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Joseph Salvador 1716-1786

Maurice Woolf

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 MAURICE WOOLF Joseph Jessurun Rodrigues, better known as Joseph Salvador, was born in 1716 into a wealthy Sephardi family who had come to England from Holland towards the end of the seventeenth century. He became an outstand? ing business-man in mid-eighteenth-century London and leading financial adviser to the Government. He was active in communal affairs, the first Honorary Secretary of the Board of Deputies and subsequently its President. Financial troubles overshadowed his later years and he left England for America, where he died in 1786. The first indication of the Salvador family in Anglo-Jewry is to be found in 'El Libro de los Acuerdos',1 the records of the Creechurch Lane Synagogue, where there is a reference2 dated 1676 to an imposta or synagogue tax of one pound against the name of 'Jahacob Salvador, foreigner'. This was Joseph's great uncle?his grandfather's brother?who had come from Holland to found the family's London business in Lime Street. After Jacob's death in 1736 the bulk of his estate passed to Joseph's father, Francis (Daniel), to be held in trust for Joseph. The property was considerable and in addition to the business and house in Lime Street there was a landed estate in Tooting.3 In 1738 Joseph married Rachel (Leonora), the daughter of Isaac (Antonio) Lopes, third Baron Suasso.4* They were married on 4 October and the following day Salvador opened an account with the Bank of England, deposit? ing ?5,000 in cash.5 One report6 assessed the bride's dowry at ?40,000. She was to bear him six daughters and two sons. Both boys died in infancy. Judith, the eldest daughter, born c. 1739, married, in 1760, Joshua, the son of Jacob Mendes Da Costa;7 her dowry was ?8,000.8 The fourth daughter, Sarah, married,9 in 1767, with a dowry of ?13,000,10 her first cousin, Daniel, or Francis, the son of Joseph's brother Jacob. For the eleven years 1738-1749 Joseph worked under his father, who traded as Francis Salvador.11 They were active in the Spanish and Portuguese trade and probably also in the contraband trade from Jamaica to the Spanish Main.12 They functioned as the London factors of the English merchants of Cadiz13 and in addition to merchandising and shipping they had other interests. In 1746 they were con? cerned as agents in the building of a chapel for the Portuguese Embassy in Audley Street?the chapel, incidentally, in which three years later David Garrick was married. The project appears to have run into rough waters. The Marquis of Pombal, Portuguese Ambassador in London, was at the time on a special mission to Vienna, and his Charge* -d'Affaires, Francisco Caetano, complained bitterly in letters to his chief of mistakes, deficiencies, and mismanage? ment in the building of the chapel. Joseph, writing on behalf of his father,14 who was unwell, defended their part in the proceedings, and Francis later lay the blame for bungling on the builder, who, he said, was Protestant and did not understand Roman chapels.15 The firm appears to have had considerable diffi? culty in obtaining payment and the elder Salvador, according to Caetano, was on occa? sion very rude and persistent.16 In 1749Joseph joined forces with his younger brother, Jacob, to trade as Joseph and Jacob Salvador,17 but Jacob, only 21, died the same year. An evaluation of the business at the time of his death shows the brothers' joint holdings to be worth almost ?57,000, and Jacob's fortune more than ?40,000.18 The business continued to be known as Joseph and Jacob Salvador19 until 1754, when father and son operated together again?this time as part? ners.20 Francis died in the October of that year and Joseph became the sole proprietor of the business. East India Company stock to the value of ?8,500 passed to him with his father's estate21 and his current account at the Bank of England, which had lain quiet, now grew very active and from early 1755 workings 104</page><page sequence="2">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 105 were numerous, with amounts of between ?5,000 and ?10,000 appearing frequently on both credit and debit sides.22 A few months after his brother Jacob's death he had commenced to operate in his own right, under the aegis of the East India Company, as an exporter of coral to and an importer of diamonds from India.23 In the twenty-one years that followed, his dealings in coral, precious stones, and silver were to amount to more than ?145,00024 and in this very lucrative trade, in which many of the London Sephardim engaged, he ranked second only to the Francos. Meanwhile, despite the claims of a large business and increasing social involvements, he played a leading part in Bevis Marks Synagogue affairs. In 1746 he was Parnas25 and when the Swedish King and Senate invited wealthy Portuguese Jews to take up their abode in Sweden it fell to him to write to Stockholm thanking the gentlemen of the Senate for their condescension but explaining that the continued kindness of the English King and Parliament did not allow them (the Jews) to leave the United Kingdom.26 He was Parnas again in 1751, 1755, and 1765.27 In 1748 he was concerned in founding a communal hospital, the Beth Holim, and in a scurrilous play entitled 'The Jerusalem In? firmary',28 which was, together with a carica? ture, published anonymously the following year to attack alleged mismanagement of the hospital, he was, with several other members of the board, pilloried by the writer, who alleged of him that he was a proud, mad coxcomb who thought himself better than the President because he was related to an ambassador. It is difficult to identify this ambassador and, if the allusion is to his connections with Pombal, no genealogical link has since been unearthed.29 The accompanying caricature does provide the only likeness of him extant and, in enlarge? ment, gives us, albeit a crude one, some idea of his appearance. At the time of the abortive Jew Bill of 1753 he vigorously associated himself with the community's endeavours to reduce the dis? abilities affecting foreign-born Jews and in a letter to the Duke of Newcastle on 14 January30 he outlined seven reasons why the Bill should be enacted. In that same year?an eventful one for London Jewry?among the plethora of pam? phlets that poured from the presses, for and against the implementing of the Bill, appeared one for the Jewish cause entitled 'Considera? tions on the Bill to permit persons professing the Jewish Religion to be Naturalised by Parliament. In several letters from a merchant in town to his friend in the country'. This was followed by a second from the same pen: 'Further considerations, etc' They were signed 'Philo Patriae' and among the responses evoked was one from Jonas Hanway, the philanthropist and traveller, headed 'Letters admonitory and argumentative from J. H-y merchant to J. S-r, merchant'. Hanway, in some respects a man of sound judgment? he was one of the first men to carry an umbrella in London?sensed the connection between Salvador and 'Philo Patriae,31 and the London Evening Post for 22 September of that year referred to the pamphlets as having been 'published by a Jew under the mark of a Christian'. A scrutiny of 'Further Considera? tions' does indeed show it to have been, if not actually written by him, largely inspired by Salvador. It purports to come from the pen of a non-Jew but the artifice wears exceedingly thin. The writer obviously has a close acquaint? ance with the well-thumbed passages of the Sephardi prayer-book, from which the quota? tions are many; he writes knowledgably on the Dutch system of land tenure; discusses the exact mercantile functions of the London Jewry and computes their total capital. He writes about the Jewish shareholding in the Dutch East India Company and of the important role played by Jews in the diamond coral trade. His references to the Ashkenazim are somewhat disdainful and his observations on the trade in bullion dovetail with Salvador's expressed opinions to the Treasury upon this subject. The general tenor of the pamphlet stamps it as the work of a business-man rather than a politician. Any remaining uncertainty as to its author? ship or sponsorship is virtually removed by two footnotes. One, on page 71, refers to the fact that 'although Joseph Salvador (or Mr.</page><page sequence="3">106 Maurice Woolf Salvador Junior) was an alien in Holland and though he never resided there six months at a time he yet enjoyed an entailed landed estate from his ancestors'. Another, on page 73, out? lines the case of 'Old Mr. S-', who, being an alien, had two sons; the elder was born before the father's denization; the younger died and left sons. 'By the law, should these sons inherit a landed estate and die minors, their uncle cannot inherit the landed estate, the right of inheritance reverting through an alien 'ere it arrives at him; now this the law does not allow. It is plain this has no analogy with the Jews enjoying landed estates. First because were that the case, how could the minors, who are Jews, inherit lands ? Secondly, because the uncle spoken of is and has been many years possessed of lands in fee devised by his ancestors.' These passages bear unmistakably the personal imprint of special pleading. Salvador's connection with the sponsoring of the Bill was no secret and his name, together with those of Gideon, Franco, and Mendes, continually appeared in the satirical columns of the day. His lavish parties at Tooting did not escape press notice; his lobbying brought him a measure of obloquy and there is an account32 of how he and his friends were jeered at in the theatre and forced to retire. A paragraph in the London Evening Post for 10 July 1753 reads: 'A few days ago Mr. Salvador, the rich Jew who married the daughter of Baron Suasso, gave a grand entertainment at his seat at Tooting in Surrey to a great number of noblemen and gentlemen, members of both Houses of Parliament'. And from the same paper on 26 July: 'We can assure the public that J-h S-r Esq., who was so instru? mental in procuring the famous Naturalisation Act for the Children of Israel threatened that if it did not take place he would leave the Kingdom of England with all his effects:?a menace of such importance that we cannot wonder at the influence it had upon our patriotic rulers; who in every instance are surprisingly attentive to the good of the Nation." Both the extracts above were taken out of retirement in 1940 to do service in a Nazi publication, Das Judentum in England, by Claus Kr?ger, alias Dr. Peter Aldag. Apart from the caricature of him in 'The Jerusalem Infirmary' and the attendant piece of scurrility, both of limited value, there is an almost total lack of contemporary references to Salvador. One exception, in the diary33 of Haim David Azulai, the Cabbalist and traveller, who met him in the spring of 1755, when Salvador was Parnas, shows him ready to use his influence in kindly fashion. Azulai, arriving here from Holland on a fund-gathering mission, was warned by the Bevis Marks Elders that nothing could be done for him before the next Mahamad, which was not due to convene until late autumn, but they went on to advise him, 'We do not know what you can do but if you are wise behold Senor Joseph Salvador, who is one of the Parnassim, is going to the waters; he is very clever and whatever he says is done immediately and, when Joseph returns home, if you find favour in his eyes, he will not rest until he has com? pleted the matter well'. And Azulai continues, 'So when Senor Joseph Salvador came I went to him and saw him eye to eye and I spoke as to my mission in a humble and insinuating manner, and he answered, "Do not you know that in these countries no man can do any? thing except by the assent of the majority, but at any rate go and see Senor Franco and Senor Mendes and they will help you". And so I took my leave of him. The great man took trouble and called a meeting of the Parnassim and I went to the meeting, but the other Parnassim were against me; but he asked for a show of hands and showed that he was in my favour and I left the Mahamad. He did not cease until he had got a special general meeting summoned'. And Azulai goes on to say that a collection from the Yehidim was organised and the matter ended well. In March 1754 Henry Pelham died and was succeeded as Prime Minister by his brother Thomas Pelham Holies, the Duke of New? castle. This first Government of Newcastle's came to end in November 1756, when the Duke of Devonshire and Pitt took over, but in June 1757 Newcastle was again Premier, this time for five years, and it was during this</page><page sequence="4">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 107 Administration that Salvador emerged as an expert on public finance, adviser to the Treasury, and an important underwriter of Government issues. In 1759 the war with France was in its fourth year?a year of severe financial crisis caused by the unprecedented costs involved. There was a drain of specie from the Bank to meet foreign commitments, credit was in a parlous state, and when, at the end of the year, a loan of ?8,000,000 was floated, the harassed and crisis-weary Duke of Newcastle turned to the principal and most responsible men in the City for support. Salvador was one of 22 such men who under? wrote this loan.34 He made himself responsible for ?250,000 and could now be considered as one of an inner coterie of 'leading city men in close touch with the Treasury and deeply engaged in Government finance.'35 The only other Jew on the list of subscribers was Samson Gideon. His great days were almost over and Salvador was ready to don his mantle. He may well have lacked Gideon's single-mindedness and thrust but was beginning to display a shrewd and expert grasp of finance as it related to problems of government. He wrote frequently to the Prime Minister but not all the correspondence dealt with monetary matters. One letter,36 written apparently with great urgency on 18 November 1760, advised the Duke of a Prussian victory over the Austrians? news that had been brought to Salvador that day by the masters of two merchant vessels (a minor piece of lay intelligence, but which preceded Nathan Mayer Rothschild and Waterloo by over half a century). In September 1761 Salvador provided Newcastle, at the Prime Minister's request, with a lengthy discourse37 on finance together with suggestions for ways and means of raising money. In some 3,000 words he touched upon prevailing causes of market instability and insisted that new remedial methods were called for. 'Don't', he said in effect, 'issue new stocks identical to the current 4% annuities? any new issue must be made to look attractive to new buyers', and he proposed a lottery. He said that lotteries had been degraded in their form of a pure gamble and insisted that the subscriber be given some security and not allowed to lose his entire investment. He went on to suggest that Newcastle convene a meeting of the principal loan contractors and explain to them that although there was no immediate cause for alarm?indeed, every hope of a peace?it was nevertheless desired to raise ?8,000,000; ?4,000,000 required forthwith and the balance at such future time as it could be obtained on terms favourable to Government. He advised Newcastle, above all, against hurrying into 'a detrimental bargain5 and added, 'Having mentioned all that occurs to me in obedience to your Grace's commands I beg leave to conclude by observing that every circumstance confirms the expediency of a peace if to be obtained on a reasonable footing and that the success of this proposal is excessively dubious if war goes on'. And, with notable insight, he wrote, 'Likewise that if some measure could be taken to raise a considerable part of the sum within the year 'twould not only be of infinite service but would dispose people to a peace who, feeling few of the evils of war, treat it with unconcern.' In those days of overt soliciting of patronage, when almost every other letter addressed to Newcastle by M.P.s came under the heading of what Namier called 'Private and Pecuniary',38 it is not surprising to find Salvador, although ineligible for Parliament but on familiar terms with more than one Cabinet Minister, offering his services in lucrative directions. It should be borne in mind that he received no direct pay? ment for his considerable services as financial adviser to the Government. In 1761 he asked Lord Barrington, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, for the post of remitter of pay to the Gibraltar garrison and, meeting on 22 December, the Cabinet appointed him, tem? porarily.39 The following month, learning that an expedition was to be sent to Portugal, he wrote the Duke of Newcastle40 offering his 'service in those parts', doubtless as a trans? mitter of funds for paying the army. He claimed the office as a reward for services rendered to Government and pointed to his having been a great sufferer by the war and that his recent underwriting activities had proved very costly to him and to those of his friends who had</page><page sequence="5">108 Maurice Wool/ joined him in the subscriptions for Govern? ment issues. He pleaded that if given the contract 'this will add to my weight and enable me to steady my friends in future measures for the public service'. This was the first intimation from Salvador that his own finances had suffered. It is worth noting here that he appeared at times to have had an unhappy knack of seeking aid from those who themselves were hard pressed.41 By this time?-January 1762?Newcastle was in bad odour with the King, who was on the point of taking away from the Duke the control of patronage. The Prime Minister must have suspected that the days of his ministry were numbered and he did in fact resign two months later. There is no evidence that Salvador obtained the Portugal contract. Ten years previously he had greatly extended his Tooting estate by buying adjoining land (for ?1,700).42 In 1757 he purchased a town house in White Hart Court, Bishopsgate,43 next to Baron Ephraim D'Aguilar, who had married Salvador's niece Sarah Mendes Da Costa. In March 1759 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society;44 in his case a social rather than a scientific honour. He was living in the grand manner, associating with the gentry and nobility, and when, on the acces? sion in 1760 of George III, the Bevis Marks Elders formed a committee of deputies45 to convey a loyal message to the crown, Salvador was the natural choice to represent the Sephardim. With Aaron Franks and Henry Isaacs he went to Court on 11 December and was received by the Princess of Wales, the Duke of York, and Princess Augusta.46 The Ashkenazim had had to urge their own inclu? sion upon this royal occasion but on 14 December, at a meeting of the Mahamad, it was resolved47 that in future matters of common concern the deputies of the three London synagogues act jointly. This was virtually the birth of the Board of Deputies and Salvador was made Secretary; later he was to be President and remained so until 1783. With the Deputies he was concerned in 1760 with the affairs of the Jamaican congregation;48 in 1766 and 1778 with the Bill for Regulating Brokers;49 in 1779 with the Act for impressing men in the King's service and possible action in the event of an invasion;50 and finally in 1783 whether to address the King on the successful ending to the siege of Gibraltar.51 In March 1762 the third Earl of Bute super? seded Newcastle as Premier and in the August of that year decided to negotiate for a peace with France by sending a minister-pleni? potentiary to Paris. He conveyed his decision, traditionally, to the Lord Mayor of London and, significantly, to Salvador,52 whom he instructed to spread the good news with a view to strengthening public funds; an illuminating indication of Salvador's authority in this sphere. Charles Jenkinson?later to be first Earl of Liverpool?was now Bute's Under-Secretary of State and the following year was promoted to be Joint Secretary to the Treasury?a post he was to retain under Grenville. Salvador, now rising to the peak of his importance to Government, became Jenkin son's chief financial adviser under both Bute and Grenville and the Budgets of 1763 and 1764 incorporated much of his advice.53 A proprietor of considerable East India Company stock?he had added ?7,00054 worth in 1761 to an already substantial hold? ing, every ?500 of which could be used as a 'split' vote in the Company's court55?he became actively involved in the 'politics' of India House and functioned as an agent be? tween the Government and the Company, although, contrary to belief, there is no evidence of his ever becoming a director.56 Early in 1763 he acted as unofficial inter? mediary in an attempt to reconcile Clive in his quarrel with the Directors57 and it was apparently at that time he made the acquaint? ance of the great soldier-statesman. Through? out the years that followed he became a staunch friend and supporter of Clive in his fight against Sulivan and when, in 1764, the state of insurrection and civil disorder in Bengal became critical it was Salvador who led the clamour within the Company to send Clive out as the only possible man to restore order.58 He not only advanced this scheme at the Court meetings but convinced the Treasury of its desirability.59 Clive, however, imposed condi? tions involving, inter alia, the dismissal of</page><page sequence="6">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 109 Sulivan from the chair, and in the April it was again Salvador who organised the Clive faction for the battle against Sulivan that followed in the General Court. He arranged for Clive and his friends to meet Grenville60 and helped to muster their forces. When the friends of Clive were known, Salvador wrote to Jenkinson61 advising that only the Prime Minister's support was now needed to ensure success. Grenville gave his blessing62 and in June Clive sailed to India for the third time. Ironically, as Salvador's influence flourished, his private fortunes declined. Heavily involved as he was in the Portuguese trade, he had, in 1755, suffered much financial loss as a result of the Lisbon earthquake,63 but his stability, although perhaps shaken, was, on that occa? sion, far from being jeopardised. Now, things were more serious. The great credit crisis of 1763, after the Seven Years' War, brought disastrous consequences to commercial interests in both Amsterdam and London; in particular the Dutch East India Company suffered and the Jews were deeply involved.64 In August 1764 George Clive wrote65 to his cousin Robert, then en route for India, 'Mr. Salvador has not stopt payment, Aaron Franks and Serra66 having advanced him ?40,000 tho' of late years he has lost near ?120,000 yet nobody seems to doubt when his affairs are settled he will be worth upwards of ?80,000'. In a letter to Clive67 the following November Salvador wrote, 'some disgusting circumstances in my family have determined me to lessen my foreign engagements and to draw in my own. I shall by this means be more at leisure to attend home affairs and my friends' concerns than ever and shall be happy in your Lord? ship's commands while with an easy fortune which I will place at home I will seek to pass my latter days in tranquility.' The 'disgusting circumstances' alluded to litigation with the Mendes Da Costas over his daughter Judith's dowry and marriage settlement.68 Despite reverses, he was still far from poor and very much 'in business'. He owned a share in at least one of the East India Company ships69 and he engaged in several diamond transactions with Clive himself, who during 1765-1766 was sending home a considerable quantity of gems for his wife and for sale in London. Salvador was partnered in some of these transactions by a Joseph Fowke but they quarrelled over the disposal of the cash pro? ceeds of the sales. Salvador thought to invest it on Clive's behalf but Fowke preferred to get rid of the money to Clive's attorneys.70 Clive eventually wrote71 to Fowke telling him to be guided by Salvador, who, in his own estima? tion, was at that time trading in India to the value of near ?60,000.72 In July 1767 Clive was again in England and Salvador was quickly in touch.73 In August the two men met at Bath to discuss East India Company affairs in general and Clive's diamonds in particular.74 It was in that year, too, that Salvador effected a meeting between Clive and Isaac De Pinto, the cele? brated economist and author of the Traite de la Circulation et du Credit, a notable treatise on political economy. De Pinto was seeking reward for his political endeavours on behalf of the East India Company after the Treaty of Paris and Salvador, who was related by marriage and who acted for this Dutch Jew in London, reminded Clive on more than one occasion75 that De Pinto sought an audience with him, and Clive's intercession eventually gained for the Dutchman a life annuity from the Company of?500.76 Salvador's letters to Jenkinson and Grenville on finance reflect alike the progress of his authority in governmental circles and a sturdy self-confidence. In the difficult year of 1763 he wrote on 4 October to Grenville,77 'If you choose to appear the restorer of credit, I am ready to do my part among the friends of the Ministry'. Six days later he was busily involved in Budget estimates78 and on 21 October,79 after congratulating Grenville on his success in help? ing the East India Company to negotiate a bank loan, he said that if this 'greatest point that could have been gained' is 'seconded by some other resolute step at a proper time it will put the rating the publick levies of this year in Mr. Grenville's power and will enable him to execute the most sanguine of my wishes . . .'. In November80 he suggested to Grenville</page><page sequence="7">110 Maurice Wool/ that before planning the 'money'd operations of the season' it would be politic for the Prime Minister to acquaint himself with the amount of the foreign debt and that the rate of interest for the year should depend on that knowledge. He suggested a true picture could be obtained by (a) ordering a list of stocks and annuities transacted by foreign letters of attorney? action that had previously been taken in 1750? and (b) computing bullion exports at Harwich and Dover Customs Houses and by assessing imports from figures provided by the Admiralty and the Bank Silver Office. On 3 January 1764 he saw Jenkinson to dis? cuss the Budget and later the same day wrote81 in agitation on the state of the National Debt, which stood at 140 millions. He estimated that with the methods Grenville intended employ? ing, it would take 210 years to discharge it and added, ?the duration of the world is hardly sufficient to finish it'. On 1 February82, in a lucid assessment of the country's financial state and with emphasis on the restoration of public credit, he wrote to Jenkinson, 'We last year owed much abroad and were exhausted of cash; we this year owe little abroad, our cash is in great part re? plenished but a much more alarming danger nods over us; our credit is hurt; our paper wants circulation: 'tis not a superabundant cash that will relieve this evil'. In a short note83 on 8 April he discussed the forthcoming East India Company elections and said that, although a majority of directors friendly to Government appeared probable, 'we have no advices from the Post Office, Custom House nor Excise.' Miss Lucy S. Sutherland84 has quoted this letter as 'particularly significant of the normal technique of Government inter? vention in East India elections.' On 31 March the following year85 Jenkin? son wrote to Thomas Rous, the East India Company chairman, notifying him of a meeting to be held the following day of some of Gren ville's friends to underwrite a Government issue. He ended the note: 'if you think proper to attend, you will find there Sir Samuel Fludyer, Sir George Amyand, Mr. Salvador and several of your friends'. The meeting took place at the King's Arms in Cornhill and was attended by eighteen City men, including Salvador and Moses Franks. Salvador wrote to Jenkinson that evening86 from Garraway's Coffee House to say all had gone well. He was capable, at times, of pressing home a point in picturesque manner. Discoursing on the Jamaican trade in bullion, in a letter87 to Jenkinson early in 1766, he wrote, 'the whole state of this trade will justify one remark which experience leads to: that trade to any country, whence specie or bullion is imported, vivifies or circulates with more efficacy than that which is infinitely larger and finishes only in barter: and thereby proves how essential to any country the trade is with those regions that produce those treasures', and he ends, 'I shall ever remember the adage "Gold in the handling will stick to the fingers like meal".' He was not arrogant, but neither did he underestimate himself and indeed on occasion displayed a lively assertiveness. Of the Rock ingham Ministry he wrote88 in critical vein to Jenkinson in April 1766,'. . . it seems to me that by the inexperience at the helm the same shuffling work is going forward as used to be practiced at Newcastle House where the Government ever duped till Mr. Legge, Lord Barrington and your humble servant vigorously opposing, broke their cabals and reduced them to reason.' (Legge and Barrington were both Chancellors of the Exchequer.) But by October 1768 his private affairs were giving him cause for deep concern and it was apparently at this time he first considered emigrating to America, where in South Carolina he owned 100,000 acres of land pur? chased thirteen years previously for ?2,000.89 He mentioned this property in a letter to Jenkinson90 and said, 'The times are so embarrassing I wish your friendly advice what to do. . . .' His wife, Leonora, had, in 1763, twenty-five years after their marriage, borne him a son. The boy, their eighth child, died in infancy and three years later she too was dead. By 1770 his operations in the coral-diamond trade had come to an end91 and in that year there were other signs that he was hard pressed. He brought an action92 against John Norris, the M.P. for Rye and the widower of Sal? vador's former friend the notorious Catherine</page><page sequence="8">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 111 Fischer,93 to recover ?1,575 which he said he had lent the lady four years previously and before her marriage but which Norris said had been a gift?a fact he was prepared to sub? stantiate by reading in court a letter which he claimed had been written by Salvador to the late Catherine. The letter is interesting for its disclosure of the economics of this friendship. The several amounts listed by Salvador included '?300 towards your support and your family; ?100 towards mourning on your father's decease; ?100 as a present on your journey to Bath and ?100 for expenses on the journey.' Finally '?500 as a token of my love and affection and in consideration of the many necessary expenses you must incur to appear?as I desire you.' In 1771 his last ?500-worth of East India stock was transferred to Pellegrin Treves94 and his account dwindled noticeably.95 His health was deteriorating and he was often crippled by gout. In the same year he became involved in a most unfortunate intrigue.96 There was a dispute at the time between England and Spain over the Falkland Islands, and a man called Barthelemy Tort, secretary to the French Ambassador in London, le Comte de Guines,97 got in touch with him through a Belgian woman known as the Countess of Moriencourt, with whom Salvador was intimately connected and who bore him a natural son,98 and outlined a scheme, to which he claimed the Ambassador was privy, and by which, using secret informa? tion at their disposal, large gains could be made on the stock market. Gambling on a war and a consequent fall in stock prices, Salvador invested some ?8,500 on Tort's behalf but their information was bad. There was no war; Tort left hurriedly for France and Salvador followed him there in a vain attempt to recover the money. The Frenchman was subsequently condemned by the French court for libelling his master the Ambassador by stating he had been in the plot. This unsavoury episode marked a sad decline in Salvador's affairs. Another of his friends involved in an identical wild-cat scheme was Mrs. Margaret Caroline Rudd, a fashionable courtesan, with whom Salvador's name was openly linked.99 She was an accomplice of Robert and Daniel, the no? torious Perreau brothers, in a famous forgery, for which the two men were eventually hanged at Tyburn in 1776. They, too, had specula? ted in the funds, banking on a war with Spain, had lost ?1,300 and had planned the forgery in a desperate attempt to recoup their losses. The year 1773 was another of financial crisis for London and Amsterdam. Many Portuguese Jews of both cities were involved in wild-cat speculation and at least one London banker (Fordyce), who had connection with them, failed.100 By now Salvador was in trouble. His cash reserves had gone and on 3 July he wrote in desperation to Clive asking for a loan of ?5,000.101 He reminded him of his past ser? vices and added, 'The times are such, there is no credit. I exerted my utmost by serving several friends: am now left destitute of cash: a disagreement with my relations is the cause. They distress me . . .'. The main cause of his distress had been his son-in-law, Joshua Mendes Da Costa, who within five years of his marriage to Judith Salvador had become insolvent and had there? after engaged his father-in-law in a protracted legal action over his marriage settlement and had on one occasion, in 1766, turned Judith out of his house.102 In his letter Salvador offered Clive a 50,000 acre tract of his South Carolina land as security and suggested that the General might even be interested in purchasing the estate. The letter could scarcely have been worse timed! Clive at this moment was living in the shadow of condemnation, suffering the enmity of Bur goyne, Fox, and others, and was in utter dejec? tion. It is therefore not surprising that his immaculately kept accounts103 contain no evidence of his having come to the aid of his old supporter. In November 1774 Clive died. The links with the past were snapping. Jenkin? son, that good friend of so many years, appeared ineffective in persuading Lord North to employ Salvador's talent. He no longer inspired con? fidence and was probably showing signs of failing health. His attacks of gout, to which he had been subject for 20 years, were now pro? longed and painful and for a time in the</page><page sequence="9">112 Maurice Wool/ winter of 1776 he entirely lost the use of a hand.104 He did, however, continue to write to Jenkinson on money matters but the old authority was missing. 'I hope I can be service? able', he wrote on 28 November 1776,105 'and am very willing altho' the present situation of my affairs does not permit the exertion I could wish . . .'. In May the following year North dropped his name from the list of loan contractors106 and Salvador complained to Jenkinson that there had been some ill-natured hints unjustly directed at him.107 In January 1778,108 referring to a Govern? ment issue, he said, T shall be ready to do any service herein and can engage for a sum of money if wanted altho' I would rather be an adviser. I would trouble Lord North on the subject but think His Lordship will pay no attention and I must seek some introduction to His Lordship's porter otherwise I shall as last year wait in the lobby and catch cold which my constitution won't bear.' A few months later, in his last letter to Jenkinson,109 he discussed a scheme for the raising of ?5 million and wrote, 'were my situation in life what it has been, bar accidents I would assure success. I now wish it and, if told in time, can by my friends contribute greatly to its success . . .'. A brave but pathetic last throw. After the failure of his appeal to Clive in 1773 he kept going by selling or mortgaging tracts of his South Carolina land and in seven years disposed of half the 100,000-acre property.110 Twenty thousand acres went to his younger sister, Rebecca Mendes Da Costa, to satisfy a judgment she had obtained against him.111 His son-in-law Francis had gone out to South Carolina in 1773 and Joseph had mortgaged to him over 5,000 acres.112 During the American War of Independence the young man had embraced the Colonists' cause and, fighting for them in 1776, was scalped by Red Indians. Four years later his widow, Salvador's daughter Sarah, was, together with her children, baptised at Twickenham.113 In 1784, Joseph, now 68, went out to Caro? lina and settled in Charleston.114 He lived there in primitive conditions until his death on 29 December 1786 and was buried in the Da Costa Cemetery.115 In his will116 he left the bulk of his property and real estate to his three unmarried daughters, and among miscellaneous bequests there was ?100 each to Bevis Marks Synagogue and to the Portuguese congregation in Charleston and ?20 to the German congregation of that town. To his natural son, Joseph Lewis Salvador de Moriencourt, he left ?500. Judith Mendes Da Costa was bequeathed ?100 and a life annuity of ?50. Sarah, the daughter who had been baptised, was cut off with ?10. His last known letter was one sent from Coronaka Creek, in South Carolina, to his cousin Emanuel Mendes Da Costa.117 This is one of the most remarkable of all Salvador's letters; it gives a vivid picture of the harsh uncivilised life he had been forced to live and contains an exhaustive and detailed inventory of the Carolina flora and fauna. His object in writing it was obviously with a view to its being read to the Royal Society. He was now failing badly and complained of his eyes and hands being very much impaired. In spite of this the letter is fascinating and has been published by Dr. Cecil Roth for the American Jewish Archives. How are we to assess this man ? When we compare him to that other great eighteenth-century Jewish financier, Samson Gideon, it becomes abundantly clear that they had little in common either in outlook or bearing. While Gideon wriggled impatiently under the disabilities affecting Jewry and, in the end, sought to throw them off by quitting the synagogue, Salvador, equally inhibited and indeed more eligible socially for any honours, chose to remain a Jew and carry on the fight from within the community. His long association with and acceptability to Jenkinson, the country gentleman of Charter? house and Oxford, must be a good guide to the figure he cut among the country's leaders. Outside business, political, and synagogue affairs, we know comparatively little of his interests, but a list of books he asked Emanuel Mendes Da Costa to obtain for him in 1759118</page><page sequence="10">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 113 shows him to have had quite an academic literary taste and the ability to read French and Spanish. He asked whether Charles Rollin, the French historian, had written any works other than his Histoire Ancienne and his Belles Lettres. He wanted books on the politics and government of Germany; a list of Frederick the Great's political, historical, and military writings?all of which were in French?and he asked for Juan de Mariana's classic History of Spain, translated into Spanish from the original Latin; Ustariz on Commerce and Antonio de Ulloa's Voyages to Measure a Degree (he had probably met Ulloa at the Royal Society), and finally he requested a list of Montesquieu's works in French. He appears to have had no party affiliations and was equally ready to be of service to a Whig or Tory Government, and, but for his religion, he might well have entered Parlia? ment. In addition to an undoubted ability, he possessed, in his wealth, connections, and in the aristocratic traditions of his own and his wife's family, all the qualifications of a Parlia? ment man. The decline in his private affairs seems to have been the result of a series of misfortunes which were to a large extent beyond his control. He was certainly in his later days an unlucky man but the inscription on his tombstone119 pays tribute to the courage and resignation with which he met adversity. Until 1931 there lay, just off Mitcham Road, on the site of his Tooting estate, a tiny village or enclave called 'Salvador',120 and today, on the same spot, there is a narrow opening known as 'Salvador Row' or merely 'Salvador'. This is surely a somewhat inadequate memorial to a man who knew great days and great people and who served his community and his country with energy, loyalty, and wisdom. %* This paper was delivered to the Society on 15 January 1962. NOTES 1 Translation by L. D. Barnett (O.U.P., 1931). 2 P. 107. 3 Will: P.C.G. 68 Derby. 4 Bevis Marks Records, Pt. II, ed. L. D. Barnett (O.U.P., 1949), p. 86. 5 Bank of England Archives. 6 Gentleman's Magazine, October 1738. 7 Bevis Marks Records, Pt. II, p. 95. 8 Public Record Office, C.12. 2058/12a. 9 Bevis Marks Records, Pt. II, p. 99. 10 See The Jews of Charleston, by Charles Reznikoff and Uriah Z. Engleman: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1950, p. 34. 11 Guildhall London Directories. 12 I am indebted to Mr. Gedalia Yogev, of Jerusalem, for this opinion. 13 This is evidenced in a Chancery action 1759 1761: P.R.O., C.12. 1487/13. 14 British Museum Additional MS. 20797, f. 33 (Portuguese). 15 Ibid., f. 131. 16 Ibid., ff. 176 and 178. 17 Guildhall London Directory 1749. 18 P.R.O., C.33/422 Pt. ii. 19 Guildhall London Directories 1749-1752 1753. 20 Ibid., 1752-1755. 21 Bank of England Archives. 22 Ibid. 23 East India Company's Court Minute Book No. 63 (f. 468: 4.10.1749), India Office Library. This is the first mention of Salvador in the Com? pany's books. It reads: 'Order'd that the following persons have leave to send the particulars under mention'd to the East Indies for the purchase of diamonds on the Company's usual terms, viz: Mr. Joseph Salvador ?7,000 in coral beads See also Lucien Wolf, Miscellanies J.H.S.E., Vol. 1, p. 36. 24 For details see East India Company Court Minute Books Nos. 63-81 in India Office Library. 25 The Sephardim of England, Albert M. Hyamson (Methuen, 1951), Appendix V. 26 Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History, by James Picciotto. Edited by Israel Finestein, m.a. (Soncino Press, 1956), p. 159. Also 'Correspondence of the Mahamad', Dr. R. D. Barnett. Trans. J.H.S.E., Vol. XX, p. 23. 27 Hyamson, op. cit., Appendix V. 28 Only known original copy is now in the Judah Supino Abr. de Fonseca Henry Isaac Herman Furhorst David Levy ?7,000 in coral and foreign silver to Fort St. David ?2,000 in coral beads ?600 in silver ?600 in coral beads ?400 in emeralds and other precious stones 2,500 ounces Foreign silver to Fort St. David and 1,000 ounces of the same article to that place</page><page sequence="11">114 Maurice Woolf Huntingdon Library, San Marino, Calif., U.S.A. 29 Mr. Marcus Cheke, in his life of Pombal, Dictator of Portugal (Sidgwick &amp; Jackson, 1938), tells the story (p. 205) of how, when Joseph I of Portugal was on one occasion toying with the idea of forcing all the Jews in his realm to wear a white cap as a stigma, Pombal entered the throne room with two white caps?one for the King and one for himself. Tor it is true', says the author, 'that Jewish blood has been mixed, since remote times, in the veins of many of the noblest Portuguese families'. 30 BM. Add. MS. 33053. See also Dr. Cecil Roth's Anglo-Jewish Letters (Soncino Press, 1938), p. 129. 31 Hanway, in Letters Admonitory and Argumenta? tive, writes (p. 5): 'Do not imagine that I take you to be the author of these Further Considerations: I apprehend that you are too deeply engaged in other affairs: yet it plainly appears to me, that SOME PASSAGES of it are the genuine produce of your thoughts. I address myself to you, because you espouse and hand about this pamphlet, and adopt the doctrine and sentiments contained in it.' Further on (p. 31), Hanway writes, T remember the time when I was an apprentice, and afterwards a factor in Lisbon that your name as a great trader, carried with it more weight and importance than those of fifty German barons; happy did we think those factors who had such a principal! and yet your father was but plain Mr. S-r, merchant. Your friends will tell you what kind of figure you now make in the character of general solicitor in this struggle concerning your naturalisation!' 32 History of the Jews of England, by Cecil Roth (O.U.P., 1949), p. 217. 33 See translation in Jewish Travellers, by Elkan Adler (Routledge, 1930). 34 Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, by Sir Lewis Namier (2nd edition, Macmillan, 1957), pp. 54-56. 35 Ibid., p. 55. 36 B.M. Add. MS. 32914, f. 382. 37 Ibid., 32928, ff. 60-64 (App. D). Dealing with points in this letter, Professor Charles Wilson, in his Anglo-Dutch Commerce and Finance in the Eighteenth Century, (C.U.P., 1941, reprinted 1966), writes that Salvador 'had the advantage of combining the foreigner's point of view with a truly patriotic fervour'. 38 Namier, op. cit., p. 16. 39 P.R.O., State Papers Domestic. Treasury Minute Book (T.29), Vol. 34. The entry runs: 'Whitehall Treasury Chambers, Dec. 22nd 1761: Present: The Duke of Newcastle, Lord Barrington, Lord North, Mr. Oswald, Mr. Elliott. "Write to Mr. Salvadore that he is to be a Temporary re? mitter of the pay to the troops at Gibraltar (accord? ing to his proposal to Lord Barrington) untill a remitter be appointed for that service. Acquaint the Postmaster General herewith".' 40 B.M. Add. MS. 32933, f. 254. 41 See also his last letter to Clive, 3 July 1773. 42 P.R.O., Close Roll No. 5886, entry 3, mem? brane 39. 43 P.R.O., Close Roll No. 5997, entry 13, membrane 22. For illustration of the house see Hyamson, op. cit., facing p. 128. 44 'Royal Society Minutes', by E. Mendes Dacosta, British Museum Egerton MS. 2381, ff. 87, 151, 189. 45 Minutes of Meetings of the Elders, 19 and 20 November 1760. Archives, Bevis Marks Synagogue. See also Bevis Marks Records, Pt. I, ed. L. D. Barnett (O.U.P., 1940), facing p. 45. 46 Picciotto, op. cit.f p. 109. 47 Minutes of Meeting of the Committee of Elders, 14 December 1760. Archives, Bevis Marks Synagogue. See also Bevis Marks Records, Pt. I, facing p. 46. 48 Mahamad Minutes, November 1760. Bevis Marks Archives; see also Hyamson, op. cit., p. 136 et seq. 49 Salvador had previously, in 1739, been one of 36 Jewish merchants who had petitioned to obtain an increase in the number of Jew Brokers. Jewish Historical Society of England, Miscellanies, Vol. Ill, p. 93. 50 Mahamad Minutes, March 1779. 51 Ibid., April 1783. 52 I am indebted to the Marquis of Bute and his archivist, Miss Catherine Armet, for a typescript of the following letter in the Bute family papers from Salvador, presumably to Charles Jenkinson, dated 30 August 1762 from White Hart Court: Sir, Permit me by your means to thank my Lord Bute for the favour his Lordship has done me in communicating to me the resolution of his most Christian Majesty to name a Minister Pleni? potentiary, our Sovereign likewise naming one to go to Paris. Conformable to his Lordship's orders I made it publick as soon as receiv'd but found the good effect intended by such publication had already taken place by a letter sent from the Secretary of State to my Lord Mayor. All persons really interested in our publick funds are oblig'd to the Ministry for this judicious publication and I am most particularly to his Lordship and you for your kind remembrance. I hope this happy beginning will be follow'd by the conclusion of a safe and honourable peace and beg leave to subscribe myself Sir, Your most obedient and obliged humble servant, Joseph Salvador. Note: All Salvador's letters were written entirely without punctuation; this has been inserted to simplify reading. 53 The Jenkinson Papers 1760-1766, ed. Ninetta S. Jucker (Macmillan, 1949), Introduction, xviii. 54 Bank of England Archives.</page><page sequence="12">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 115 55 The 'splitting* of votes was most prevalent just before the Company's elections and in the 'Account of the Transfers of the East India Com? pany Stock made since opening of books 9 April 1767 up to 15 May 1767,' Salvador disposed of ?500 worth to Wm. Deeling and previously, on 23 February that year, he had transferred ?500 worth to Stephen Tod. Three days later he bought ?1,000 worth from John Lucy and on the same day transferred ?1,000 worth to Rachel Salvador, widow, Amsterdam (B.M. Add. MS. 18464), f. 367 et seq. Another item: 'Parnassims Portuguese Jewish Nation' to John Landon ?250. The stock was booming in 1766-1767 but had sunk seriously by 1772. 56 It is equally doubtful that he was ever a director of the Dutch East India Company, as is sometimes claimed. 57 The East India Company in Eighteenth-Century Politics, by Lucy S. Sutherland (Clarendon Press, 1952), p. 105 et seq. 58 Ibid., p. 118. 59 Ibid., p. 118 and Jucker, op. ciL, pp. 269-273. (B.M. Add. MS. 38202, ff. 147, 148, 159, 168; 38397, f. 78). 60 Sutherland, op. cit., p. 118; Jucker, op. cit., pp. 270-273. 61 Jucker, op. cit., pp. 285-286 (B.M. Add. MS. 38202, f. 248). 62 Ibid., pp. 290-291 (B.M. Add. MS. 38191, f. 80). 63 Hyamson, op. cit., p. 117. 64 Economic Activities of the Jews of Amsterdam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, by H. I. Bloom, Ph.D. (Bayard Press, 1937), pp. 197-202. 65 Clive Papers (Box 32), India Office Records. 66 Phineas Gomes Serra. 67 Clive Papers (Box 33). 68 Seen?te 102 below. 69 Clive Papers, Box 33. Among Letters of Marque declarations (authorising masters of merchant ships to carry arms, engage the enemy, and capture prizes and property by way of re? prisals) which are preserved in the Public Record Office, High Court of Admiralty (H.C.A.) 26, Salvador is seen to have had part-ownership of several vessels, of which the following are examples: Book IV, f. 45, 6 April 1744, the Wagor, of 495 tons; with his father and eleven others. Book VIII, f. 101, 26 October 1757, the Prince Henry, of 600 tons; with Aaron Franks and two others. Book IX, f. 62, 15 March 1758, the Prince George, of 499 tons; with Aaron Franks and Sampson Gideon. Book X, f. 167, 10 February 1759, the Stormont, of 499 tons; with twelve others. Book XI, f. 19, 15 March 1759, the Griffin, of 499 tons; with Aaron Franks and two others. 70 Ibid., Box 43. 71 Ibid., Box 44. 72 Ibid., Box 40. 73 Ibid., Box 45. 74 Ibid., Box 46. 75 Ibid., Box 46 (25 August, 3 September, and 22 September 1767). 76 Ibid., Box 50 (5 December 1767). See Wilson, op. cit., pp. 162-163, for details on De Pinto, including the following text of the terms of the procuration granted by De Pinto to Salvador in 1759: 'Know all men by these presents that I, Isaac de Pinto of Amsterdam, Esq., do make, constitute, ordain and appoint Mr. Joseph Salvador of London, Esq., to be my true and lawfull attorney, giving and hereby granting to my said attorney full power and authority for me and in my name to receive from the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, or from whomsoever else it may concern, and also sell, assign, transfer and sett over to any person or persons whatsoever, and for such price or conditions he shall think fitt, all or any of the receipt or receipts, assignment or assignments, lottery ticket or tickets, made out in my name or belonging to me for any sum or sums paid in or subscribed for me by any person or persons what? soever towards raising a sum of ?6,600,000 sterling for the service of the year 1759 by virtue of a resolution in the House of Commons of Great Britain. . . .' 77Jucker, op. cit., p. 203 (B.M. Add. MS. 38201, f. 151). 78 Ibid., p. 205 (B.M. Add. MS. 38201, ? 174). 79 Ibid., p. 209 (B.M. Add. MS. 38397, f. 72). 80 B.M. Add. MS. 38201, f. 233. 81Jucker, op. cit., p. 247 (B.M. Add. MS. 38202, f. 2). 82 Ibid., p. 261 (B.M. Add. MS. 38202, ff. 72-73). 83 Ibid. (B.M. Add. MS. 38202, f. 224). 84 'Lord Shelburne and East India Company Polities', in English Historical Review, July 1934 (p. 452). 85 Jucker, op. cit., p. 351 (B.M. Add. MS. 38304, f. 129). 86 Ibid., p. 352 (B.M. Add. MS. 38204, f. 175). 87 B.M. Add. MS. 38339, f. 225. 88 B.M. Add. MS. 38205, f. 46. 89 In his Monograph on Joseph Salvador (1903), Dr. Barnett A. Elzas writes: 'In the Mesne Con? veyance Records, Vol. iii, p. 133, Joseph Salvador's deed for purchase of land Nov. 27th 1755. John Hamilton, late of Parish of St. George of Hanover Square in the County of Middlesex, but now of Charles Town in the province of South Carolina, in consideration of ?2000 sterling money of Gt. Britain, sells to Joseph Salvador of Lime Street, merchant 100,000 acres of land situated at Ninety six in the Province of South Carolina.' 90 B.M. Add. MS. 38206, f. 81. 91 East India Company Minute Book 79, f. 315 (24 October 1770). There do not appear to be any records of his shipments after this date but there is an entry (Book 81, f. 377) dated 6 January 1773 which deals with Salvador's request 'that a sum</page><page sequence="13">116 Maurice Wool/ of 26,682 rupees paid by Messrs. Vansittart, Darell and Holland into the Company's treasury at Fort William may be repaid there with interest thereon or that a Bill of Exchange may be granted for the same. Likewise that the Court would con? sider the situation of the Coral traders with regard to their returns'. 92 P.R.O., C.12. 1035/32. 93 Kitty Fisher, or Catherine Maria Fisher (or Fischer), was a famous courtesan before she became the second wife of John Norris, of Hemsted Manor, Benenden, M.P. for Rye. She was quite beautiful and Reynolds painted more than one portrait of her. She figures in the D.N.B, and there are several tracts dated around 1760. She died in 1767. 94 Bank of England Archives. 95 Ibid. 96 'Memoire Pour le Comte de Guines, Ambas? sadeur du Roi, Contre les Sieurs Tort et Roger, ci-devants ses Secretaires et le Sieur Delpech' (Paris, 1775), and 'Memoire Contre le Comte de Guines Par le Sieur Tort' (Paris, 1775). See also Annual Register 1775, p. 128. 97 Le Comte, later Due, de Guines has a unique place in history. He was an amateur flautist of considerable talent; his daughter played the harp; and it was for these two that Mozart, in 1778, composed his Concerto for Flute and Harp (K299). 98 See details of Salvador's will, p. 112. 99 In the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 45 (1775), p. 443, there is a 'Poetical Billet from Captain Roach to Mrs. Rudd', which contains this couplet: Come thou, whose arts our doting sex adore, Comfort of Rudd and choice of Salvadore 1 See Trial of Henry Fauntlerqy, ed. Horace Bleackley (Wm. Hodge &amp; Co. Ltd.), London, 1924, p. 174. Also Gentleman's Magazine for 1809 (p. 581). Bleackley, in another work, Some Distinguished Victims of the Scaffold (Kegan, Paul, Trench, Tr?bner &amp; Co. Ltd.), London 1905, says (on p. 48): 'Margaret Caroline Rudd lived the life of a Kitty Fisher or Fanny Murray. Of all her patrons the most faithful and generous by far was a rich Jew money-lender named Salvadore, whose name remains still as a landmark in the purlieus of the metropolis'. Bleackley mentions (p. 49) her 'establishment in Pall Mall Court, the cost of which, since Salvadore and others were lavish as ever, she appears to have provided.' Such was her fame that 'in 1777 Boswell used to visit her and on the 15th May of this year Johnson declared he'd have visited her were it not that they had a trick of putting everything in the newspapers.' (See also Appendix B, Mr. Daniel Perreau's Narrative.) 100 Bloom, op. cit, pp. 200-202. 101 Clive Papers (Box 67). 102 P.R.O., C.12. 1313/30; 2058/12a; C.33/422 Pt. ii; C.33/431 Pt. ii, pp. 368 and 400; C.33/439 Pt. ii, p. 527. By the terms of the Ketubah (marriage settlement) ?6,000 was invested in Government Stock and Salvador paid Benjamin Mendes Dacosta the balance of ?2,000 for and on behalf of Joshua, who, in turn, covenanted to Judith ?12,000, 'this being the amount of the said sum of ?8,000 with the addition of ?50 per cent and was the usual provision made for wives among persons of the Jewish persuasion when they married.' It was also agreed that when Joshua attained 21 (he was married before he was 18) he must take upon himself to ratify and confirm the indenture and be bound in a penal sum of ?24,000. Joshua, desper? ately short of cash, wanted release from the Ketubah?virtually a lien on his property. 103 India Office Records. 104 B.M. Add. MS. 38209, f. 59. 105 Ibid., f. 60. 106 Ibid., f. 121. 107 Ibid., f. 127. 108 Ibid., f. 216. 109 B.M. Add. MS. 38210, f. 185. 110 Elzas, op. cit. 111 Ibid. 112 Ibid. 113 Transactions J.H.S.E., Vol. XVI, p. 131. 114 Elzas, op. cit. 115 The Old Jewish Cemeteries at Charleston, South Carolina, Dr. Barnett A. Elzas (1903). 116 Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 39, Calvert. 117 B.M. Add. MS. 28542, ff. 90-92. (See Appendix C.) 118 Ibid., f. 86. 119 [Sa]cred to the memory of Isurune Rodrigues other [wise] [Jjoseph Salvadore of Coron[aka] Fort 96 in the Province of [South] Carolina and late of Tooting in the Kingdom of Grate B[ritain] He was one of the Elders of the Portuguese Jewish [Congregation] He likewise was F.R.S. [ ] Governer of several Hos[pitals] He was a respectable [Man ] bearing misfortunes with [ ] and resignation to the will of Almighty God trusting in h[im] Departed this transitory lif [e] Eve of Sabath 8 of [ ] 5547 which answers [ ] of December 1786 [ ] May his soul enj[oy] [ ]. Inscription reproduced as above in Old Jewish Cemeteries at Charleston, South Carolina, by Elzas, op. cit. 120 Tooting Gazette, 12 December 1931. The house had been used after 1783 for a private school run by Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838), a well known educationist. See illustration in Transactions J.H.S.E., Vol. XIX, facing p. 33.</page><page sequence="14">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 117 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grateful thanks are due to Mr. Edgar Samuel and Dr. Richard Barnett for their invaluable help and encouragement; to the Elders of Bevis Marks Synagogue for kindly granting me access to their archives; to Mrs. Wilfred Samuel for the loan of books; to Dr. Lucy S. Sutherland and Miss Catherine Armet, archivist to the Marquis of Bute, for their valuable help with material; to Mr. S. C. Sutton and his staff in the India Office Library and Records; to the Bank of England Archives for valuable data; to the staffs of the British Museum Library and Manuscript Depart? ment; and to the staffs at the Public Record Office and at the Guildhall Library. APPENDIX A: CLIVE LETTERS Box 3. From Clive toj. S. 1765. I return you many thanks for your obliging letter and for the very favourable opinion you are pleased to entertain of my abilities as well as disposition to do my duty to this company. It must be my own fault if I do not answer the expectations of all the real and disinterested proprietors as for the occasional ones and those who act from resentment and selfish principles I hold them in too much contempt to cast away one thought about them. If I was to dwell upon the situation of the Company's affairs in Bengal, both Civil and Military, a volume would not be sufficient. Anarchy and Confusion Bribery and Corrup? tion have extended and spread themselves over the rich provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. However I have the satisfaction of informing you that I have already made a great progress towards reforming these enormous abuses of power etc. etc. etc. Wishing you and your family Health and Happiness. I am with great attachment... Box 32. 28 May 1764. Letter from Phineas Serra in favour of a Mr. John Alexander and signed Phineas Serra atty. to Joseph Salvador, Esq. with endorsement: This is to certify that Mr. Ph. Serra is Att. to Joseph Salvador Esq. Lewis Mendez. Box 32. 14 August 1764. From Geo. Clive to Robt. Clive. Dear Sir, I received this day the Bill on the Company which I shall get discounted with the other for ?1800 on the 23rd instant, as I suppose it is agreeable to the Attornies to do so. Crisp has given Mr. Pybus credit for the Diamond the third of ?8000 as valued by the different Gentlemen but I fear we shall never get so much for it. I wish to know if I may deliver it into the hands of Mr. Robertson before I leave town?as yet I have received no direct orders about it. Mr. Salvador has not stopt payment. Aaron Franks and Serra having advanced him ?40,000 tho' of late years he has lost near ?120,000 yet nobody seems to doubt when his affairs are settled he will be worth upwards of 80 thousand. Mrs. Bolton and Mrs. Clive beg their compliments. I hope little Charlotte is re cover'd. Yours most Obediently, Geo. Clive. Bedford Row. 14th August 1764. 12 July 1764, letter from Aaron Franks re diamond. Box 32. 22 November 1764, London. From J. S. to Clive. My Lord, I hope that success which has accompanied your Lordship's greatest actions has been conspicuous in your Lordship's voyage and in your perfecting the settlement of the Company's affairs on your arrival at Bengali a matter of such importance to these Kingdoms as well as individuals and for the settling of which they</page><page sequence="15">118 Maurice Wool/ ever must have a grateful remembrance of the dangers and inconveniences to which your Lordship has exposed yourself. I beg leave to congratulate your Lordship most sincerely on the increase of your family and health of my Lady. May you see all the satisfaction you can wish from your promising progeny. Your Lordship's recommendations in a Publick light have been attended to by the Direction and hope measures are agreeable to your desires. I fear Joseph Fowke will be a proof that all your private ones dont succeed. However, considering a divided direction, more has been done than could be expected. I fear a most formidable opposition next year and am sensible we shall want your Lordship to lead us, yet by keeping closely connected I hope we may succeed. The French efforts in India will be Trading and with great strength of money but little or nothing towards settlements 'twill not be so in their Islands where they will be endeavour? ing at an increase of force that part merits your Lordship's Particular attention for I fear a storm will blow up there. The Commercial dispositions there seem to be of consequence. I fear that they will be made a free port and may draw the Trade of India that way if not timely prevented. With regard to Publick affairs by the death of many and the success of the Ministerial negociations the Minority seems at a low ebb and I hope an easy session of Parliament will follow and that a general peace in Europe is settled for time to come. In trade there are no occurrences. Those articles from India remain upon the same footing as before without any probability of an alteration. Some disgusting circumstances in my family have made me determine to lessen my foreign engagements and to draw in my own. I shall by this means be more at leisure to attend home affairs and my friends concerns than ever and shall be happy in your Lordship's commands while with an easy fortune which I will place at home I will seek to pass my latter days in tranquility so wishing your Lordship all happiness and success I beg leave to conclude My Lord Your Lordship's most obedient and Devoted Humble Servant Joseph Salvador My Lord the foregoing is copy of my last since which the only remarkable occurrence I know is that the French King has once more ceded the Islands to the Company under whose care tis probable they will remain. I hope the continuance of peace. I think it looks probable. I am with due respect etc. Joseph Salvador. London on the 9th January 1765 Box 33. 7 February 1765. From J. S. to Clive. My Lord, Nothing very extraordinary has occurred since I had the honour of writing to your Lordship. We are threaten'd with a violent effort in the East India Company but I apprehend no consequence from it?Our friends increasing and there being harmony among them. Your Lordship will hear from others that the minority is sunk to nothing and peace seems firmly established all over Europe. Tis said the French are forming a settlement somewhere about Cape Horn that will in a long space of time be 'noxious to our affairs in India but I can apprehend nothing from it at present altho' it seems to me that if they break with us, India will bear the first blow. I am too well acquainted with your Lordship's sentiments not to be certain that you will be on your guard and give the properest advices to ward off any such blow. I wish your Lordship may find the Indians tractable but I fear their present spirit. Sure I am, Your Lordship is convinced how much more useful it would be to gain their friendship than to oblige them to submit to a forced yoke. Should your Lordship have any commands here you know my readiness to serve you and the cause and the recommenda? tion of any of your Lordship's friends will be esteemed and attended to by me in the most particular manner. I beg leave to subscribe myself, My Lord. Your Lordship's most obedient and Humble Servant etc. J. Salvador. London 7th February 1765</page><page sequence="16">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 119 Box 33. 7 February 1765. My Lord, I beg with this to introduce Captain Fenner Commander of the Grenville to your Lordship's acquaintance and hope you will honour him with your protection as I have the greatest reason to think he will merit it, and that I am myself as well as some of your Lordship's friends owners of the said Ship, in anything your Lordship may favor Ship or Captain. You'll greatly oblige me and ready to obey your Lordship's commands I beg leave to subscribe myself My Lord Your Lordship's Most Obedient and Most Humble Servant Joseph Salvador London 7th February 1765. Box 34. 15 April 1765. Lewis Mendez to Clive recommending Mr. George Da Costa, 'a young gentleman and a relation of mine'?going to India in a military capacity. Box 34. 25 April 1765. My Lord, The last time I had the honor to write to you was the 7th February. I now beg leave to congratulate your Lordship on our incredible success in the late election. This with the good news we have received from Bengal flatters me with the hopes that your Lordship's voyage will be glorious, easy and agreeable. To compleat our ardent wishes I hope for your speedy return that your Lordship may lead your friends and render the Company equal services here to those you have done abroad. Your presence is absolutely necessary for our welfare therefore hope you'll not delay it longer than can be helped. I took the liberty to recommend Mr. Hepburn Commander of the Falmouth to your Lordship's Protection. I hope he will render himself worthy of it. He is under the I protection of Lord and Lady Exeter and all that family and out of respect to them as well as for the personal regard I pay him, I shall be greatly obliged for any favor your Lordship may confer on him. All General Political con? cerns your Lordship will no doubt have re? ceived from your friends. The King has this day shown in a most distinguished manner his regard and paternal love for his people and attention to their welfare by delivering in Parliament a plan for a Regency in case we should be so punished as to lose him. This prudent caution may be misconstrued into some degree of fear but tis for the happiness of his people. And I can with truth assert to your Lordship that His Majesty enjoys as perfect health as his subjects best wishes can desire. I would not omit taking note of this circum? stance as I am sure of the satisfaction it will give your Lordship as coming from an impartial hand the truth of it may be more attended to. I am happy that your Lordship's family enjoy a perfect health and wishing you all happiness beg leave to conclude My Lord Your Lordship's most obedient and humble servant Joseph Salvador. London 25th April 1765 Box 40. 12 May 1766 My Lord, I return your Lordship my sincere thanks and hearty congratulations on the rapid and aston? ishing success which has accompanied your efforts in the service of the East India Company and the Nation in general. Tis with the greatest pleasure I see them duly sensible of the eminent services your Lordship has done and desirous of seeing your Lordship complete what you have so happily brought forward not only in a public light but as an individual. I feel the happy effects of your Lordship's superior conduct and shall always be happy in express? ing my gratitude on the occasion. Your Lordships condescending to inform me of the chief occurrences is a new favour con? ferred on me the having secured to the Com? pany all pretension from the Crown and at the</page><page sequence="17">120 Maurice Wool/ same time continuing the country Government with the approbation of the Nabob and the inhabitants is a masterpiece while the Company commanding the military power and enjoying the revenues of the provinces secure to them? selves the property and trade of those countries with a large revenue benefits these of immense value and hereby your Lordship has in this short time completed the vast project you planned and communicated to me before your departure. Yet to make it permanent much is wanting and slower work now demands your Lordship's attention. If you do not root out that spirit of tyranny and oppression which our own people show they will for their private ends again throw the whole into confusion. Your Lordship's resolution and example in taking nothing to yourself is glorious. My fear is tis too sublime for others to copy after. The respectable footing on which your Lordship proposes to leave the Company's forces and the grant of the French provinces leave nothing to fear from an European power. Our present circumstances are peculiarly happy as to that subject. France is in a dis? tracted state and must attend much more to her interior policy than to ultramarine affairs. There is no fear of a rupture from that side for besides, their finances and navy wont bear it. Spain is in the same case. The Nation gains the ascendant over the Court and are all English. Nothing can move the Dutch and the peace of Europe cannot be moved but by some sudden unforeseen event, even of such there is no probability. Your Lordship's system of not meddling too much with the internal government of the Country but extending and making an easy communication between our maritime pos? sessions must prove of infinite benefit and rivet the power of the Company in India. Your Lordship will no doubt have better informations than I can give you of the Political revolutions in this country. The present session of Parliament is the most extraordinary ever seen but plainly shows the weight the Court has. The choice of ministers lies justly where it should. As to parties and factions they have names but not one from the Great Commoner downwards but what shew their propensity to adopt Court measures, give them but the power. With regard to the Company I see little new in the Direction. There may be some little bickerings but our friends keep connected and draw together in general matters and I think adopt your Lordship's system. I hope no complaints from your place will disturb. If they do they will have no effect. Mr. Vansit tart formed a very imprudent opposition which came, nor can come, to nothing, yet our direction want the spirit I wish them and to crown your Lordships toils we want you here to settle a plan for the renewal of the Company's Charter which they have let come too near expiring. I find your Lordship has taken Mr. Kelsall from Madras. I was extremely sorry to hear that said gentleman had met with some mis? fortunes but am glad to find your Lordship's goodness and generosity had relieved him. I had in consequence of your Lordships recommendation thrown most of my business into his hands to the amount of near ?60,000 which I meant as a proof of my deference to your Lordship's desires. As he is retired it is become incumbent upon me to pass the said effects to others and I have chosen Governor Palker and Mr. Morse to receive them all. Altho I cant doubt of Mr. Kelsalls acquiescence in discharging himself of the trust I beg your Lordship would recommend it and interpose if needful in case of any unforeseen accident by his death or otherwise. I dont doubt you will grant it me and I shall be obliged as I am most particularly to your Lordship for the attention you have been pleased to pay to my recom? mendations. Permit me my Lord to tender my best services to your Lordship and to beg your recommendation to such of your friends as may have business to do by returning their money in my way and believe me My Lord, Your Lordship's Most Obedient and most devoted humble servant Joseph Salvador London 12th May 1766</page><page sequence="18">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 121 Box 40. Sent 19 May 1766. My Lord, Since I had the honor of writing to your Lordship the4 Earl of Middlesex' is arrived. I am informed by her that the Gentlemen at Bengal have with your Lordship's approbation made large purchases of diamonds, it is even said that your Lordship proposes making returns in that commodity. Permit me to tender my services therein which I hope will answer to your Lordship's emolument as well as my own as I think I understand that branch of trade. You ever will find me zealous for your service and ready at your commands. I have taken the liberty to enclose a letter for Mr. Sumner and one for Messrs. Palker Morse &amp; Holland which I hope your Lordship will excuse my giving you the trouble of forwarding, the Company's Packets being shut up and I having no other method of getting them to their hands but this. I am With much respect J. s. The Diamonds here bear a good price and will continue so to do. London 19th May 1766 Box 41. 3 August 1766. (London Mr. Salvador (Rec'd 3rd Aug. 1766 (by Britannia) My Lord, I am honor'd with your much esteem'd favor of the 4 January last from the Cape. I was ever apprehensive by the great delay purposely contrived to retard your Lordship's departure, you would loose the proper season and have a very tedious passage yet I think it has been more so than we really imagined and I am heartily sorry for it, but I hope your Lordship will have found the state of affairs so much better than you expected, that your delay in those parts will be shorter and that you will have the glory of compleating the great work you have so happily begun. No one can be more convinced than I am of your Lordship's magnanimity and devotion to the good of your Country and the Company by foregoing your domestic happiness for the Public Service? may your success crown your expectations and may your Lordship meet the grateful return you so eminently deserve. I am much obliged to your Lordship for the narration you give me of the state of affairs in India. Our Company seems yet to have much to do, and the disturbances on the coast of Coromandel will not so soon cease and will be very expensive. 'Tis only from your Lordship's measures I expect a redress. I ever looked on the expedition to Manilla as an unwise and ruinous measure and no doubt tis to that chiefly that all the disturbances in India owe their rise. The French Company for the present is both unable and unwilling to give great trouble but should these disturbances continue tis to be feared they will take advantage of them. No doubt the whole French nation are dis? contented with what is here doing and tis to be fear'd their Pacific system will last much less than was expected. The confusion here at home would astonish your Lordship?who would have thought [?] that in so small a space of time so much disunion would have taken place and that there were so much to fear of its proceeding further. The greatest happiness we have is that your Lord? ship's system at the India House is adhered to, and as our adversaries are totally routed I flatter myself there is nothing to apprehend from that side, yet I assure your Lordship I am very sensible of the want of your presence here?tho' I have been positively assured that powerful reinforcements (on which the fate of India depends) will be sent out this year?I shall once more wait on the Gentlemen to give my sentiments on that subject. I flatter myself they will not neglect it and the more so as Mr. Vansittart's sentiments are the same as your Lordship's. I am greatly obliged to your Lordship for the narrative you promised me on Mercantile affairs and in them or any other matter that your Lordship may command you may dispose of me at your will. I hope before the end of the season to be able to give your Lordship some of my thoughts on Political affairs but for the present everything seems so confused</page><page sequence="19">122 Maurice Wool/ that it is impossible to form any judgement. I heartily wish your Lordship all health and happiness and am with great regard My Lord Your Lordship's Most Obedient Most de? voted and obliged humble servant, Joseph Salvador Box 43. 26 November 1766. My Lord, I am honored with your Lordship's favor of the 27 January wherein you are pleased to give me a detail of the melancholy state of civil affairs at your place at the same time that you mention the immense acquisitions obtained by the Company through your Lordship's prudent management. I hope the Heats among the Company's servants will be greatly lessened or will have totally subsided. I flatter myself the more so as your Lordship writes nothing concerning them from the Admiral Watson. Tho' I have not had time to inform myself my attention being fully taken up by an event which made me ardently wish for your Lordship's presence and which having foreseen made me advise your Lordship to haste to England as soon as possible. I mean the Com? pany's affairs being brought before a Committee of the House of Commons. Some people mean to plunder them of the vast acquisitions your Lordship gained them. The moderate ones wish the public may receive some emolument from the Company and by uniting their inseparable interests that the affairs of the Company may be settled upon that solid basis which secure and improve your Lordship's acquisitions. Others looking too nearly and minutely into things would grasp the whole and thereby endanger the loss of all. I wish and hope the middle way may be taken but I am sure that were your Lordship present all cause of fear would vanish. I am greatly obliged to your Lordship for your kind remembrance and the consignment you are pleased to make me jointly with Mr. Fowke; it shall be my care to see it disposed of in the most profitable manner as well as all your future favors. Mr. Walsh showed me the diamonds your Lordship sent to him, which I hope he has disposed of to advantage. In anything I am able I shall always be proud to serve your Lordship and beg leave to assure you I am with the most profound regard etc. Joseph Salvador London 26th November 1766 (rec'd 11 July 1767) Box 43. London 26 November 1766 My Lord, We received your Lordship's commands of the 25 March last by the Admiral Watson (Gap. Blewitt) inclosing Bill of Lading and Invoice of 5 Bulses of Diamonds marked C N 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 purchased in Bengal which you remit us by the Ponsborne (Gapt. Payne) the invoice serves to communicate to us the con? tents and prices your Lordship paid for the same. From what we have seen we flatter ourselves that your Lordship's remark 'that they have less of the refuse than those provided at Madras' is just. We hope they will likewise be better bought and agree with your Lordship that it may be prudent to cancel the prime cost thereof the more so as our knowledge in that trade will enable us to judge of their just value. The single diamond your L'sp sends weigh? ing nearly 15 carats shall be polished by the best hand we can get and brought to account as you desire whereby you may judge as it turns out. From the diamonds we have seen we are convinced that those coming from Bengal are from the same mines as those received on the Coast and by the nearness of the mines to Calcutta tis possible they may be cheaper there than at Madras. Your Lordship's further commands will be received and obeyed by us with the more pleasure as this is a fresh proof of the confidence with which you are pleased to honour us. Our utmost care and attention will be used in the sales and we hope they will be satis? factory. As we have not your Lordship's orders how to dispose of the produce we will do it subject to no risque in the best manner we can and if possible to your Lordship's advantage. We can see no reason to apprehend any considerable variation in the Trade which we</page><page sequence="20">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 123 think right to inform your L'p or your agents of. We have nothing further to add but to inform you that we shall ever be proud of your Lordship's commands and that we are with the greatest respect etc., Joseph Salvador Joseph Fowke. I object to Lord Clive's money being employed in any way as I think it may with great propriety be paid to his Attornies who certainly have a power of granting us acquittances. Joseph Fowke Box 43. 1 December 1766. My Lord, Since I had the honour of writing to your L'p the 26th past Mr. Fowke having some differences with me on his private affairs did not choose to come to settle the answer to your L'ps letter to us, whereon I drew it, he has pleased to make an addition. I can no way disapprove nor ever intended other than your L-ps benefit and that your money might not lay by us unprofitably altho it seems to me had our paying your money to your attornies been your L ps intentions you would not have failed ordering it. I acquiesce convinced as I am of their integrity and capacity and that it cant be injurious to your L-ps interest. It shall be my study to do my best and to act in concert with your friends should Mr. Fowke choose to be troublesone. I am with due regard etc. J. Salvador London 1st December 1766 Box 44. 29 January 1767 My Lord, I addressed your Lordship under date 1st December last since which Mr. Fowke has agreed to proper measures with me in obedience to your Lordship's commands and I with pleasure give you advice of the Ponsborne arrival. I hope we shall shortly have the diamonds in our possession and we will make the most convenient sale of them that the times will permit. There is at present no variation in this article. Your Lordship will no doubt be apprised of the state of the East India Coy. and their affairs now depending in Parliament I know your presence, judgement and resolu? tion are wanting and therefore hope this letter will not find you in India for there will be much to do here let what will happen next sessions of Parliament. I think the Direction will continue steady and am with the greatest regard etc. J. s. London 29th January 1767 Box 44. 26 February 1767 My Lord, I had the honor to address your Lordship the 29 past since which have received the Diamonds from on board the Ponsborne and consulted with Mr. Fowke about them. I find them good of their sort and hope to procure about 2/5 or 2/6 of Vizieray Rupee according to the invoice which I beg leave to advise you for your speculation in this commodity. I hope to give your Lordship further information on this subject personally, and am etc. J. s. London 26th February 1767 Box 45. 29 June 1767. Trustees of My Lord Clive. Sirs, Inclosed we transmit you Acct Sales of the Diamonds Lord Clive was pleased to consign to us by the Ponsborne which you will please to pass in conformity. We have procured ?200 above the evaluation set thereon by Mr. Macharo the broker and we think that by polishing the stone in the Bulse No. 1 we have benefitted his Lordship ?100 more, and make no doubt but his Lordship will be well pleased therewith. You likewise receive his Lordship's Acct current and Balance of the same with the two diamonds which you please to give a receipt for and believe us with the greatest respect etc. Joseph Salvador Joseph Fowke London 29th June 1767</page><page sequence="21">124 Maurice Woolf Box 45. 15 July 1767. My Lord, Permit me sincerely to congratulate your Lordship on your safe arrival and to express my hopes that you will find yourself restored to your Lady and beloved family and enjoy that undisturbed felicity you have so amply merited. This must make my apology for my absence which is caused by an accident in my leg which disables me from waiting on you, a duty I shall perform as soon as I am able, meanwhile and airways believe me etc. J. Salvador White Hart Court. 15th July 1767 Box 45. 19 July 1767. My Lord, Att your Lordship's leisure but the sooner after Tuseday the more agreeable, I wish to have the honour of setting with you an hour or two in order to give your Lordship the informations I can of the state of affairs here as I see the state of the India Company in a violent crisis and what I had the honour of writing to your Lordship of the necessity of your presence here fully verified. I hope by your Lordship's means the Company will be solidly established and that all the difficulties formed here will subside. I shall endeavour to make my health suit with your Lordship's leisure beg your answer and am etc. J. Salvador White Hart Court 19th July 1767 Box 46. 3 August 1767. My Lord, I hope your journey to Bath will perfectly re-establish your health and permit me to present my most humble respects to my Lady. I send your Lordship inclosed the plan for a lottery the French East India Company makes to raise ?500,000 Sterling in order to increase their trade. These preparations then they still mean a formidable rivalship and must put us upon our guard when we need not fear the world. When your Lordship gives me your directions concerning your diamonds I shall endeavour to acquit myself in the best manner in my power. I am My Lord etc. Joseph Salvador Tooting 3rd August 1767 Also two letters in French from Isaac de Pinto and a recommendation from Mr. C. Yorke to Mr. Rous that de Pinto receive a reward from the Company for his services. Box 46. 25 August 1767. My Lord, Since I had the honour of seeing your Lord? ship I had leisure to look over the Broker's estimate of the Diamonds. I wrote him and directed he should not take less than 2/7ths per rupee which I hope they are worth. I understood Mr. Duval had bought them on the invoice but if the same method is followed as in the Madras Diamonds the Commission and Batta is not allowed. They only allow the Pagoda prime cost. Did you allow them so to Duval or did you charge the Batta and com? mission as they are invoiced? That makes a great difference. May I beg leave to remind your Lordship of Mr. de Pinto. He will wait on you if not troublesome. I beg I may be informed when my presence may be necessary in town?your Lordship's service may ever command me. I take this opportunity to tender my most humble respects to Lady Clive and the family and I hope your Lordship had a pleasant journey to London and beg to assure your Lordship that I am My Lord Your etc. Joseph Salvador Bath 25th August 1767</page><page sequence="22">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 125 Box 47. 3 September 1767. My Lord, I received your favour of the 30th past. I understood the sale of your Lordship's diamonds to have been as you mention. I am sorry I was not in town to have attended those your Lordship sent me; as it is I have just now received notice of their sale for ?3650 payable in two months: this is a trifle more than Duval gave. I might if present perhaps have got ?50 more but considering how well money may be yet employed I thought it prudent to close and hope your Lordship will approve. The Bills shall be delivered to your Lordship on my coming to town or your Lordship may if you please draw on me at two months for such part of the amount as you judge proper. Should your Lordship choose to dispose of any more by sale I shall be ready to offer on them or if you entrust me with them I will sell them for the best. I am extremely pleased to find the Direction will act right. I shall not fail being present on any account but sickness and dont doubt your Lordship will receive the proprietors' con? firmed sentiments of approbation in the most pleasing and ample manner. I only beg to be acquainted with the time beforehand and if your Lordship's friends hold any previous meeting beg that I may know. My humble respects wait on my Lady and your Lordship's family and I beg leave to subscribe myself My Lord, Your Lordship's Most Obedient and Devoted Humble Servant Joseph Salvador. P.S. I beg your Lordship would remember my friend Mr. Pinto Bath 3rd September 1767 Box 47. 22 September 1767. My Lord, I have sent the Bills, produce of your Diamonds with the Acct thereof to Francis Gosling and Company according to your orders. I shall be glad it meets with your Lordship's approbation and when you choose to sell diamonds I shall be glad to offer for them. I have seen the report of the Directors to the General Court which I think cold and un expressive. I have concerted measures with Sir James Hodges to express our sense of the important services your Lordship has done the Company. I am obliged to your Lordship for your kind recommendations of Mr. Pinto. I hope the India Company will find in him the same zeal and ardour as heretofore. I beg my humble respects to Lady Clive and am with unfeigned regards My Lord etc. Joseph Salvador White Hart Court 27th September 1767 Box 48. 4 October 1767. My Lord, I heard with great concern of your Lord? ship's indisposition. I hope you are ere now recovered and that a series of health may follow the labours your Lordship has gone through. I hope the affair at the India house has been carried thro' to your Lordship's satisfaction and that the Direction will carry it thro' with all speed. That no more wrangling may ensue and that harmony may be re-established in the Company. I hope we shall soon see your Lordship in these parts to give the Company's affairs a perfect stability and I more sincerely desire it that I may have an opportunity to ask your Lordship's protection for a young man whose good I have greatly at heart. I beg leave to make my most humble respects agreeable to my Lady Clive and to subscribe myself etc. Joseph Salvador Tooting 4th October 1767 Box 48. 28 October 1767. My Lord, I received your Lordship's most obliging</page><page sequence="23">126 Maurice Wool/ letter with the more pleasure as it informed me of your Lordship's better health the restoration of which is my most hearty wish. It is agreeable to me to find that your Lordship is so kind as to be sensible of my endeavour to serve you in what was so justly due to you and more particul? arly incumbent on me to obtain from the part I took in requiring your Lordship to make the voyage to India which has answered my most sanguine hopes by fixing the Company's affairs on the most solid basis. I shall endeavour to pay my respects to your Lordship, on your return to town. I have a favour to ask which is your protection for a young man who wants to set out in the Company's service. Permit me to present him to you. He will begin in the manner your Lordship shall prescribe. I was promised to send him out by the Chairs but resentment for my steadiness determined them to lay him by. I am therefore obliged to apply to your Lordship to redress it and shall be ever sensible of the favour. A gentleman in the King's service by name Capt. Morrison who assured me that Lord North protects him strongly applies to me to be presented to your Lordship. He assures me he could merit the Company's favour by essential service. As I am no judge of military service I can only mention it to your Lordship and introduce him if you think proper. Diamonds are risen lately; if your Lordship has any to sell you may value yourself thereof. I may become a purchaser by commission myself having sold all my own. I am with due regard etc. Joseph Salvador White Hart Court 28th October 1767 Box 49 26 November 1767. My Lord, I am greatly obliged to your Lordship for the favour you intend my recommendation. Your Lordship's proffer of naming the young man a Cadet is most gratefully accepted by him, he hopes to merit the favour. His name is John Grant?a young man of 17 years of age, Son to Captain Lewis Grant adjutant major to Chelsea Hospital. As he has an idea of military service and will go out instructed in the elements of the profession I flatter myself he will answer. I will present him to your Lordship the first opportunity, meanwhile I beg to be instructed how he should apply least it should be trouble? some to your Lordship. I beg to receive your directions from Mr. Strachie, Mr. Scrafton or any other of your friends. I beg leave to subscribe myself etc. Joseph Salvador Tooting 26th November 1767 Box 50. 5 December 1767. Isaac de Pinto?thanking Clive and the Com? pany for the life annuity of ?500. Box 50. 22 December 1767. My Lord, Anxious after knowing the state of your Lordship's health I beg leave to enquire after it and to pay your Lordship the Compliments of the Season wishing your Lordship, my Lady and the family health and happiness thro' the succeeding year and many following. Your Lordship sees the Parliament means to be the best Judges of our affairs while our Directors are endeavouring to prove the Para? dox that the services rendered in India are the ruin of the Company. How long mankind will bear this nonsense I cant tell but sure I am it behoves everyone concerned to show the weak? ness of their understandings. May I beg leave to desire to know whether your Lordship has been successful in providing for young Grant and if so when he must be ready to depart. Capt. Morrison is settled at Lord North's recommendation. He wishes an opportunity to pay his respects to your Lordship and I desire the honour of presenting a person of his merit to your Lordship. I am etc. J. Salvador London 22nd December 1767</page><page sequence="24">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 127 Box 50. 30 December 1767. To whom?not stated. Sir, I sent to the India House to enquire after Lord Clive's recommendation of Mr. Grant. His name nowhere appears which makes me uneasy. I have this day sent to Mr. Scrafton and begg'd he will enquire. I fear there is some intended malice in this affair in the India House. I am Sir, Yr most Obt Servt Joseph Salvador White Hart Court 30th December 1767 Box 56. 22 February 1769. My Lord, I am sorry to trouble your Lordship but hearing that you have a letter from Sir Richard Barker overland and not being well enough to appear abroad I should be obliged to your Lordship if you would order me to be informed what is the public news. I hope your Lordship, my Lady and the Family enjoy good health. I am etc. Joseph Salvador White Hart Court 22nd February 1769 Box 56. 23 February 1769. Mr. Salvador presents his most humble respects to Lord Clive, thanks his Lordship for the perusal of Sir Richard Barker's letter and returns the same enclosed. Basinghall Street, 23rd February 1769. Box 57. 17 April 1769. Mr. Salvador presents his compliments to the Right Hon. Lord Clive, is extremely sorry he cannot have the pleasure of waiting on his Lordship agreeable to his kind invitation, his ill state of health obliging him to go to Bath where he will be very glad at any time to receive his Lordship's commands if he is pleased to communicate his sentiments; particularly on India affairs. 8, Basinghall Street 17th April 1769 Box 58. 25 September 1769. My Lord, My immediate departure for Bath will probably hinder me the pleasure of seeing you and of congratulating your Lordship on the increase of your Family and on your acquisition of Claremont of both which I sincerely wish you joy and long life to enjoy the blessing Provi? dence has so properly bestowed on your Lordship. I meant to have introduced Capt. Anson in the King's service to your Lordship, he being desirous to go out in the Company's service. I have had many general promises from the Direction but fear nothing will lead to the point. Your Lordship's recommendation and protection will be of greatest weight and will entail an obligation on My Lord etc. J.S. George Street York Buildings 25th September 1769 Box 59. 26 February 1770. My Lord, I waited on your Lordship to know if your Lordship's favour can be extended to Captain Anson whom the Direction nominated a Lieutenant in their service. Only Mr. Anson had flattered himself with the hopes of a Company and is sorry that he cannot accept of the appointment and indeed it has been un? fortunate to him that he did not know their determination sooner as it brought a consider? able expense on him remote from his duty in the King's service and will be attended with bad consequences for him. Still inclined to the Company's service if he can come into it with propriety he wishes to be recommended to Col. Wedderburn whom</page><page sequence="25">128 Maurice Woolf he would follow without employment till such time as he might be honoured with a Company or some other equal service with conveniency and propriety. I am desirous to serve him and more so on account of the disappointment he has met with and shall be obliged if your Lordship would give me a decisive answer whether the same is practicable. I am, My Lord Your Lordship's Most obt servt Joseph Salvador George Street York Buildings February 26th 1770 Box 59. 2 March 1770. My Lord, Mr. Anson and myself have been obliged to your Lordship for your kind intentions and I am newly indebted to your Lordship for this fresh proof of your friendship which Mr. Anson desires to accept and therefore I beg your Lordship would be so kind to favour him with a line of recommendation to Colonel Wedderburn that he in consequence with all speed may take the measures necessary for his voyage. I am My Lord Your Lordship's Most obliged humble servt Joseph Salvador George Street York Buildings March 2nd 1770 Box 59. 10 March 1770. My Lord, I waited on your Lordship with an apology for the trouble I have given you concerning Mr. Anson. I am afraid said gentleman con? strued your Lordship's intentions much further than you extended. They would then have answered his purpose but on waiting on Colonel Wedderburn he has found his mistake. He hoped to be so recommended to the Colonel as to go out in his suite in any shape he chose to employ him in hopes of doing service and thereby meriting his immediate protection and in consequence a competent reward he would have been glad thereof in a Military Rank, or in any other honourable station attending the forces, or even a Civil Employ? ment, being capable of either if in such manner the Colonel would accept him, I flatter myself he would be happy to follow him. Now I beg your Lordship would favour me with a line whether tis possible or not, for on the footing of a general recommendation tis certainly much worse than what your Lordship was so kind to assist him to before. I shall wait your Lordship's commands and am with much respect. My Lord etc. Joseph Salvador George Street, York Buildings March 10th 1770 Box 67. 3 July 1773. My Lord, When unthought and extraordinary mis? fortunes occur to Man we are apt to apply to those friends who can remedy them and whose known generosity and affluence flatters us that they will. I have ever exerted myself in your Lordship's cause from which I claim no merit. I did it because I thought it right and if thro my means any success attended I have ever thought it your Lordships due. There is nothing but my flattering myself that you esteem me and the certainty I feel that tho it may be inconvenient it can be attended with no loss that makes me presume to address you. The times are such there is no credit I exerted my utmost by serving several friends: am now left destitute of cash, a disagreement with my relations is the cause. They distress me. I have numberless effects round the Globe but nothing will soon come. The Indian affairs stagnate. Among other property I have I am possessed of two considerable tracts of land now cultivating in South Carolina of fifty thousand acres each. I am assured that the value of each passes ?10,000, much [of] this knowledge I have from gentlemen of the country. My other property passed much what I owe. I am straitened for ?5000 or somewhat more if yr Lordship would lend me that sum on one of</page><page sequence="26">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 129 these tracts upon mortgage and my further personal security of any kind you would entail an eternal obligation on me and perhaps the estate itself may be an object worthy your attention. Should I sell, yr Lordship may be assured of the preference. If you choose to favor me I should be greatly obliged if you would permit me to draw for a small part on Mr. Gossalve on delivering him the writings till the whole could be affected. If I am unhappy enough not to succeed honor me with an answer that I may turn some other way. I hope My Lady and yr family enjoy health and prosperity and I am with great respect My Lord Yr Lordship's Most Obt Humble Servant Joseph Salvador London 3rd July 1773 APPENDIX B B.M. Ref. 613 (f. 23). Mr. Daniel Perreau's Narrative of his Unhappy Case wherein Every Particular Transaction between MRS. RUDD, his brother and himself from the commencement of Mr. Dan Perreau's Connection with MRS. RUDD Until the time of his trial Is most truly and candidly laid before the Public. 1775. T. Evans 50, Strand, London. P. 19 ff.: 'About this time [1772] I found my house also beset with a number of mean and impertinent enquirers?I likewise received many scandalous and vulgar letters by the penny post containing insinuations to the discredit of Mrs. Rudd. My confidence was so rooted in her fidelity and truth that I utterly disregarded them. There was however one letter to which I gave a little more attention: this was brought by the penny post addressed to Mrs. Perreau. I happened to be at home and alone when it arrived and supposing it to be of the nature of those many impertinent ones I had lately received I opened it and found it to contain a card from Mr. Salvador requesting Mrs. Perreau to furnish him with the address of... no name being mentioned. There was [sic] several unintelligible sentences in the card which I could not comprehend, so that I should have thought this anonymous as well as the several others I had received had I not recol? lected a circumstance which made me think it probable it was really from Mr. Salvador. I had in conversation often heard her mention that before my connection with her she had an epistolary correspondence with Mr. Salvador which afforded her more pleasure and amuse? ment than any comedy or novel she had ever read. The recollection of this particular determined me to wait on Mr. Salvador un? known to her; the resolution I executed the next morning. Mr. Salvador appeared greatly confused when I told him my name and desired him to explain the meaning of his card; and all the satisfaction or explanation I could procure from him was that the meaning of his card was only to desire Mrs. Rudd to inform him how to direct to her sister as he wanted much to write to her. I assured him that as far as I knew she had no sister, which however he did not seem to believe and as I found all his answers so exceedingly mysterious, that I was not likely to procure any satisfactory information from him, I took my leave. After this interview with Mr. Salvador I acquainted Mrs. Rudd of the matter and desired she would explain this affair to me. She declared she never had any con? nection or correspondence with Mr. Salvador since she became connected with me; and said that she suspected the matter had originated from the malice of her enemies, who had represented her (Mrs. Rudd) as Mrs. Gore or the sister of Mrs. Gore, in order to expose her. I must own this occurrence gave me some degree of uneasiness which was aggravated by the impossibility I found of unravelling the mystery. (P. 25 ibid.) It may not be improper to remark a circumstance which occurred during the time Mrs. Rudd was engaged concerning</page><page sequence="27">130 Maurice Wool/ the ?1,000 just mentioned. She informed me that Mr. Kerr or Garr the factor already mentioned in Watling Street had once offered her notes for the ?1,000 one of which she said happened to be Salvador's for ?500 not then due; but that Mr. Robert would not receive them as payment without first consulting Mr. Wm. Adair; that on this occasion she went to Mr. Wm. Adair's office for the first time with Robert, and Mr. Wm. Adair desired her to go with the note herself, as it was probable if he (Mr. Wm. Adair) appeared, Mr. Salvador would require indulgence for time but to a lady he would certainly make a point of giving the money. Mrs. Rudd assured me she took this advice and did go; but that Mr. Salvador could not pay the money. He, however, she said, took that opportunity to enquire after her sister Gore, absolutely (as she declared) not knowing herself to be the identical person he had been used to visit a few years before in Hollen Street. She likewise informed me after this that she was embarrassed to avoid Mr. Salvador's enquiries, which, she told me, had, since her interview with him been frequent both by notes and messages; and as I was assured by her, she was at last obliged to request Mr. James Adair to go to Mr. Salvador, to prevail on him to desist from such improper behaviour, which, she said, he afterwards did; neither did I ever afterwards hear more of Mr. Salvador's writing or sending. There is also a reference in 'A Letter from Mrs. Christian Hart to Mrs. M. C. Rudd, 1776' (Brit. Mus. ref. 113 H 57), on p. 62, '-the washerwoman who went messages between you and Salvador-' APPENDIX G E. Da Costa's Letters See Note 117: B.M. Add. Ms. 28542, ff. 90/ 92 (answered London 30 January 1786 and forwarded by Mrs. Judith Mendes da Costa). My Dear Friend and Cousin, Sir, I have long since desired to write to you but have been so distressed and ill that I could not do it. I have suffered every want and having no one till within this month to write for me have been forced to write too much myself. My eyes and hands are very much impaired and I am entirely deprived of doing anything by night as candles are not in use in this country nor does any know how to make a pen few do write or read. I am now in a wild country have but one servant and tho' they speak English we frequently dont understand each other. The Inhabitants are descendants of the Wild Irish and their ignorance [is] amazing. They have all the bad Spanish Customs but none of that Nations good qualities. They are poor as Rats and Proud as Dons. They will not work nor permit their families to serve. They are naked and famished and immensely lazy; they have no religion or morals, the few that have any adopt the Patriarchal systems. They have no belief in Christ little in [ ?] or a future State. Their minds are wholly bent on their Horses whom they pride more than their wives and families they hate Society and pass their days in the [?] or loitering about they drink hard. Rum is their Deity, they ruin their healths and are short livers always happy when they can do any ill-natured thing and molest their neighbours. The better sort of people are less, very docile tractable and dont want good sense but totally unimproved they wish good Government but dare not oppose the others, in short there is no power in Government, all goes by chance and time must bring amendment. They now are like a set of [ ?] there are above 5000 whites in the District scarce 50 houses the rest are Cabbins and Huts. They are daily extending backwards in the Country and always moving not a village and scarce two houses together. As to the face of the country it is all woods with brooks and some fine rivers but strange to tell you have woods without shade, brooks without water or fish, few birds but some</page><page sequence="28">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 131 beautiful as the Red Nightingale and a green and gold small bird. The wild beasts are wolves, panthers and wild cats, foxes, the hideous Polecats, deer and some Buffaloes. We have oxen, sheep and goats sufficient tame fowl, wild turkeys, partridge and doves and larks and Black [?] which are good. Few Hares or other game. Very bad roads our swamps are something particular att distance they form in winter a most beautiful view being formed by the most Elegant Evergreens in the Bogs. Cedars, Cypress, Firs of all kinds from the tops, the bottoms are full of myrtle, evergreen privets the sensitive plant, Magnolias and a variety that would adorn the most curious garden of exotics in Europe but beware?enter with care in them they are full of dangerous serpents the wild beast harbour the Bogs and holes are dangerous and uncertain and all travellers are glad to be safe thro' them. Something peculiar is a sort of Oaks called Blackjack these have even when green a dark filament hangs over and [down?] rather owing to the moisture they look like pallbearers when green in Summertime and remind you of Death. These range along the Roads in low lands and are sure [to- ?-] as a Bad air indeed anyone going thro' them is happy if he escape the country fever and must be cautious and guard the most he can. The whole country is unhealthy, the heat and cold is immoderate last June I felt the hottest day of my life the air was above blood warm or a feverish heat. In eight days after it was very cold. The winters I have met are much sharper than common winters in London everything in my room froze and water?even by the fire. The soil is excellent and would produce anything but the inhabitants will cultivate nothing; they have all fruits but bad peaches, pears, mulberries, plums, grapes but none good they being ungrafted. Bad strawberries, some water-melons Gourds and Pumpkins are middling melons some other Southern fruits and Greens. Pineapples, Oranges, and Limes from abroad but not good. They have apples from the north but no cherries or currants they are very scarce of greens, mostly kidney beans cabbage and lettuce some pease but rare and bad small greens in general are all wanting. Some bad asparagus and artichokes. Their wheat is good and Indian Corn plenty. I hope to get some hops and beer. We have deer skins and bear skins, and tobacco and indigo maintain this country, the first is grown common and is as good as Virginia the Indigo is ordinary but will mend in the hard land. Vast quantities of fine rice is made. There is little or no credit or money in the Country. I v/ould continue my narrative but have no time; the waggons are upon departure and no other conveyance. I will beg you to wait on the President of our Society and with compliments tell him I have met with nothing worthy of his attention in my passage and have been very ill but hope to be soon able to communicate some matters of these inland countries which are little known in Europe that about this date last year being ill at Cross Creek I saw a small bearded Comet having no instrument in the place all I could do was to observe her course with the eye. She seemed to me to be about 8 degrees to the Southwards of Capricorn. I dont know the name of the Constellation. Knowing of Astronomy and particularly of the Southern Heavens her course seemed to me near W.S.W. going to the Sun. She every day gained that way, set sooner and about the [Bo ?] was not visible to the eye setting nearly with the sun but more to the Southward perhaps. She grew visible at sunrise I doubt it as she declined so much to the Southward. In June we had the hottest day known where it is said the thermo? meter reached 107. I had none. I went into the air and felt as if warm water was thrown on me and all agreed in the coolest places our blood and pulse were so above fever heat for three hours. In eight days after it was cold and there was frost. Last winter and this have been very cold it frequently freezing all liquid in my room but spirits and close by large wood fires. Few such days are in England. I can no more on these subjects. Inclosed go three requests one to the Clerk of the Royal Society another to the Antiquaries another to the Society of Arts and Manu? factures to deliver you my books and papers which pray send me and Joshua will pay you the little change. I shall soon write to you with some.</page><page sequence="29">132 Maurice Woolf Pray wait on the President of the Antiquaries with my respects. I shall endeavour to give him informations I have a hint of something which may lead to some considerable discovery. On natural history I hope soon to write you. There seems to be less than one would expect. My love to Jos and Judy and communicate this to them my service to all friends I am Dear Sir, Yr Cousin &amp; humble Servant Joseph Salvador. Coroneka 22nd January 1785. APPENDIX D B.M. Add. Ms. 32928. My Lord Obedience to your Grace's Commands Obliges me to lay my Sentiments before Your Grace on the properest Methods that I think may be follow'd to raise the Sums wanting this Year for the Public Service, the necessity of going thro' this arduous Task is the motive that emboldens me to undertake it, and the Certainty I am in, that Your Grace's goodnejs will Excuse the Errors I may make for want of full Informations on the Subject as well as of Abilities equal to it, The raising the Money this Year is not only attended with more difficulties than heretofore, but the particular Circumstances of the Times seem to call for a very different method than has been follow'd, till now, those Methods heretofore taken have been attended, in general with Succejs, &amp; were generally right at the times they were put in Practice, Permit me to remark some particular Cir? cumstances different at present from what were heretofore. During the late War we not only had to Struggle with a Foe, whose Maritime force was considerable, but who abetted a Pretender to his Majesty's Crown, which made the Danger of the times such, that no prudent Minister could leave or delay the Treating &amp; Concluding of our Money'd Matters fully, when Occasion Offerd, for he did not run the Risk of a difference in the price, but endanger'd a total disappoint? ment, the Consequences of which, as we had within ourselves a most powerfull Faction, an Enemy to Cope with who might have Succeeded in an attempt to invade us, &amp; for want of the Funds raised in time, might have proved fatal to the Government, therefore the never Risking it was the greatest proof of prudence, besides which as the Supplies wanted then, were never run up to that amazing Sum that those at present wanted is, the Prices of Public Funds were not so much depreciated as they are at present. During the first Year of the present War, the same Powers of invading us remaind in France, &amp; our late Glorious Monarch by the Course of Nature approaching to his end, the Sums wanting likewise being Considerably Smaller than the present, Your Grace most prudently follow'd the same methods, &amp; nothing was to be risk'd; The last Year things began to alter &amp; Your Grace by the Prejsing Circumstances of the Times as well as by the general appre? hensions arising from the Vast sums which were to be rais'd, closed with those Measures which the times seem'd to indicate, yet the use that was made of Your Grace's good disposi? tions at that time &amp; of the Indulgence of Government in giving Extraordinary Terms to the Subscribers, was so far preverted as to discredit Public Securities in a manner that altho infinite advantages have been gain'd by the Nation within this Twelvemonth, &amp; altho our Enemy has shewn more disposition to Peace than heretofore, Yet Public Securities have not recover'd that Value which according to the Circumstances of times they should bear, many reasons might be given for this but none are so Certain as the General want of Money, the just apprehensions that People have form'd that should the War Continue this Nation may be put to the greatest distrejs &amp; that the Confidence of Foreigners may be shaken or at least that no Considerable Sums can be Expected from them, while matters are in so indecisive a State they not having the motives</page><page sequence="30">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 133 to induce them to Ajsist Government that every Briton may have, and therefore regard? ing only the Security of their Capital &amp; the Interest it brings, &amp; as we have received Considerable Sums from them of late, tis not to be Expected that much more can be pro? cured without such Terms are granted as may perhaps instead of Answering the purpose bring on a diffidence of the Security of their Capital; Our Situation this Year is, that Money is very Scarse, that little or no AJsistance can be hoped for from Foreigners without endanger? ing the whole, that great Sums are wanting, that Public Securities are low, &amp; I am afraid I must add that Private Credit has received great Shocks &amp; has been greatly diminished, yet on the other Side we have a Young Monarch on the Throne, a Steady Ministry, an Ex? hausted Enemy to deal with. Whose weaken'd Efforts can give us no Apprehensions of an Ejsential Mischief that may any way damage our Credit; we are in no fear of Invasions, &amp; have an apparent Prospect of Peace, besides which add that the Sejsions of Parliament begins early by which means Public businejs need not be improperly hurried, &amp; Your Grace well knows that prudent Management and concurring Events as there is time may favour Your designs, therefore I humbly think that altho the Progrejs in raising the Public Supplies ought to go on, Yet nothing can prejs the determination of every part of em', so as to oblige Your Grace to take up proposals which without Considering the Consequences that may attend the whole, some hasty People may make to Answer their purposes, for Your Grace can never fear that when once the Matter of Supply is going on but that You will be able at any period to Settle the whole with a trifling difference from any proposal Your Grace may receive now, if it Should not be a moderate &amp; reasonable one, for should there be a moderate &amp; reasonable one made there can be no Hesitation of accepting of it, Tis undoubted that there is at present a great want of Money, tis therefore Clear to me, that the lejs that want is forced the better Terms may Government make, nor do I despair that the approaching arrival of large Spanish Treasures as well as the dispersion of those Continually Coming from Lisbon, or perhaps some favourable Circumstances towards a Peace may give some advantageous Turn to Public Credit between this &amp; February; So far permit my General Remarks, &amp; now indulge me in some particular ones on the method of carrying on the operations, after which most humbly Submitting these my Sentiments to Your Grace's Iudgement I shall mention the Plan I wish were follow'd, It has ever seem'd absurd to me &amp; of great detriment to Public Credit in general that Bills are ijsued from the Navy &amp; other Offices, which running a term of Six Months are of an uncertain Nature as being applied to no Fund, which afterwards the Treasury has paid in Money or Exchequer Bills of the same Nature as Money &amp; that Sums have been Annually voted to discharge these Debts which by Consequence have been raised by Loan in the Public, these Bills as soon as received from the Office are frequently brought to Market, or carried to some favourite Bankers, where they are disposed of at a Discount of between 9 or 10 per Cent, thus is a Public Debt which /Your Grace's punctuality as well as the Public's Interest/requires to be paid Con? tinually Negotiated at the Immoderate Dis? count of 20 ^ Cent $ Annum, &amp; the pretence of Such a Negotiation is not only the uncer? tainty of a punctual Payment at the time, but likewise that the Term being so long before Payment a Considerable rise may happen in Public Securities, by this means all Public Contracts Suffer this Diminution of the pro? duce of their Payments, &amp; no doubt the Contractors must find their Accounts by the enhanced price they ask for what they Con? tract for, &amp; all Officers &amp; others who receive this Sort of Pay are curtaild of their Dues without any benefit to the Public while the Extravagant Interest gaind on these Public Securities undoubtedly influences all our Public Credit, now My Lord nothing can be more reasonable than that if such diminutions are, the Public should avail itself of the advantages, or that by some Method Iustice should be done to these first Contractors to the Public and not to Second Hands, I mean that</page><page sequence="31">134 Maurice Wool/ whatever of these kinds of Payments do take place, they should take place in such a manner as that they should have a determin'd Value to the receivers, or in other Words the Effect should be of such a Nature as to be current at Market, Now therefore I look upon this part of the National Debt as Money in Your Grace's Hands, which by Changing yourself into Annuities at a reasonable price, You need not raise from any other People, &amp; therefore this method of raising part of the supply this Year, enters into the Plan that I have the Honor to lay before Your Grace. My next Remark is that the forming of Stocks Exactly of the same Nature as are in the Market which can be pajs'd from hand to hand on the first appearence of a Subscription, is attended with a great Inconveniency peculiar to the Trade of Exchange Alley, but which directly affects all Public Credit, for to talk in their Language no sooner can the Brokers there calculate what a new 4 ^ Cent will Cost them which they in a Short time can deliver, then finding the price of the present Annuities of the same kind higher than their Cost, they Immediately Sell such Large Quantity's of the said Annuities upon Specula? tion, that they destroy the whole Operation, I have endeavourd to avoid this Evil by Complicating the Nature of the Funds to be deliver'd in such a manner, that altho they will be able to calculate their real value, yet it will be difficult for them to make these fore stall'd bargains to the detriment of every Subscriber in a new Subscription I have likewise Endeavour'd to introduce as much novelty as I could in the manner of forming them, &amp; particularly with regard to the use of a Lottery, which tho Originally design'd to raise a Sum of Money for the Public upon Equitable Terms of little dis? advantage to the Subscribers, has been degraded into raising a Small Sum which Costs the Adventurers Cent per Cent Lojs, brings little Proffit to the Government &amp; raises a trifling sum, the Objection that large Lotteries Cannot be Circulated I have fully provided against by the method in which I propose One &amp; the advantage to Govern? ment will arise, not only from raising a Considerable Sum but also from its being raised at a more moderate rate than otherwise it could be, which as the Capital proposed is large so it will amount to more than the Public could Proffit by a trifling one to which please to add the hopes I have of getting Money from Old Hoards as likewise from foreign parts all which will aid Circulation I have with Concern observed in late Trans? actions of raising Public Money a method generally taken (by perhaps myself) which has been productive of great Evil, I mean that Gentlemen have not brought a List of their subscribers to Your Grace at the Time that they have Contracted for large Sums the Consequence of which has been that after their Return from Your Grace's they have Solicited new Subscribers who by having these offers made em have depreciated the Value of 'em &amp; Caused the Subscription to be in disrepute from its first Appearance, whereas tis the beginning of such an affair which in great measure Stamps the Succejs, Mankind being more frequently Govern'd by appearances than by realities, so that could we be happy enough to cause any Rise of Stocks Immediately upon the Conclusion of a Bargain I should not be Surprised if the Public Funds should take a turn in our favour &amp; perhaps a gradual rising them might bring more Money from abroad than any other manner that could be devised, I Humbly apprehend that no Money can be raised by any proposal Your Grace can make before the Sitting of Parliament, wherefore I think it will be imprudent to mention any thing decisive till that time as it will not fail to depreciate the Stocks &amp; will cause new difficulties upon the Payments of the sums which are Yet due upon the Old Subscription, I therefore having received Your Grace's absolute Commands most humbly propose to Your Grace the following method of proceed? ing, that As soon after the Meeting of Parliament as Your Grace may Iudge Convenient Your Grace convene the Principal Persons whom You propose to concern in this Interesting affair &amp; Explain the Motives of the Meeting, inform them of the Sums of Money which will be requisite for the Public Service, that Your</page><page sequence="32">Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 135 Grace having Considered the particular Situation of affairs &amp; the possibility that a Peace may take place, as likewise the Earlinejs of the time at which Your Grace makes Your application which leaves room for Parliament to Consider of measures, makes it Indifferent to Your Grace whether the whole Sum wanted be agreed for directly or not, that not? withstanding, a great part thereof will be Immediately necejsary, That in order to make the raising it easy to the Subscribers You had Concerted a measure of Securing a large Sum within Yourself which probably must Succeed &amp; that thereby the Sum of what might be wanting by Subscription would be lejsen'd &amp; they thereby eas'd of the Load that they had always so willingly taken upon themselves, That therefore if they thought it prudent to take all Your Grace would want, it would amount to ?8,000,000, of which You was determin'd to raise half Immediately &amp; would willingly hear their proposals for the remainder provided they were of such nature as that they did not lejsen the price of Stocks for that Your Grace had always time enough to come into such an Expedient afterwards &amp; that the pro? bability of some happy Event turning up must restrain You from hurrying the acceptance of a detrimental Bargain that Your Grace had how? ever thought of what might be moderate &amp; would willingly see the whole affair determin'd, That as for what You at present wanted Your Grace had determin'd to try the raising it on a Large Lottery made upon a fair &amp; equal footing so that upon the present price of Stocks the Adventurers who should Stand the Drawing should rather be gainers than Losers, That if the AJsembly met, would take the whole upon Your Grace's Terms they were Welcome to it, but that in case they did not Iudge it proper Your Grace would have recourse to a general Subscription for such part as the Public would take off, which when Closed should not be augmented nor any further Lottery made this Year that as to what remain'd Your Grace thought the best method would be by taking in a Subscription Convertible into Long or Life Annuities on a reasonable footing at the choice of the Subscribers, That by taking these Methods Your Grace would have a reserve K for any unforeseen accident in circulating Exchequer Bills so many of which may not be wanting if your Plan succeeds as there now are &amp; that therefore if they provided the whole Sum nothing more would be wanting by Subscription, or if they chose to delay the Settling one half of it till after Christmajs that Your Grace would give a reasonable Preference to all such as should Subscribe for the Lottery that if they chose to Engage for the whole Payments must be made upon the whole, but if they wave that, then the Payments on the Lottery must be the larger, for Your Grace must be provided with the sum You want (which please to Name) before Christmajs, That Your Grace desires they would Consider the Proposal &amp; come prepared with their Lists for the sums they will Engage &amp; on the Shortest Day pojsible, That Your Grace will willingly hearken to any other proposal they may make equally advantageous to the Public but that they rest persuaded that Your Grace will not alter Your Terms to the Public disadvantage for the present as You are no way prejs'd for time My Aim herein is that if the Proposals Your Grace has to make do not meet with that approbation I hope they will, that the Contract may be Concluded upon Proposals made to Your Grace &amp; not ijsuing from You to the disadvantage of all Public Securities, for altho I hope Money will be raised upon the Plan I present Your Grace Yet Should it happen otherwise my Opinion will be to Embrace any feasible Proposal that shall Secure the Opera? tion, as Matters of this Importance are never to be trifled with, Your Grace's Known Iudge ment &amp; Experience will Suggest to you how Important it is to our Money'd affairs that the Steps taken towards a Peace may not Seem to be fruitless nor Interrupted &amp; therefore more particularly how important it is that the respective Ministers should remain at the different Courts. I fear Monsieur Bujsy's departure should it happen, will be attended with a Considerable fall of the Stocks, Meanwhile should Your Grace Iudge it proper to throw some hints among Your Friends of what Your Grace thinks proper those who mean realy to aid &amp; ajsist You may</page><page sequence="33">13 6 Maurice Woo If Suggest matter that may be usefull &amp; whether Your Grace should Iudge the methods I have laid down proper or not I shall ever be ready to give my Assistance in all You may Com? mand but be ajsured that I am known to be partial to Government in these affairs, which must in some part diminish the Weight I otherwise might have to perswade Many. I have not Enterd into any Consideration of the Funds Circulated within the Year that is a Matter of great Importance &amp; the field Large but being foreign to Your Graces Immediate Commands unlejs by their Con? nection with the Supply I have Omitted it the East India Company herein may particularly merit Your Grace's attention &amp; be render'd of great use. I Inclose to Your Grace the proposed Plan &amp; an Estimation of it, comparative with the Terms given last Year. Having mentiond all that Occurs to me in obedience to Your Grace's Commands I beg leave to Conclude with Observing that every Circumstance Confirms the Expediency of a Peace if to be obtain'd on a reasonable footing &amp; that the suecejs of this proposal or any other is Excejsively dubious if War goes on, likewise that if some Measure Gould be taken to raise a considerable part of the sum within the Year twould not only be of Infinite Service but would dispose People to a Peace who feeling few of the Evils of War treat it with unconcern, &amp; that whatever may be the suecejs of this Year's Negotiation unlejs very different measures are taken twill be Impossible to go on, wherefore I humbly Submit to Your Grace's Consideration how dangerous it is to play our last Stake, &amp; if a Peace is Impracticable hope You will be early in Concerting measures for warding off the Impending Danger which I can more Easily foresee than advise any measure to avoid I beg leave to Subscribe myself My Lord Your Grace's most Obedient &amp; most devoted Humble Servant Joseph Salvador London. The 10th September 1761.</page><page sequence="34">2 &gt; &lt; co K O II ? o u &lt; ( II K &lt;3 Joseph Salvador 1716-1786 137 h3 13 II o co a t-* &lt; ^ 3^ .?5 ? w II ? 3 ? ' ?. CO . 2 ^ w p i&lt; 23 co ? On. w Q ?-* IS' o ij h o od g g i-* o 5 ?? r. co h m ? 87 ?8 2 o ?-! w &lt; co Pi m &lt; g g 1^1 g K P-&lt; g o-B q ? W o &lt;/) h-3 0&lt;s s # s ^ &lt; O Sum 73 w r- 0 ?Sgl M GQ W 00 -87 4? O ?? cm &lt; co &lt; o S 55 rf h 5 j 3 ? h ? &lt; S x a &lt; c/} H ^ o 2 *S ? 1) ao "13 P-i ^ .0 ! co ; .a co S5 ? T3 &lt; ^ 2 s s o &lt;? cm s ^ &lt; H3 CO 0^ h o ^ T3 ? O 3 s ?s ? H &gt;&gt; 50 O</page><page sequence="35">PLATE XI Top inset: Joseph Salvador, from a caricature extracted from 'The Jerusalem Infirmary'. Portrait of Kitty Fischer as 'Cleopatra', by E. Fisher from the portrait by Reynolds (by permission of the British Museum) [See pp. 104-137</page><page sequence="36">PLATE XII Salvador?a small street in London S.W. 17 [See pp. 104-137</page></plain_text>

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