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Jews in Vanity Fair

John Franks

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Jews in Vanity Fair* JOHN FRANKS During the years between 1869 and 1914, over 2300 caricatures were produced, one in each weekly issue of the magazine Vanity Fair. There were also groups which appeared in special season issues. Vanity Fair changed format and owner? ship in 1914 when the title was acquired by Conde Nast, who published it regularly until 1936 in America.1 It was revived there in 1983, and since 1984 an English edition has been produced. As well as the weekly issue, with its print and biographical note, there were annual albums each year until 1912, which were sold at 3 guineas each, bound in green cloth with gold tooling. There were also albums of proof copies, bound in leather and in strictly limited editions of ten, fifteen or twenty. The proofs were printed before the lettering was added and the album price was 15 guineas. Given a forty-fold multiplier, an equivalent contemporary price would be about ?600. This was clearly a magazine for the Establishment. It was founded by Sir Thomas Gibson Bowles,2 one of the early media mag? nates. His other magazine, The Lady, has continued in family ownership to this day. Bowles became a politician and was an early patron of Winston Churchill. He was also the maternal grandfather of the Mitford sisters. The artist who started producing the series of caricatures, reproduced by chromolithography, was Carlo Pellegrini. Each print was accompanied by a note which conveyed what society then thought of, and about, the person caricatured. The series revived the flagging circulation of the magazine from the issue that appeared in February 1869, with the caricature of Disraeli and a sardonic bio? graphical note. The biographical material of each caricature in this paper is intended to encapsulate this contemporary treatment. Such was the demand for this print, and for the second caricature of Gladstone, both of them signed 'Singe', that they were reworked. All the later copies were signed 'Ape', which was the anglicized pseudonym adopted by Carlo Pelligrini for his subsequent work. It is important to stress the context in which the Jewish caricatures appeared. The roughly 2350 caricatures which appeared over forty-four years represented a cross-section of the elite of Victorian and Edwardian society. Among these are more than seventy Jews, some 3 per cent of the total. At the beginning of this * Paper presented to the Society of 11 December 1997. 199</page><page sequence="2">John Franks Plate i Benjamin Disraeli. 200</page><page sequence="3">Jews in Vanity Fair period the Jewish population was perhaps only 0.25 per cent and grew to about 1 per cent. These are Jews who were practising or who were regarded as Jews at least for part of their life. Disraeli is listed because he was born a Jew, although he was converted to overcome the barriers to Jews from which his father had suffered. (Disraeli was little troubled by this apparent change and, unlike most converts, maintained warm links with the community, ultimately having a Roth? schild as one of his executors.)3 The list which appears in the Appendix has been compiled by the author, with help from Bernard Miller of New York and Alfred Rubens. Needless to say, there can be no entire agreement as to who was a Jew, but all are at least of Jewish descent. The most significant omission from Vanity Fair was Sir Moses Montefiore (1784?1885). This absence was made up for by a short-lived and small circulation City magazine, The Monetary Gazette, which between 1876 and 1877 imitated Vanity Fair and included with each issue a chromolithograph of a City worthy. This did indeed include a picture of Sir Moses Montefiore (7 July 1877, No. 31) which it is believed has not since been reproduced. It is signed 'Pet', an artist who has not been identified, and is technically superior to many of the Vanity Fair caricatures. Sir Moses, the 'Grand Old Man' of Jewish society, believed that Jews, without assimilating, should adopt the styles and ways of Englishmen. He was in the forefront of Jewish emancipation, becoming the first Jew to serve as a Sheriff of London and to be knighted for civic service. He was made a baronet by Queen Victoria in 1846, in consideration of his high character and his benevolent efforts to improve the social conditions of Jews and other communities. Although recommended for a peerage by Lord Shaftesbury in 1862, this had been opposed by Gladstone. A month before he died, in 1885, his great-nephew by marriage, Nathaniel Rothschild, became the first Jewish peer. The first Vanity Fair caricature, which appeared on 30 January 1869, was of Benjamin Disraeli (1804-81; Statesman, No. 1). Gibson Bowles wrote that for Disraeli 'to become what he is from what he was, is the greatest reform of all'. The 'Ape' caricature is one of the best known and is much reproduced, but is not the original version which was signed 'Singe'. On comparison, the greater strength and force of the original version is clear. The father of Gibson Bowles attended school with Mr Disraeli,4 and Gibson Bowles wrote this of him: 'of all our political leaders, and although I by no means agree with the political opinions he sees fit to assume, I have the greatest admiration and respect by far for him'. Disraeli represented what Bowles regarded as the coming principle of the world, 'Personal Merit. . . . The barriers of birth of race of religion of wealth all frowned' on Disraeli, yet 'even now it is astonishing to think that in a country like ours he so lightly passed them all and that he should now stand [1869] confessed to be the first statesman of the day'. He had shown, 'contrary to all 201</page><page sequence="4">John Franks 202</page><page sequence="5">Jews in Vanity Fair our beliefs and experiences, that it is possible, even in England, for the man whom Nature alone has made great to win his proper station, although all other things and men are against him'. His father, by having his son baptized at thirteen (whatever Benjamin Disraeli's private convictions may have been) had set him on a path to power and eminence. Ironically, this helped forward the cause of Jewish emancipation for which Montefiore worked so long and hard, for those coming after Disraeli could engage in public service and still be Ortho? dox Jews. There was a further caricature by 'Ape' of Disraeli as a peer in the issue of 2 July 1878, on which occasion Gibson Bowles remarked: 'His conduct has been condemned. His principles have more often been doubted, his capacity has been demeaned and his statesmanship derided, but if, in his youth, he provoked wonder and contempt, in his riper age he never failed to excite amazement and to impose fear when he fails to earn respect.' Although no fewer than nine Rothschilds appeared in Vanity Fair over the years, only two French members of the family will be mentioned here. Arthur de Rothschild (1851-1903) was featured on 2 August 1900 (Men of the Day, No. 786) by 'Spy'; and it seems that the original portrait of this podgy figure for some reason is the only one of the series of Rothschild studies not in the ownership of the family. According to Vanity Fair he was 'well known in Paris where he had his desk at the Bureau in Rue Lafitte - and even more so at Monte Carlo. He owned a beautiful yacht called "The Eros", upon which he did many parties very well.' Doubly a Rothschild, as a son of Nathaniel and a nephew of Baron Edmond, he combined England and France. Succinctly, Vanity Fair commented that Arthur 'was enormously rich and that he was quite partial to the Board of Green Cloth'. It was also said he was 'very fond of art and he was quite good natured'. Baron Alphonse de Rothschild (1827-1905) presided in Rue Lafitte over Arthur and appeared in Vanity Fair on 20 September 1894 (Men of the Day, No. 597). At that time, there was 'a row of five desks in the Bureau in Rue Lafitte, where Alphonse, his brothers, Gustave and Edward, and his nephew, Arthur, transacted the business of the House, see visitors, give orders, sign drafts and earned their dejeuner'. The fifth desk had 'been vacant for thirteen years since the death of James Edward, another nephew'. Baron Alphonse worked hard and 'always signed his own name; for none of these Rothschilds have ever authorised another man to sign for them'. It was said that 'on big fete days the family meets for traditional prayer in the room of the late Baron James'; which room had been 'untouched since the day he died'. Vanity Fair in 1894 epitomized the Rothschild image in Europe with its remark, 'He has great financial power and he is supposed to have done much to spoil the newest Russian loan by way of reprisal for that country's unkindness to poorer Jews than himself'.5 203</page><page sequence="6">John Franks 204</page><page sequence="7">Jews in Vanity Fair Much of the Rothschild success had been based on their information systems, pigeon post and astute use of the new cable systems, although James Rothschild complained that the telegraph was ruining their business.6 One Jew in particular developed his fortune from information systems: Baron Paul Julius Reuter (i816-1899), whose caricature appeared on 14 December 1872 (Men of the Day, No. 55), drawn by Delficio over the legend 'Telegrams'. All the telegrams in Europe were by then practically in the control of one man and of correspondents in his pay, yet he was never suspected of using them for the interests of a particular individual or country. Vanity Fair goes on to record that 'Mr Reuter was born a German' and, 'after passing his first youth in a Gottingen bank, became a bookseller in Berlin where he met with no success. In 1849, however, then being of the age to form plans, he became an employee of the Prussian government at the telegraph office in Aix-la-Chapelle and showed himself very apt at devising methods for the accel? eration of the transmission of news.' 'The English newspapers at that time had each one its own special source of foreign news, and Mr Reuter, intending as he did to become one general source for all, was not at first favourably received. He was indeed looked on with suspicion and twice failed to get the support of the London Press. He worked hard at his project, however, and during the Russian war his news obtained some attention.' It seems he offered Rothschild's in 1851 not to give his service for Berlin and Viennese exchange rates to any other London house. James Rothschild indeed therefore complained that the telegraph was ruining their business.7 At length, in 1858, he made a third effort to establish his service and during an entire month sent daily a series of general foreign telegrams to every London newspaper, leaving to each the option to purchase. The Times published the report of the Emperor Napoleon's speech to the Austrian Ambassador, which led to the Italian War, produced by Reuter in London an hour after it was made. By 1872 he had a monopoly of foreign news, and the organization by which he maintained that monopoly spread all over the world. Vanity Fair wrote: 'There is no important town in any quarter of the globe where he has not one or more correspondents in direct relation with those bankers, merchants and ministers from whom news is best to be obtained. During the German war in 1869 his correspondents had access to the highest sources of information.' 'The English press which he supplies is allowed only to retain the power of excluding but not that of altering of his despatches.' 'When he arrived in England, Mr Reuter, with the shrewdness of his race', caused himself to be naturalized as an English subject and in 1861 he was made a baron by 'a German Prince, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in recogni? tion of his public services'. Queen Victoria granted that he and his heirs should have the privilege of this rank in England. 'In London, he is respected as becomes a man of great wealth and power, possessing a fine house and wife, and always ready to show a magnificent hospitality. Thus moved, Society had used 205</page><page sequence="8">John Franks ? ? ? ? ,::::^| Plate 4 Baron Paul Julius Reuter. 206</page><page sequence="9">Jews in Vanity Fair him graciously and he, in return, appears to feel a considerable affection for the country whose notions of foreign affairs he held in his hand.' Baron Reuter went on to take part in cable operations, obtaining the conces? sion for a cable between France and the United States which was worked jointly by him with the Anglo-American Telegraph Company. He was the governing director of the joint stock company until he retired in 1879 and was succeeded by his son, Baron Herbert de Reuter (1852-1915). Vanity Fair featured on 7 July 1909 another son of Paul, Baron George de Reuter, 'the Wicked Baron', depicted by 'Spy' (Men of the Day, No. 1179). Vanity Fair wrote that 'although Baron George de Reuter has charming resid? ences in Berkeley Square, London, and in the Faubourg, Paris, he lives more on Channel steamers than under roofs. For the last sixteen years he has crossed on average seventy-five times a year, which does not leave one much time for a favourite armchair.' 'Baron de Reuter was born in 1863, was educated for some time privately and then went to Cambridge, taking two degrees. Leaving College in 1884, he was called to the Bar, and practised for some years. He soon became interested in politics and, at the age of twenty-five years, contested the Rye Division of Sussex in the Liberal interest, but without success. Two years later, he visited Persia in connection with certain concessions his father obtained from the Persian Gov? ernment. This visit resulted, a year later, in the constitution of the Imperial Bank of Persia, of which he is a director.' 'Most of the concerns in which the Baron is interested were international ones. He is, for instance, Chairman of the Anglo-Belgium Bank Ltd and the Korean Waterworks Ltd. He is also a director of the well-known telegraph agency which bore his name.' 'In 1900 he went to Greece and secured concessions for the railway from Piraeus to the Turkish frontier. This line will shorten the Eastern journey by nearly one day, making it only necessary for a twenty-four hours sea-trip to Alexandria.' 'He is essentially a commercial man with little leisure for the indulgence of recreations; but he is fond of skating, gymnastics and swimming.' 'It is fortunate for one who travelled so much that his chief love he will always be able to indulge in without difficulty, even in Heaven - he is passionately fond of music' 'He is known as "the wicked Baron" and is charming enough to be really wicked.' It was the Levy Lawson family who exploited the new technology directly by founding the Daily Telegraph. The first to be featured in Vanity Fair was Mr Edward Levy (1855-1916) on 22 March 1873 (Men of the Day, No. 59). This was the first caricature signed as 'Spy' by Sir Leslie Ward (as he later became). Vanity Fair refers to the story that his father, Joseph Moses Levy, 'set up as 207</page><page sequence="10">John Franks Plate 5 Edward Levy. 208</page><page sequence="11">Jews in Vanity Fair a printer in a small way in Shoe Lane, Fleet Street, and printed for Colonel Sleigh a new twopenny daily newspaper. The Colonel got into arrears after a few months and the Levys took the copyright of the newspaper in settlement of his debt which had become ?1200.' The decision was 'to renovate the cast-off newspaper'. This was capitalized at ?4000 divided into one quarter for Joseph, one eighth for Edward his son, half for Joseph's brother Lionel, and one eighth for their clerk, a Mr George Moss. 'The family now set to work to improve their property and they worked well. Success did not come at once. They repented even at one time of their venture and soon after starting offered to sell the whole for ?5000 and only did not do so because no buyer could be found.' 'They naturally obtained the countenance and support of all who were connected with them by ties of kindred; they reduced the price of the paper to the then startling small sum of one penny; and they appealed to a wider and therefore more vulgar circle of liberal readers than had yet found an organ in the daily Press.' 'Fortune favoured them. The newspaper duty was abolished, they found in Mr Felix Whitehurst, a Paris correspondent who knew exactly how to hit the taste of the readers whose support they sought. They obtained the services of writers who invented a new style of pretentious and high-flown leading articles and they adventured themselves further than was then thought possible in sup? port and defence of Mr Gladstone whom they nicknamed, 'the People's Wil? liam'. The Daily Telegraph made the widest use of the telegraphic service pro? vided by Reuters. At length, the corner was turned. Profits began to flow in at the rate of something like one hundred thousand pounds a year.' When Mr Moss died still a young man, he had retired to a country seat near Erith, 'having refused seventy-five thousand pounds for that share which he had purchased for five hundred pounds'. 'Mr Edward Levy has been for some time the editor and active manager of the Daily Telegraph? Born in 1835, 'after being educated at the London Univer? sity, took an active and practical part in his father's printing business, solacing himself as occasion offered (for the family had always delighted in theatres), by writing theatrical critiques for the Sunday Times\ in which his father had inter? ests. He was then an active politician, 'well aware of the influence he wields, and generally is to be found in the lobby of the House of Commons whenever anything of interest is going forth there. He has married a charming and hand? some wife and has settled down, after migrations through various quarters of the town, in a well-placed mansion. He is a hard worker and as good natured and helpful as all successful men are. He feels he represents a new kind of force in London, as its representative, he had been accepted by Society and after being made much of, has had not long since to consider the question whether he would be made a Baronet.' In 1875, by Royal Licence, he took the name Levy-Lawson. 'In 1878, when an anti-Turkish policy was adopted by Gladstone, Edward 209</page><page sequence="12">John Franks Levy-Lawson became estranged, and when Gladstone adopted his Irish policy of Home Rule from 1886, the Daily Telegraph upheld the Conservative Party. It was thus much later in 1892 that he became a baronet.' In 1903, when he retired as managing proprietor in favour of his son, Edward VII created him a peer to express royal esteem and approval. He returned to London to increase and develop. He became interested in various activities, particularly those con? nected with the theatre. He is said to have speculated in diamond shares, had an ink manufactury and became a wealthy man, dropping the name Levy for Lawson. In 1909, as Lord Burnham, he presided over the first Imperial Press Conference in London. The next member of the family to appear was Lionel Lawson (d. 1879) on 19 February 1876, drawn by J. J. Tissot (Men of the Day, No. 23). He was the uncle of the Edward Levy who had appeared in 1873 in Vanity Fair. Lionel Lawson was described as 'descended from a race of ancient name and fame . . . sent for an education to a German University and early took his way to Paris, which he found at that time peculiarly suited to his notions of life. But he had inherited an adequate fortune, much native shrewdness and a considerable easy-going capacity for work; and being by nature addicted to a large capital, he soon came to London to increase and develop these gifts of a beneficent providence.' He was the son of Moses Lionel Levy, a merchant of London and brother to Joseph Moses Levy.8 'He was enabled to reach one of the highest positions of literary eminence by becoming a principal proprietor of the Daily Telegraph} 'This did not however suffice for his energy and he was able to find time to own many large and valuable freehold estates in and near the Metropolis to engage in important financial enterprises both in the City and West End. It was said to promote artistic taste, not only in himself by the selection and purchase of pictures, but also in the public at large that he became ground landlord of a theatre (the Gaiety), thereby providing works for architects as well as for painters and many new opportunities of study for amateurs.' 'Engaging manners and prepossessing personal appearance united with great wealth, no little tact, and wide experience of the world, generally tend to make a man popular in the society he frequents and these are the chief characteristics of Mr Lionel Lawson.' At this time he was yet without any public reputation but was, 'nevertheless, well known in all joyous resorts' and has a considerable acquaintance among public men and women to whom he brings an aspect of grateful prosperity and a cheerful countenance. A sturdy frequenter of the theatre and the later places of amusement, he has conferred many benefits on many persons, and being open-handed, he has had many of these private suc? cesses which stamp a man as being received by the fair sex for one of face and figure.' 210</page><page sequence="13">Jews in Vanity Fair 'The date of his birth it is unnecessary to mention, since he still cherishes the fond illusion he is thirty-five. A life of ease is that which he most prefers. He has often been criticised for spending on the town the wealth and leisure which a gentleman commonly devoted to the county and it has always been his object to avoid all the ties that would interfere with his personal independence.' It was suggested that in the next general election he would 'be called upon to serve his country in Parliament, when, according to reports, he expects to represent a large metropolitan constituency in the House of Commons, thus commencing at an age when many retire the orthodox career of an opulent English gentle? man'. The career was not to be. He died in 1879, the year before the General Election. It was the year of Sarah Bernhardt's season at the Gaiety Theatre. The third Levy-Lawson was Harry Lawson, MP, whose caricature appeared on 16 November 1893, drawn by 'Spy' (Statesmen, No. 626). 'His Grandfathers were Joseph Moses Levy of the Daily Telegraph and Benjamin Webster.' Vanity Fair wrote that 'wherefore his name is Lawson and his father Sir Edward, he is the first Baronet of this ancient line. As befitted one who should, in time, inherit the shekels and the splendour of Peterborough Court, he was consigned to Eton and afterwards relegated to Balliol, at which seat of learning he took a First Class in Modern History. Then he was called to the Bar and presently became free to gratify his almost Oriental fondness for gorgeous raiment by getting a commission in the Bucks Yeomanry. ... At twenty-three, he was member for Parliament for West St Pancras, the Democrats whereof discerned in his fluent youth, a welcome ally against plutocracy and privilege. Self confident by nature and glib by practice in the University Debating Clubs, he early drew an effusive compliment from the Old Parliamentary hand, so that he remains a Gladstonian even unto this day, albeit fidelity to the Unionism of the parent organ was later rewarded by a Tory Prime Minister.' At Cirencester he found a seat, the contest for which 'extorted from Peterborough Court, a manifesto in these strange terms, "It is necessary for us to state that the Daily Telegraph is not Mr Lawson's newspaper; that the opinions of the Daily Telegraph are not Mr Lawson's opin? ions; that the opinions of Mr Lawson are not the opinions of the Daily Telegraph and that Mr Lawson has nothing whatever to do either with the conduct or the policy of this journal." Despite which flourishing of the sacrificial knife, Isaac remains the dearly beloved son of Abraham.' His pretensions as an agricultural and rural authority were called in question when it was said of him in the House of Commons, 'he knew not an Oak from an Elm' which Vanity Fair said was 'a Chestnut'. He had 'married into the handsome house of De Bathe and his own profile adorns, in stained glass, the fanlight of a Radical Club in perfidious St Pancras.' Vanity Fair wrote that, 'though by no means a shrinking creature, he is possibly as modest as circumstances can reasonably warrant; for it is alleged against him 211</page><page sequence="14">John Franks that his yearly income from the journal which has laboriously disavowed him approaches six figures'. 'He has been called a bourgeois Rosebery; which was unkind.' At this juncture it is convenient to consider that star of the Lawson Gaiety Theatre, Sarah Bernhardt (1845-1923), and what emerges about her from Vanity Fair. She had the distinction of being featured twice, on 5 July 1879 as 'Woman of Genius, No. 1', drawn beautifully by Chartran, and later, on 30 October 1912 (Woman of the Day, No. 2296). When she had appeared at the Gaiety Theatre, Vanity Fair wrote in the 1879 issue: 'the Bernhardts were a Dutch family of Jewish race who had adopted France as their home when that daughter was born who was to render their name famous. This was so few years ago that this daughter is still quite a young woman and yet even then, there is scarcely a journal published in Europe but her name is found in it. As a child, her most ardent desire had been to be a painter, but her mother, holding that this was a poverty stricken career, determined to make of her an actress and placed her in the Conservatoire at Paris. Here she soon made herself known by her talent, and after passing through the Odeon, she, six years ago, joined the Comedie Franca ise. At the time, she was known to the public mainly for her extreme strangeness and spareness of figure, but she saw and observed Aimee Desilee and resolving thenceforth to have her own individuality and have greater scope in her acting, she has within the last four years gradually risen in the estimation of the public until, at the time of portrayal, she is acknowledged to be the first of all living actresses. Her voice is of a fine and delicate quality, capable of infinite modula? tions, her enunciation of the language of Racine and Moliere as near perfection as may be; and she is endowed with a beauty which is all the more fascinating from being so strange and unclassed.' 'In her acting, she had striking resemblance to Rachel, to whom she was held by most to be equal and by very many to be superior.' 'In her costumes, her port, and gestures, she displays the most correct and severe taste, and by the aid of this she has invested with a new interest those tiresome tragedies which can only be endured when they are a triumph of taste.' 'Sarah Bernhardt is herself, when herself, one of the most surprising women of genius. Her intelligence, her quickness, her vivacity, are incredible and all the more astonishing on account of her being what, if she were any other woman, would be an invalid. She suffered much from a distressing malady, [perhaps anorexia] but with her, the spirit had so conquered the body that she leads a life of the most arduous and unremitting toil, while she is ever gay, alert and ready with new and startling theories and conclusions on every conceivable sub? ject. She has given herself to sculpture and to painting with a certain success, she has had her coffin made and kept full of the many love letters which have been addressed to her; she furnishes her living room with skulls, and she has just now resigned her place in that Comedie Francaise, which she has revived 212</page><page sequence="15">Jews in Vanity Fair Plate 6 Sarah Bernhardt. 213</page><page sequence="16">John Franks by her wonderful talent and enriched by her unparalleled success.' In 1912 Vanity Fair wrote of her that she, 'in an age of advanced mediocrity, stands out as a genius possibly beyond compare'. A house that featured in the annals of Jewish emancipation was that of the Goldsmids, of whom Vanity Fair wrote that 'they were originally a Jewish German family who migrated from Cassel to Hamburgh and thence over a hun? dred years came to Leman Street on the East of London. Thence they removed to Finsbury Square, whence in 1841 Isaac Goldsmid issued as a Baronet, besides being authorized to wear in this country his Portuguese title of Baron. His second son followed him in the Baronetcy.' This was Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid (1808-1878), who featured in Vanity Fair on 7 December 1872, drawn once again by Delficio over the title 'Barrister and Baronet' (Statesman, No. 131). Of him Gibson Bowles wrote: 'In the scurry caused on the Continent by the wars of the French Revolution and the First Empire, many who feared either to lose or wished to make money found their way to England. Among them were some German Hebrew financiers bearing the name of Goldsmid who established themselves so surely on strict financial principles that their descendants have now made this country their sole and permanent home. Isaac Goldsmid and his brother soon won by the industry and fidelity to engagements which distinguished their race from the Christians, a great position in the City as loan contractors, and their name has become known for nearly three quarters of a century on every Exchange in Europe, especially in Amsterdam where they have had some of their greatest dealings. Isaac was therefore made a Baronet thirty years ago and proved he deserved the honour by leaving a fortune of ten million pounds to his family. Sir Francis who suc? ceeded him inherited not only his father's wealth but a great part of that of his two uncles, and the first generation being gone, devoted himself to other and higher pursuits than those of commerce. He became a barrister at twenty-five, a Queen's Counsel at fifty, a Member of Parliament at fifty-two and then, at the age of sixty-four, he is in the enjoyment of a personal position and popularity which no amount of money alone can give.' 'Unlike many others he has never deserted his people and his name is associ? ated with the most persistent and untiring agitation against the persecution to which they are still subjected in such miserable countries as Roumania.' Sir Francis had 'quite assumed the position of an English country gentleman' in his place at Rendscomb Park in Sussex which became a model estate. He was said to fill that position with credit and without affectation of any kind, 'so that he is perhaps alone of his race thoroughly adopted by and assimilated with his fellow countrymen'. He died in 1878 as a result of a fall in Waterloo Station caused, at the age of seventy, by alighting from a train before it had stopped. His successor was his nephew, Sir Julian Goldsmid, featured on 25 April 1887 in a drawing by 'Ape' (Statesman, No. 519) at the age of forty-five. The text 214</page><page sequence="17">Jews in Vanity Fair 7 Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid. 215</page><page sequence="18">John Franks described how he, 'being the son of the bullion broker to the Bank of England, was in any case destined to inherit a considerable fortune from his father and also having inherited a very large one from his uncle ... is an extremely wealthy man. He was kept at home under tutelage of French and German tutors until he was seventeen, when he went to University College in Gower Street and did so well that he took his degree of M.A. from London University. In 1863, he was called to the Bar, went to Oxford Circuit and earned thirteen guineas in fees; but in 1866 he got elected to Parliament for Honiton - for which his father had previously sat - and when Honiton was disenfranchised by the 1869 Reform Bill, he went to Rochester for which he sat for the next ten years from 1870 to 1880. In the latter year, he was defeated at Rochester, but in 1885, he was elected for St Pancras.' This he retained until he died in 1896, when he had become Deputy Chairman of the House. Vanity Fair wrote that 'He was by nature a nervous, gentle creature, with a fair share of modest timidity and a very large share of that wealth which tends to inaction; yet he has been compelled to play various parts which demand action, energy and courage. He has managed hospitals and schools.' [From 1880 to 1887 he was the Hon. Treasurer of University College and from 1886 was President of the Anglo-Jewish Association.] He has broken with the bulk of the Liberal Party when it was necessary to choose between Mr Gladstone and the Empire. He occupied himself with various businesses and is at this time the Chairman of the Imperial Continental Gas Company and of the Submarine Telegraph Company; and he manages himself the whole of the considerable estates in Sussex, Kent, Gloucestershire, Hampshire and Berkshire, which he inherited, together with a revenue of ?35,000 in addition to other great invest? ments. He is a very clever, kindly and amiable character, apt to be misled on occasions for want of that knowledge of rough men which is best obtained at a public school, yet most anxious to do right.' 'In his youth, he climbed the Alps and hunted the fox with much persever? ance. He is a great collector of objects of art, he has a splendid house in Piccad? illy; he is married to a charming Italian lady, and although he has no son and heir, he is the father of eight daughters. He is an excellent husband.' The first David Salomons (1797-1873) played an important part in the Jewish emancipation. He was a founder of the London and Westminster Bank. He was in 1831 the first member of the Worshipful Company of Coopers, as a professing Jew, to become a Liveryman, and the first to be elected an Alderman of the City of London in 1835 (being admitted in 1847) and to become Sheriff in 1837. He was the first to speak as an MP in the House of Commons, after being refused his seat in 1851. In 1855 he became the first Jewish Lord Mayor. It is interesting that, like Sir Moses Montefiore, and although he survived to 1873, he was not featured in Vanity Fair. That distinction fell later, on 17 June 1908, to his nephew, Sir David Salomons (1851-1925), whose depiction by 'Spy' was titled 216</page><page sequence="19">Jews in Vanity Fair 'Electricity' (Men of the Day, No. 1122). He inherited the title, 'and to recognise family connections took the name Goldsmid-Stern-Salomons'. No explanation of this recognition of the cousinage was attempted by Vanity Fair. According to Vanity Fair he was educated at Caius College, Cambridge, was called to the Bar in 1814, was Sheriff of Kent in 1880 and was a member of an unending list of learned societies. Vanity Fair wrote that he was 'the unkind author of three appallingly solid volumes on electrical installations. Eleven editions of this unap? petising stuff have been assimilated by the youthful aspirants of our Technical Colleges, and a similar fate seems to be in store for further editions and further students. To ordinary people Sir David is known as one of the pioneers of motor-car traffic. Those who were fully convinced that the advent of the modern motor car has been an unmixed blessing, may hail him as a public benefactor. So far back as 1875 he saw something of the possibilities of an industry which appealed so strongly to human laziness. His first experiments were with electri? city and he succeeded in making a tricycle driven by a primary battery.' It must have been a heartbreaking job because this convinced him that carriages driven by electricity had a very limited sphere of influence. 'In 1895, he organised the first automobile exhibition in England. The cars were practically all obtained from the Continent.' Following the exhibition, 'quickly, English cars, suffering from a variety of chronic complaints, were placed on the market. He was said to write 'on average 160 letters a day and interviews everybody worth interviewing and others', seeking to influence legis? lation. 'He was the Founder and First President of the Self Propelled Traffic Associ? ation which amalgamated with the Automobile Club, and in 1896, he had the satisfaction of knowing that the Act then passed was as good and as liberal as the times permitted.' 'He predicted in 1896 that the use of mineral spirit motors would undoubtedly be confined to propelling cycles, but oil motor-cars inconsiderately came in and were a success.' Vanity Fair suggested 'a later prediction of his that steam would ultimately supplant oil for heavy traffic, seems likely to prove more creditable to his prophetic powers - but the time has yet to come.' 'His home at Tunbridge Wells is a modern magician's cave with electricity to play the part of the good genie. All sorts of weird things happen there at the touch of a finger, and his science theatre, though usually patronised by assem? blies of venerably musty savants, would send a child into raptures.' 'Paintings, sport, sculpture, ballooning, all had a share in his interests, but motor-car designing and scientific research are his chief loves.' 'Horses are not despised by Sir David; indeed, he possesses all sorts of equine aristocrats of high degree and distinguished descent, including a well-known brown-black coaching four. They are kept in an outhouse which took four years to build and cost a trifle over ?100,000.' 217</page><page sequence="20">John Franks 218</page><page sequence="21">Jews in Vanity Fair His son and heir, Reginald, was killed in the Great War. He himself died in 1925 and the apparatus was given to Cambridge University. His house, 'Broomhill', has memento rooms that can be visited. Another great family which featured in Vanity Fair were the Sassoons. Sir Albert Abdallah David Sassoon (1818-96) came from 'a Jewish family of Meso? potamia, long established in Bagdad', according to Vanity Fair, which published a caricature by 'Spy' on 16 August 1879 (Men of the Day, No. 201). Vanity Fair described how 'early in the nineteenth century, David Sassoon, then the head of the family, betook himself to English protection at Bombay and brought thither his son, Albert. The family stood and worked together as Jewish families alone are known to do.' 'They became traders in opium on the largest scale and bankers of great repute. Having become rich under the Turks in Bagdad, they amassed enormous wealth under the English in Bombay, and Albert inherited so immense a fortune, which he so immensely increased, that he was known as the Rothschild of India.' Educated at Bombay and trained in business, he has ever become more and more grateful to the Government which protected him in the enjoyment of his possessions. He has endowed untold charities, has provided hospitals and almshouses with princely magnificence and has recently [in 1879] erected in Bombay an equestrian statue of the Prince of Wales. It was natural he should be promoted to honour and he was accordingly invested with the Star of India [in 1867] and made a knight [in 1872].' In 1856 he came to see England and in 1873 'again returned to take up resid? ence in the country of his adoption. He delights in the good things of life, on which he has now relied after a laborious career. He is generous and popular, keen and sagacious, with a quiet sense of humour which betrays itself in several ways. He has splendid palaces in India, yet he elected to live in Kensington, and met with a reception in London which could not fail to convince him that England was the proper home of the chosen people.' He was also featured by caricature in the Monetarist Gazette of 1877; he became a baronet in 1890. His brother, Reuben David Sassoon (1835-1905), received a much briefer note on 20 September 1890 when his 'Spy' caricature appeared (Men of the Day, No. 483). Vanity Fair described him as 'the third son, and one of a race of lucky Indian merchants. He went to China in his early youth; and, having made a fortune in business, he spent his money royally. He is fond of the Play; and being also fond of sport, he has for some years had a few horses in the Leopold de Rothschild's stable; Theodore by Sir Bevys being the best and most profitable he has owned. He is a friend of the Prince of Wales, but in the 1890 season he has not been with him at Homburg, and having no enemies he was popular in Society. He is full of charity, but he is quite an unostentatious man. He entertained the Shah.' Sir Albert Edward Sassoon (1856-1912) appeared on 1 February 1900 in a 219</page><page sequence="22">John Franks depiction by 'Spy' (Statesman, No. 717). 'The eldest surviving son of the First Baronet and of Hannah, daughter of Meyer Moise of Bombay, he was born nearly five and forty years ago though he has only been a Baronet for four years.' 'He is a Major in the Duke of Cambridge's Hussar Yeomanry, a Deputy Lieutenant and also the husband of a daughter of Baron Gustave de Rothschild. He has represented Hythe as a good Conservative since last year [1899]; he has houses in Park Lane, at Brighton, Sandgate, Poona and Bombay. Mr Sydney Gedge supported him at Hythe with a good speech.' Vanity Fair said in conclu? sion: 'He is rich'. Apart from Sarah Bernhardt, artistic Jews were well represented, including Isaac Zangwill, Joseph Joachim, Isadora de Lara, Arthur Wing Pinero and Landon Ronald. This last is the rarest, since it was published in 1913 at a time when circulation was falling; the magazine ceased publication at the beginning of 1914 and there was no 1913 Album. Israel Zangwill (1864-1926) appeared on 25 February 1897, drawn by Sickert (Men of the Day, No. 674). Vanity Fair wrote: 'There is no denying that he had been born of Jewish parents, and he is proud enough to confess they were poor'. Vanity Fair continued: 'The race is very ancient; but he himself, is only two and thirty. He appeared first in London, lived in Plymouth and Bristol and at nine was sent to the Jews Free School in Spitalfields, where he was said to have distinguished himself. To be distinguished among Jews has meant success from the time of Moses, therefore, he has succeeded; which is clear from his appearance here today.' 'He learnt enough at the Spitalfields School to become a teacher there; and then he took a degree at London University which is a more catholic institution. That made him vain enough to found Aerial, which sprite seems to have lived for a year or two. Then he wrote a book - his second - and called it The Bachelor's Club; Children of the Ghetto followed; and the subject being one that he knew, it made him; so that he is now as rich as a Jew should be. This book was not only good enough to sell itself, but also to sell The King of the Schnorrers which followed it, and The Master which following the King. And after that the Editors of the Pall Mall Magazine gave him two years in which to show how much Without Prejudice he was and is.' 'He has so much ability that he is able to tell a story against himself - more or less curiously. He can also say funny things in an after dinner speech, which would be good if there were not so much of it. He is not very beautiful to look at; but he rightly puts himself at higher value than appearance, yet, he is hardly so great a man as he thinks.' 'At one time he became President of the Jewish Territorial Organization for the Settlement of Jews within the British Empire which was not successful, and from 1896 he came under the influence of Dr Theodor Herzl and became an advocate of Zionism.' 220</page><page sequence="23"></page><page sequence="24">John Franks Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934) featured on 7 March 1891 in a portrait by 'Spy' (Men of the Day, No. 500). He was, according to Vanity Fair, 'descended from a Portuguese family which, under the name of Pinheiro, settled in England towards the end of the seventeenth century, and, born to a worthy solicitor six and thirty years ago, he was intended by his father to extract fees from litigants rather than from actor managers. But he thought the law was dry, and, leaving the office to get to the footlights, he made his first appearance and a pound-a week on the boards of the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, at the age of nineteen. There he showed capability which presently secured him a place in Mr Irving's Lyceum; and later in the Haymarket Company. But, in spite of his success, he thought he could make better lines for others to speak than others made for him. So he wrote "Two Can Play at That Game" and Miss Bateman produced it. And, not much later, he began consistently to pose as a playwright, and proving by his methods he had found his vocation, he wrote "The Money Spinner", and "The Square" for Mr Kendal and Mr Hare; and among other pieces, he has been guilty of "The Magistrate", "The Schoolmistress", "The Hobby Horse" and "The Rocket", for other managers.' 'More lately, his previous successes have been eclipsed by the long runs both at home and abroad, of "Sweet Lavender", while "The Profligate" was consid? ered the most clever of modern plays of its kind. He has just written a four-act play called "Lady Bountiful" for Mr John Hare, which play everyone is going to see tonight [1891].' 'He is our most popular playwright, and his work is the best of its kind of this generation. He does not believe in old fashioned comedy, but thinks a leaven of farce is needed. Yet he is a literary person who has shown in an age of adaptation that it is possible to write an English play with money in it.' It was the later play, 'The Second Mrs Tanqueray', in 1893, which brought Mr Pinero final recognition as an English dramatist. He was knighted in 1909, and 'wrote four and fifty plays in nine and fifty years.' 'He is quite a modest man.' Joseph Joachim (1891-1907) appeared in Vanity Fair on 5 January 1905, drawn by 'Spy' (Men of the Day, No. 945). Vanity Fair said that 'the musical brethren of Joseph Joachim bow down to him with feelings of admiration unusual in that jealous profession. When the Premier, Mr Balfour, in 1905 pre? sented him with the Sargent portrait, in celebration of the diamond jubilee of his first appearance in England, no other fiddler was seen to raise his eyebrows.' The note continues to explain that 'from the day when Mendelssohn took the young Hungarian in hand, nicknamed him "Teufelsbraten" (Devil's Limb), and impressed on him that "a true artist should play only the best", he had been intentionally exclusive in his reporting. "No kickshaws!" appeared to be his motto. He has played the big things and played them in the objective "classic" style. No artist of the time has been more indifferent to the cult of his own personality; none has more completely forgotten himself in his work. The read 222</page><page sequence="25">Jews in Vanity Fair ings of his string quartet in the old days of the "Pops" - a quartet of priceless Strads - were the model to which all students of chamber music were referred. Other famous quartet leaders have played solos to their colleagues' accompani? ment, Joachim, never.' 'His artistic influence has been immense. He discovered Brahms, and sent him to Schumann with what result all the world knows. Wagner gave him a friendly "notice" on his appointment to the Hochschule in Berlin, a distinction which few of that truculent master's contemporaries could claim. He also draws a characteristic testimonial from Carlyle. During a walk, he innocently asked Carlyle, by way of probing his musical affinities, whether he knew Sterndale Bennett. "No", snorted the Sage of Chelsea. A pause followed. "I don't care generally for musicians", he resumed, "they are an empty, wind-baggy sort of people".' 'He has written sparingly. The Hungarian concerto for the violin will live long after he ceased to play it. It was more than "fireworks". As a teacher, he sends into the world artists rather than virtuosi. His dry humour is very illumin? ating to the aspiring pupil. "Blossoms on the tree - not potatoes", he suggested one day to a student who had played in a lumpy style. His musical children and grandchildren are as numerous as the progeny of a patriarch, and their influence is worldwide. They honoured their father of the fiddle as the last of a classic school.' Isidore de Lara (1858?1935) appeared on 23 December 1908 (Men of the Day, No. 1150). It was not signed and being sold privately it was not listed with an artist's name in the Sotheby Catalogue of 1912. The Vanity Fair biographical note began: 'a short time previously, the mediocrities ran together and Smith assured Jones and Jones assured Smith that at length a genius called "E" had arisen who would do for English music what Gainsborough had done for English painting. Meanwhile, the only Englishman of distinct musical genius was being given the cold shoulder by all the betitled professors with a touching unanimity bred of a common cause. If it be true that "Union is Strength", it is still more true that weakness makes union.' 'Isidore de Lara was born in London (a Cohen) in 1858 of an English father and a Portuguese mother. At the age of seventeen, he won the gold medal and purse at the Royal Conservatorio of Milan. He studied there under Muzzucato for composition, Andreoli for piano and Lamperto for singing. Returning to London, he became professor of singing at the Guildhall School of Music at the age of twenty-two.' 'He began his career as a composer by writing ballads, and, as a singer of his own music, became the creator of a new style of singing, christened or con? demned as the "intense" school. For the first time in our memory, passionate words in English were sung with passion; before the appearance of de Lara, Englishmen sang of love with dismal pathos or with a look of dogged determina 223</page><page sequence="26">John Franks tion, as if, after having invited their lady love to "meet them in the lane", they were determined to thrash her when they got hold of her. De Lara's alternations of caressing languor and passionate desire expressed in voice and manner were considered immoral by many persons in London. This was only another way of saying that de Lara, as a singer, was the most successful in England for some twenty years.' 'Of a sudden, he turned his back on a scene of a thousand triumphs, he gave up writing easy ballads, abandoned the luxury of thrilling foolish and fashionable people with passionate love songs, and turned his attention to serious work. He took Arnold's Light of Asia and wrote it into a sort of oratorio. At the time, Augustus Harris was at once struck by the dramatic possibilities in it and offered to produce it as an opera during the Italian season. The first performance was given in the summer of 1893. The success of this first play encouraged Harris to ask de Lara to write an opera on the subject of Amy Robsart, which was produced in 1894 at Covent Garden with a splendid cast. The work was given the same year at Monte Carlo with huge success. Since that time, de Lara devoted his talents entirely to the stage. His other works were "Moina", Monte Carlo, 1897, a work which is still popular in France; in 1899, "Messaline" was produced at Monte Carlo . . . and called forth intense enthusiasm. This opera has been given over one thousand times in almost every theatre in France, Belgium, Germany and Italy, and has been heard over two seasons at Covent Garden. His next opera, "Solea", was produced in Cologne, and then "Sanga" was given at Nice in 1906 and made a sensation. "Sanga" was produced at the Opera Comique in Paris on the 30th November at the special request of the Minister of Fine Arts who had heard it in Nice. It was the first opera by an Englishman which was ever given in a subventioned theatre in Paris. Its success has been the feature of the season of 1908.' 'Isidore de Lara is something more than a great musician with an astounding sense of the theatre and love for the technique of the stage, he is a great man and deeply read in three or four literatures. Strange to say, he prefers philosophies to works of literary art, prose to poetry.' Landon Ronald (1873-1938) was portrayed on 3 December 1913 by 'Astz' (Men of the Day, No. 2352). In Vanity Fair Mr Landon Ronald is described as 'this exceedingly pleasant gentleman'. He was, at the time, the Principal of the Guildhall School of Music - a position he accepted in 1908 and held for five and twenty years, being honoured with a knighthood in 1922. He had accepted the position 'on condition that his work as a conductor should not be jeopardis? ed'. Born into a composing family - the son of Henry Russell whose father had been a Mr Levy, and of his second wife, a Mrs de Lara - it was not surprising that 'he was turned out from the Royal College of Music at the age of sixteen, as a finished product. He began his career as a solo pianist at once. But he soon 224</page><page sequence="27">Jews in Vanity Fair Plate io Landon Ronald. 225</page><page sequence="28">John Franks gave this over for the larger work.' Sir Augustus Harris 'discovered' him. So did Madame Nellie Melba soon after. Since that time, he had been quite 'in the public eye'. 'When he went over to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, the critics clamoured for him, and he repeated his successes in Vienna, Leipzig, Amsterdam and Bremen'. 'He soon learned that in order to make a personal success, it was necessary for him to have an Orchestra of his own, and it was arranged that Mr Ronald should become the permanent conductor of the New Symphony Orchestra. Since he has assumed this position, both he and the Orchestra have taken a leading part in the musical life of London.' 'As a composer of Songs, perhaps there is no Englishman better known than Mr Landon Ronald, who has written much for the voice with orchestral accom? paniment. He thanks God that we have, at last, an English musician in Sir Edward Elgar.' On 28 October 1912 he was admitted to the Worshipful Company of Musi? cians for his services to British music. On the same Roll of Honour were inscribed the names of Lord Alverstone, Mr Andrew Carnegie, Sir Edward Elgar and Sir Alexander MacKenzie. His biographic note ends with the cryptic remark 'If he had a pet hobby aside from his music, it was "Perkins" '. The Chief Rabbi, the Very Reverend Hermann Adler, DD, LLD, PhD (1839-1911) appeared in Vanity Fair on 31 March 1904, by 'Spy' (Men of the Day, No. 912). He was described as: 'The Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregation of the British Empire, who, the greatest Jew divine in the whole world, began as an Hanoverian five and sixty years previously. His father was the Chief Rabbi before him and had him well grounded at University College School so that he was able, at a dinner of Old Gowers, to propose the health of such contemporaries as Mr Chamberlain, the Speaker of the House of Com? mons, and Mr John Morley. At University College, he studied with such mixed friends as the late Lord Herschel [of Jewish descent, who became Lord Chan? cellor in 1886] and Louis Kossuth [the Hungarian revolutionary] but he also learned things at Prague and at Leipzig.' 'He is just forty years since he became Minister of the Bayswater Synagogue, but he preached his first sermon at the consecration of the Swansea Synagogue five years before that. Despite his religion, he was a friend and admirer of Dr Manning [who had converted from the Church of England and had become both a Cardinal-priest and Archbishop of Westminster] to whom he presented a testimonial at the Silver Jubilee of Dr Manning, earned by the Cardinal's services to the persecuted Jews of Prussia.' 'He has written much on Theology and History, since his Jewish reply to Bishop Colenso; and, being an authority on the Hebrew tongue, was a contrib? utor to the great Jewish Encyclopedia which is now appearing.' 226</page><page sequence="29">Jews in Vanity Fair 'He is President of many societies, from the Jews College downward, member of the Council on Public Morality and vice-President of the Mansion House Council on the Dwellings of the Poor; and he has lectured on that profound subject, Jewish Wit and Humour. Altogether he is a very hard working orthodox man who will not ride on the Sabbath, though he makes a very courtly host. He loves his library and his collection of Manuscripts on Hebrew Literature and History, and he had two charming daughters.' 'Being the Chief Rabbi, he lived both in the East and the West in Paddington and in Finsbury Square.' Like Sir Moses Montefiore he believed that it was necessary to anglicize and 'civilize' immigrants. Of Zionism he said: 'Because the physician fails to discover a remedy for the patients' ills, is another justified in administering poison?' He did not live to see the catastrophe of the Holocaust. Appendix Jews and Those of Jewish Descent Name Revd Hermann Adler Barnett Barnato Earl of Beaconsfield Date 7 8 2 20 5 6 i3 16 i7 18 i9 12 10 II R. E. Belilios Sir Julius Benedict Harry Benson Henry E. S. Benzon Sara Bernhardt Lionel L. Cohen Sir Vincent Caillard Lionel Louis Cohen Baron Adolph Deichman Captain Alfred Dreyfus Sir Ernest Cassel Sir Michael Costa Opfer de Biowitz Henry L. Bischoffsheim Monsieur de Giers George Faudel-Phillips Major Charles S. Goldmann 31 March 1904 14 February 1895 30 January 1889 2 July 1878 6 January 1910 27 September 1873 29 September 1877 23 July 1879 5 July 1879 30 October 1912 4 March 1876 7 December 1899 6 July 1872 29 August 1885 7 December 1912 24 April 1886 11 February 1897 24 April 1886 4 May 1903 7 September 1909 23 November 1909 27 December 1884 10 June 1897 28 January 1904 227</page><page sequence="30">John Franks 21 Sir Francis H. Goldsmid 22 Sir Julian Goldsmid 23 Albert Grant 24 Oscar Hammerstein 25 Mark Hambourg 26 Augustus Harris 27 Lord Herschell 28 Sir Farrer Herschell 29 Baron Hirsch 30 Sir Henry A. Isaacs 31 Sir Rufus D. Isaacs 32 Sir George Jessel 33 Joseph Joachim 34 Solomon B. Joel 35 Isidore de Lara 36 Harry Lawson 37 Lionel Lawson 38 Edward Levy 39 Sir George H. Lewis 40 Sir Phillip Magnus 41 Harry Marks 42 Carl Meyer 43 Samuel Montagu 44 Paul Nelke 45 Bernal Osborne 46 Arthur W. Pinero 47 Montagu Pyke 48 Lord Rendlesham 49 Baron George Reuter 50 Baron Paul Reuter 51 Landon Ronald 52 Alfred de Rothschild 53 Alphonse de Rothschild 54 Arthur de Rothschild 55 Ferdinand de Rothschild 56 Leopold de Rothschild 57 Lionel de Rothschild 58 Mayer de Rothschild 59 Lord (Nathan) Rothschild 60 Walter Lionel Rothschild 61 Sir David Salomons 7 December 1884 23 May 1887 21 February 1874 15 November 1911 29 May 1908 28 September 1899 26 October 1910 19 March 1881 26 July 1890 9 November 1899 18 February 1904 18 June 1913 1 March 1879 5 January 1905 20 January 1910 23 December 1908 16 November 1893 19 February 1876 22 March 1873 2 September 1876 3 January 1891 8 June 1899 17 March 1909 6 November 1911 30 December 1908 28 May 1870 7 March 1891 17 May 1911 15 October 1881 7 July 1909 14 December 1871 3 December 1913 31 May 1884 20 September 1894 2 August 1900 15 June 1889 13 December 1884 22 September 1877 25 May 1871 9 June 1888 13 September 1900 17 June 1908 228</page><page sequence="31">Jews in Vanity Fair 62 Joseph Samuda 63 Sir Albert A. Sassoon 64 Sir Albert E. Sassoon 65 Reuben D. Sassoon 66 Felix Schuster 67 Sir Felix Semon 68 Serjeant Simon 69 Arthur Sullivan 70 Lucien Wolf 71 Baron Henry de Worms 72 Israel Zangwill 15 February 1873 16 August 1879 1 February 1900 20 September 1890 28 June 1906 1 May 1902 25 September 1886 14 March 1874 20 December 1911 22 May 1880 25 February 1897 NOTES 1 John R?ssel, Vanity Fair: Portraits of an Age, igi4~igj6 (London 1982). 2 Leonard E. Naylor, The Irrepressible Victorian (London 1965). 3 Niall Ferguson, The World's Banker (London 1998) 536, 845-6. 4 Naylor (see n. 2) 11. 5 Ferguson (see n. 3) 907. 6 Ibid. 573. 7 Ibid. 8 Paul H. Emden, Jews of Britain (London n.d. [1943]) 358. 229</page></plain_text>