Alan, with silent N. In Loewe, Starr No. 1194 (i, 75) spelt 94 See note 74. 95 He left out the *1 in "pHN, and so signed again. In document E the signature is DHIIK. In Davis, I.e., p. 279. Starr 138, (Westminster Abbey Muniments, No. 6754), his father's name is spelt D*12X, as here and in the Starr No. 1178.b, photographed in Loewe, I.e., ii, 80. The style of Hebrew writing in E is different from that of F?and hardly seems to be by the same hand, though it may be the work of Aaron in his old age. The caligraphy of F, Davis' Starr 138, and Loewe's No. 1178.b, seems to be identical. At the back of the Starr is written Star' Aaro\</page><page sequence="22">32 miscellanies. G. MUNIMENTS, ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 60.A.37.9? Grant by King Edward I of the houses in Ironmonger Lane97 of Leo son of Cresse son of Master Elias98 to Isabella, widow of Adam de St. Alban's. 1291. Text of royal grant." Edwardus dei gratia Rex Angliae Dominus Hibernise et Dux Aquitanise omnibus ad quos presentes littere 7 peruenierint salutem Sciatis quod coneessimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris Isabelle que fuit uxor Ade de 7 Sancto Albano Iunioris domos illas et pertinenciis in Londonie que fuerunt Leonis filii Cressei filii 7 Magistri Elie Iud ei in parochia Sancti Martini Pomer in Ismonggereslane per exilium eiusdem Iudei a 7 regno nostro tamquam eschaeta nostra in manu nostra existentes et que ad quatuor marcas extenduntur . Habendas 7 et tenendas eidem Isabelle et beredibus suis vel cui illas secundum consuetudinem cunctas predictas dare vel assignare 7 voluerit de nobis et beredibus nostris in perpetuum . Reddendo inde nobis et heredibus nostris unum denarium per 7 manus vicecomitum eiusdem ciuitatis singulis annis ad scaccarium nostrum Pasche . et faciendo alliis dominis 7 feodi illius seruicia inde debita et consueta . In cuius rei testimonium has literas nostras fieri fecimus pa J tentes . Teste me ipso apud Enestane tercio die februari . anno regni nostri Decimo Nono.100 (Endorsement in a different hand): Inrotulatus inter communia de octavo sancti Michaelis anno xviii. Translation. Edward,101 by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Anjou, sends greeting to all to whom the present letters 96 H.M.C., p. 45.b. 97 In the Jewry. 98 A member of the Hagin family. See Stokes, Studies in Anglo-Jewish History, p. 7, and Jacobs, Jewish Ideals, p. 162, where the houses of Leo in Ironmonger Lane are marked on the map. 99 The wording varies in the Lansdowne Transcript and in Webb's version. 100Lansdowne and Webb read "XXVII Die Decembris Anno Regni Regi Edwardi filii Regis Henrici xix apud Ashrugge" (Ashridge, Bucks.). 101 The letter E in the text has faded.</page><page sequence="23">ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL LIBRARY, G (p. 32) Seal of Kino Edwabd I.</page><page sequence="24">MEDIEVAL JEWISH MSS. IN LIBRARY OP ST* PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 33 come. Know that we have granted for ourselves and our heirs to Isabella, who was the wife of Adam de Saint Alban's the younger, those houses and appurtenances in London which belonged to Leo son of Cresse son of Master Elias the Jew in the parish of St. Martin Pomer in Iron? monger Lane through the exile of the said Jew from our realm as our escheats remaining in our hands, and which are valued at four marks. To be had and held by the said Isabella and her heirs or by whomsoever she may wish to give, or assign all of them according to custom?from us and our heirs for ever. By paying hence to us and our heirs one penny a year by the hands of the Sheriffs of the said city to our Exchequer at Easter, and by performing to the other lords of that fee the services and debts and customary dues. In testimony of which act we have caused these patent letters to be made. Witness Myself at Enestane (Oxford) the third day of February in the nineteenth year of our reign. (Endorsement). Enrolled among the general business of the octave of St. Michael in the eighteenth year.</page></plain_text>

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