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Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909

William Rubinstein

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, i809-1909 WILLIAM RUBINSTEIN There have been a number of excellent studies of Anglo-Jewry's economic elite in the nineteenth century, especially Paul Emden's The Jews of Britain (1943), Chaim Bermant's The Cousinhood (1971), and Harold Pollins' Eco? nomic History of the Jews in England (1982). While Bermant's work explores the world of the Anglo-Jewish 'grandee' families - such as the Rothschilds - both Emden and Pollins delineated the wide range of British industries and businesses, apart from the financial world of the City of London, in which Jews played a significant role. Pollins' work, in particular, shows the extent of Jewish participation in non-stereotypical fields, many outside London. This article attempts to augment the contributions of these and other authors by providing a comprehensive list of all Jews who left ?100,000 or more in Britain in the century between 1809 (when the probate records can first be used for this purpose) and 1909, the conclusion of the last full decade prior to the outbreak of the First World War.1 Such a listing can help achieve a number of aims. Because the probate indexes are comprehensive, all Jewish (or other) wealth-holders can be identified, not merely those from celebrated families and dynasties. Thus, a picture can be drawn of the dimensions of Jewish participation in Britain's economic life which relies on objective rather than anecdotal information. Jews can be accurately situated in the broader picture of Britain's wealth elite, in order to ascertain the actual dimensions of Anglo-Jewry in the overall wealth elite. Questions concerning social mobility, residency and marriage patterns, charitable donations and intermarriage and assimilation can also be more accurately addressed. The list below includes all Jews who left ?100,000 or more in Britain between 1809 and 1909. The names and value of the estates were taken from several probate calendars (those of PROB 8 of the Prerogative Court of Can? terbury, and the records of the York Prerogative Court and Lancashire Con? sistory Court) in the case of persons leaving estates in England and Wales down to 1858, and from the indexes (calendars) of the Principal Probate 1 These sources can also be used to determine wealth left since 1909 and I have comprehensive data on all estates of ?500,000 or more until about 1990. See also my Men of Property; The Very Wealthy in Britain since the Industrial Revolution (London 1981), among other works. 133</page><page sequence="2">William Rubinstein Registry (formerly at Somerset House and now at First Avenue House, Holborn) for estates probated from 1858. In addition, the Scottish calendars of confirmation (from 1825) were also comprehensively investigated, as part of a wider project to record and identify all persons in Britain leaving ?100,000 or more from 1809 through 1909. The names listed here comprise all Jews who left ?100,000 or more, including those who lived abroad but left this sum in Britain. Although the list should be regarded as complete, a number of sources of omission exist. Some estates may have been recorded in PROB 9, 10 or n at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury (which covered intestacies and disputed probates) or in one of the many minor probate courts which existed before 1858, although very large estates were almost certain to have been probated in one of the two Prerogative Courts. Since the names have been gathered by going through all the probate indexes and calendars and copying them by hand, some may have been missed.2 The valuation figure given is that of the gross value of the unsettled person? alty of each such person on the day of his or her death. This excludes the capital value of land (or settled land after 1898) and property situated abroad. The figures were sworn to a round figure, such as ?120,000 (actually, the formula was 'below ?120,000', indicating that the actual figure was slightly lower), until 1881, and then to a precise value. The exclusion of land presum? ably affects Jewish wealth-holders less than others, although there were some Jewish large landholders by the mid-nineteenth century, such as the Roth? schilds and Goldsmids. Apart from this, there is no reason to suppose that the figures are not comprehensive. The list below is in chronological order by date of probate. The reference number that precedes each name has no significance in itself, but is given to facilitate identification in any correspondence with the author. In a surprising number of cases it has not been possible to ascertain with certainty whether the person listed was definitely Jewish. In cases of doubt, one or two question marks have been placed before the name, one indicating probability and two considerable doubt. While it is likely that some in this last category were actually not Jewish, they have been noted here for completeness.3 Each 2 Names from the printed Scottish calendars from 1876 were abstracted for me by a research assistant. 3 In addition, the following wealth-holders had Jewish fathers or grandfathers, but non-Jewish mothers, and appear not to have had any connection with the Jewish community: Mortimer Ricardo (1807-76), stockbroking fortune in the City, son David Ricardo (q.v.), ?350,000; David Ricardo (1841-77), stockbroking family, ?120,000; Percy Ricardo (1820 92), stockbroking fortune, ?257,348; Frank Ricardo (1850-97), stockbroking fortune, ?155,068; Henry Neumann (1810-98), merchant in Liverpool, ?155,250; George Neumann (1817-98), civil engineer, chiefly in France, brother of previous, ?143,647; Farrer Herschell, first baron Herschell (1837-99), MP and Lord Chancellor, ?153,137; Henry Charles Lopes (ne Franco), first baron Ludlow (1828-99), Jamaica merchant fortune and landowner; MP 134</page><page sequence="3">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 wealth-holder was then traced in a wide variety of historical sources, espe? cially genealogical works, local directories and the Directory of Directors. A brief description of the occupation or source of wealth of each person is given, together with the geographical location of the business ('the City' being the City of London), and some limited additional information such as service in Parliament ('Westminster' here covers the old Borough of Westminster, including the West End). No other information, such as the residential address, could be given in the space available. The author would welcome any additions or corrections (which should be sent to him c/o the Department of History, The University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Penglais, SY23 3DY, or on e-mail at wdr@aber.ac.uk), all of which will be acknowledged in future publications. The figure of ?100,000 is an arbitrary one, but fluctuates little in value, remaining within one order of magnitude during the whole of this period, especially after the inflation of the Napoleonic Wars. Although precise comparisons are difficult, a pound during this period was equivalent roughly to ?60 at the time of writing, resulting in a cut-off point worth roughly ?6 million in present-day terms. The three wealthiest persons on this list were probably Nathan Rothschild (d. 1836), the founder of the London branch of the bank, who was generally believed to be worth about ?4-5 million; Herman, Baron de Stern (d. 1888), a City merchant banker who left ?3,545,000; and Alfred Beit (d. 1906), the South African 'Rand lord', who left ?8,050,000 in Britain.4 These three estates were worth in today's money roughly ?240-300 million, ?207 million and ?483 million respectively, although this probably does not express their real value, since there was virtually no income tax or death duty. A townhouse in South Kensington could be purchased in the late nineteenth century for about ?1000, suggesting that prime property has escalated about 1000-1500 times, not 60. The valuation figures need therefore to be seen in this light. In all, twenty-seven Jewish estates of ?1 million or more, and thirty-three in the ?50o,ooo-?i million class, may be identified in Britain during the century after 1809, including those of foreigners. In several cases the Jewish background of the testator remains disputed. Although the number of large Jewish estates increased dramatically, so too did the number of non-Jewish estates and the overall value of wealth in Britain. Britain's gross national income, for instance, rose more than eight-fold and Judge, ?161,563; Charles Emanuel Goodhart (1818-1903), son, Emanuel Goodhart (d. 1853) ?179,308; Sir Massey Lopes, 3rd Bt (1818-1908), Jamaica fortune, landowner and MP, ?653,370. 4 Before about 1870, millionaire estates were recorded as either 'Upper Value' (i.e. above ?1 million) or 'Above 1 million', rather than to a specific figure. 135</page><page sequence="4">William Rubinstein from about ?232 million in 1811 to ?1.9 billion in 1909. There is also, of course, a difference between income and wealth. The figures here record the wealth of each person, not his or her peak income. There are unfortu? nately no surviving figures of top income-earners, for instance, from the income tax levied between 1798 and 1814 and then from 1842. It is striking how many wealthy Anglo-Jews were not members of the so-called 'Cousinhood' families and dynasties. The Rothschilds, Montefiores, Goldsmids, Mocattas and others are indeed well-represented here, but many at the lower levels of wealth are virtually unknown today to historians. They represent a major, but neglected, category of Anglo-Jewish wealth, often of importance to the economy. How relatively significant were Jews in the wider context? In fact, not particularly so, impressive as the names here might seem, in view of the fact that Britain had experienced the Protestant Reformation, the agricultural, commercial and industrial revolutions, had acquired an empire and, by the mid-nineteenth century, had become the 'workshop of the world'. The fol? lowing table details the total number of estates of ?100,000 or more in each ten-year period, the number of those left by those who were definitely Jewish, those in the one- and two-question-mark categories, and the maximum number of Jews and their percentages. 1809-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99 1900-09 Total Number 217 309 362 377 444 775 1336 1582 2081 2728 10,211 Jews 2 3 4 2 13 12 33 40 45 72 226 2.2% ? 1 0 1 1 2 1 3 5 8 26 48 0.5% 1 1 1 1 6 4 11 15 25 38 103 1.0% Maximum Number 4 4 5 4 21 17 47 60 78 136 377 3.7% This table shows that of the 10,211 people who left ?100,000 or more in Britain during this period, only 229 (2.2 per cent) were definitely Jewish and no more than 377, or 3.7 per cent, possibly so. Even during the decade that included the Edwardian period (1900-09), when Jewish wealth, especially that of King Edward VII's 'Jewish court', became legendary, only 2.7 per cent of 136</page><page sequence="5">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 all top wealth-holders were definitely Jews, and 5.0 per cent possibly so. If anything, these statistics exaggerate the Jewish component of the wealth structure, since the capital value of the land owned by the great landowners is excluded. If this were to be included the Jewish percentage would shrink markedly. In addition, a significant number of Jews who left fortunes in Bri? tain actually lived abroad (as the list makes clear), probably exceeding the percentage of non-Jews domiciled overseas. Jews played almost no role in the Industrial Revolution, and very little in the economic life of such major cities as Birmingham, Liverpool or Glasgow. Even in areas in which Jews were prominent, they never dominated the field. For instance, probably the six richest bankers or merchant bankers of the century considered here were Nathan Rothschild, William Joseph Denison (d. 1842), James Morrison (d. 1857), Samuel J. Loyd (Lord Overstone, d. 1883), Baron Herman de Stern (d. 1888) and Charles Morrison (d. 1909), only two of whom were Jews. The probate records, of course, evaluate wealth left at death, not the wealth of the living. By the end of the Edwardian period the wealthiest Jew in Britain was probably Sir Ernest Cassel (1852-1921), who left ?7,333,000 at his death. The wealthiest Gentiles, however, were far richer. The two wealthiest men in Britain on the eve of the First World War were probably the mysterious shipowner and financier Sir John Ellerman, ist Bt (1862-1933), claimed to be worth ?55 million in 1916 and who left ?37 million at the bottom of the Depression (Ellerman, often rumoured to be Jewish, was of Gentile German and English descent), and the second Duke of Westminster (d. 1953), whose father, the first Duke, was widely believed to be worth ?14 million at his death in 1899. The situation in Britain (as in the United States) contrasted with that throughout central and eastern Europe, where Jews certainly com? prised a disproportionate percentage of the economic elite. This was a potent reason for the strength of anti-Semitism in continental Europe compared with the English-speaking world.5 In the latter, native capitalists and entrepreneurs played the role which Jews (and other alien minorities such as Greeks and Armenians) occupied in the more backward parts of Europe. The image of the prominence of Jewish financiers during the Edwardian period is thus largely a misleading one, and may stem from the king's preference for their company. Nevertheless, it is clear from this list that Jews played an important role in the City, elsewhere such as Manchester, and in a surprising range of other fields. I am most grateful to Edgar Samuel for some helpful comments on a draft of this paper. 5 See my article 'Jews in the Economic Elites of Western Nations and Anti-Semitism', Jewish Journal of Sociology XLII (2000) 5-36. 137</page><page sequence="6">William Rubinstein i8og-ig 1813/19 Benjamin Abraham Goldsehmidt ?100,000 [Goldsmid] (c. 1782-1813) presumably a bullion broker, London ?? 1814/19 Joseph Sales (1737-1814) ?250,000 wholesale tobacconist in the City 1814/22 Jacob Franks (d. 1814) ?250,000 presumably an American merchant, lived in Isleworth, Bath and Norfolk, died an Anglican ? 1816/27 Manuel de la Torre (d. 1816) ?120,000 merchant (De la Torre and Emanuel) of the City 1820-Q 1822/33 Asher Goldsmid (1751-1822) ?250,000 bullion broker in London 1827/7 David Ricardo (1772-1823) ?500,000 stockbroker in the City, MP, economist, died a Unitarian 1824/26 Abraham Montefiore (1788-1824) ?500,000 stockbroker in London ?? 1824/30 Joseph Berens (1744-1825) ?160,000 paper-mill owner in St Mary Cray, merchant in London 1830-9 1830/38 Moses Lyon Levy (c. 1765-1830) ?100,000 money broker and agent in the City; grandfather of ist Bt Burnham 1831/10 Sir Massey Lopes, ist Bt (1755-1831) ?160,000 Jamaica planter, landowner and MP, died an Anglican ? 1832/23 Priscilla Franks (d. 1832) (lived in ?400,000 Isleworth) presumably a relative of Jacob Franks (d. 1814) ?? 1834/2 Henrique Texiera de Sampayo, ?600,000 Count de Povia (d, 1834 ?)&gt; Lisbon merchant in the City 1836/25 Nathan Mayer Rothschild (Frankfurt, 'Upper 1777-1836) Value5 merchant banker in the City, founder of the UK branch of the bank 138</page><page sequence="7">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 1836/34 Henry Moses Levy (d. 1836 ?) ?100,000 money broker in the City; presumably a relative of M. L. Levy (d. 1830) 1840-Q ? 1840/35 Sarah Friedeberg (d. 1840) ?100,000 (presumably a relative of J. S. Friedeberg, diamond merchant of Aldersgate), lived in Finsbury Place south 1843/27 Levy Salomons (1774-1843) ?200,000 merchant and insurance broker in the City; was father of Sir David Salomons, Bt. ?? 1844/34 Nathaniel Lewis Paeske (d. 1844) ?160,000 formerly of Danzig, then Lime Street Square, City and Park Lane; occupation unknown; presumably merchant 1849/13 Baron Joseph Hambro (1780-1848) ?300,000 merchant banker in the City 1850-9 1850/25 Alexander Raphael (Madras, 1775-1850) ?180,000 stockbroker in the City, MP, died a Catholic. There is considerable mystery about Raphael's origins and those of others of his family on this list. The most likely conclusion is that his father was a Jew and his mother not, but this is far from clear. See Albert Hyamson, 'Alexander Raphael, M. P.', Trans JfHSE 16 (1952) 225-6. 1851/26 Louis Lucas (1791-1850) ?400,000 West India merchant in London ? 1853/26 Emanuel Goodhart (1772-1853) ?100,000 sugar refiner in Limehouse ?? 1853/38 John Hortsman (1781-1853) ?120,000 merchant in the City 1853/43 Salis Schwabe (1800-53) ?180,000 calico printer in Manchester; died a Unitarian 1854/5 Sir Ralph Lopes, 2nd Bt (ne Franco) ?180,000 (1788-1854) inherited a Jamaica plantation fortune, was a merchant in London, landowner, MP, died an Anglican 139</page><page sequence="8">William Rubinstein 1854/17 Abraham Lyon Moses (1775-1854) ?120,000 probably a woollen merchant in the City ?? 1854/36 David Siltzer (1808-54) ?100,000 merchant in Manchester 1855/1 Emanuel Lousada (1783?1854) ?100,000 West Indies planter and merchant, lived in Devon ?? 1855/25 Samuel Berger (1776?1855) ?160,000 paint manufacturer in London 1856/31 Lewis Raphael (1794?1856) ?100,000 silver refiner and banker in London 1857/15 Moses Mocatta (1765?1857) ?250,000 bullion broker in the City 1857/23 Lewis Levy (1786?1856) ?250,000 'farmer of turnpikes' of London (i.e. collector of turnpike fees) ?? 1857/27 Charles William Herman Wallroth (d. ?160,000 1857) merchant in the City ?? 1857/39 Leopold Reiss (1803-57) ?180,000 merchant in Manchester 1858/21 Judah Guedalla (1760-1858) ?120,000 Morocco merchant in the City ?? 1858/25 William Kraeutler (d. 1858) ?120,000 merchant in the City ?? 1858/44 George Schact (d. 1858) ?180,000 fur merchant in the City 1859/24 Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, ist Bt 'over ?1 (1778-1859) million' bullion broker and stockbroker 1859/32 Henry Raphael (d. 1859) ?100,000 merchant in the City 1859/40 Sigismund Stiebel (1789?1859) ?120,000 merchant in the City 1860-9 ?? 1860/11 Alexander Teixeira Sampayo, Baron de ?120,000 Sampayo (d. i860) wine agent in the City 1860/17 Aaron Asher Goldsmid (1785-1860) ?180,000 bullion broker in the City 140</page><page sequence="9">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 ?? 1860/39 Louis Samson (d. i860) ?180,000 stockbroker in the City 1860/40 Denis Moses Samuel, Baron de Samuel ?300,000 (of Portugal) (1782-1860) foreign merchant and financier in Brazil and the City ?? 1860/41 Simon Samuel (d. 1850) ?120,000 possibly merchant in the City 1861/35 Nathaniel Levy (1788-1860) ?100,000 turnpike farmer (i.e. collector of turnpike fees) of Westminster 1862/32 Lionel Lucas (1822-62) ?100,000 West India merchant in the City 1863/53 Samson Ricardo (1792-1862) ?144,412 presumably financier in the City, MP, brother of David Ricardo (presumably became an Anglican as he was MP in 1855-7) ?? 1865/44 John Frederick Gruning (1786?1865) ?100,000 merchant in the City 1865/52 Philip Lucas (1797?1865) ?140,000 merchant in Manchester ?? 1865/89 Antonio Pereira (1789?1865) ?180,000 clog and patten manufacturer in the City 1866/34 Frederick David Goldsmid (1812-60) ?800,000 bullion broker in the City, MP, son of Sir I. L. Goldsmid 1866/49 Henrietta Montefiore (nee Rothschild) ?400,000 (1799-1866) sister of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, married to brother of Sir Moses Montefiore, lived Westminster 1867/10 Benjamin Cohen (1789-1867) ?140,000 merchant in the City, father of Arthur Cohen, MP and judge 1867/55 Sassoon David Sassoon (1832-67) ?120,000 China merchant and banker in Bombay and the City 1867/43 Lewis Heymann (1803-69) ?250,000 lace manufacturer in Nottingham; Mayor of Nottingham 141</page><page sequence="10">William Rubinstein 1869/72 Adam Spielmann (d. 1869) ?100,000 banker in the City 1870-9 1870/21 Alfred Davis (d. 1870) ?180,000 fancy-goods importer of Hounsditch and Birmingham ?? 1870/45 Frederick Heusch (1809-70) ?200,000 unknown, lived in Westminster and Wimbledon 1870/55 Abraham Joseph (d. 1870) ?120,000 picture importer and antiques dealer in Bond Street ?? 1870/84 Henry Frederick Steiner (d. 1869) ?300,000 dyer at Hyndburn near Blackburn, Lanes. 1871/22 Baron Nathaniel de Rothschild ?1,880,000 (1812-70) in UK merchant banker in Paris 1871/45 Moritz Jacoby (d. 1870) ?120,000 lace manufacturer in Nottingham 1871 /51 John Lewis Levy (1807-71) ?100,000 merchant in Rochester; mayor of Rochester 1871/61 Emmanuel Mocatta (d. 1871) ?180,000 probably bullion broker in the City 1871/81 Leo Schuster (1791-1871) ?500,000 export merchant and banker in Manchester; Deputy Chairman, London and Brighton Railway; became Unitarian or Anglican ?? 1871/94 James Frederick Wulff {d. 1871) ?160,000 merchant in the City 1872/7 Edward Henry Beddington (ne Moses) ?300,000 (1818-72) wholesale clothing manufacturer in the City ?? 1872/33 Lewis Doxat (d. 1872) ?160,000 merchant in the City ?? 1872/84 Edward Pereira (1817-72) ?140,000 wine merchant in the City ?? 1872/128 Theodor Hertz (d. 1872) ?101,502 merchant in Glasgow 1873/9 Solomon Levi Behrens (1787-1873) ?700,000 cotton merchant in Manchester 142</page><page sequence="11">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 1873/10 Solomon Ernest Leopold Schlesinger- ?400,000 Benzon (d. 1873) paper-label manufacturer in the City, etc. 1873/68 Laurence Levy (1812-73) ?300,000 probably wholesale clothier and rag-merchant in Houndsditch ?? 1873/71 Henry Harrye Lindo (d. 1873) ?120,000 lived in France in UK 1873/107 Sir David Salomons, ist Bt ?160,000 (1797-1873) insurance broker and banker in the City; MP, Lord Mayor of London 1873/108 Samuel Moses Samuel (1775-1873) ?500,000 Brazil merchant in the City ?? 1874/36 John Starr De Wolf (d. 1874) ?120,000 merchant in Liverpool ?? 1874/41 Alphonso Doxat (d. 1874) ?120,000 merchant in the City 1874/139 Daniel Joseph Jaffe (1808-74) ?140,000 manufacturer in Belfast I875/33 Baron Meyer Amschel de Rothschild ?2,100,000 (1818-74) merchant banker in the City, MP 1875/88 Jacob Henry Moses (1805-75) ?120,000 probably Australia merchant in the City 1876/41 Sir Anthony Nathan de Rothschild, ist ?1,800,000 Bt (1810-76) merchant banker in the City 1876/53 Aaron Goldsmid (1817-75) ?140,000 bullion-broker fortune in the City 1876/91 Henry Moses (1790-1875) ?600,000 wholesale clothing manufacturer and retailer in the City 1876/98 Barnett Samuel Phillips (d. 1876) ?300,000 discount broker in the City 1876/144 Lewis Harris (1811-76) ?160,000 financier in Dublin, Lord Mayor of Dublin (died before taking office) 1877/12 Julius Calisher (1828-77) ?180,000 diamond merchant in Westminster 143</page><page sequence="12">William Rubinstein 1877/22 David de Stern (1807-77) ?1,000,000 merchant banker in the City; Portuguese viscount 1877/23 Frank Denis Samuel De Vahl ?100,000 (d. 1877) merchant banker/merchant in the City, Portuguese baron 1877/53 Baron Charles Joachim Hambro (1807- ?500,000 77) merchant banker in the City (possibly Anglican at death) 1877/88 Jacob Mocatta (1820-77) ?250,000 stockbroker in the City ?? 1877/102 John Raphael (d. 1877) ?180,000 probably merchant banker in the City 1877/109 Edwin Louis Samuel (1825-77) ?200,000 merchant banker in the City, brother of Lord Swaythling, father of Herbert Samuel 1877/110 Charles Samuel Joseph Semon (1814-77) ?120,000 stuff merchant in Bradford, Mayor of Bradford ? 1878/18 Benjamin Davidson (d. 1878) ?100,000 probably exchange broker in the City 1878/33 Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid, 2nd Bt ?1,000,000 (1808-78) inherited bullion-broker fortune in the City, QC and MP (first Jewish QC, founder of Anglo-Jewish Association) 1878/64 Eleazar Moses Merton (d. 1878) ?160,000 occupation unknown; possibly merchant in Manchester, lived in London 1879/27 Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild ?2,700,000 (1808-79) merchant banker in the City, first Jewish MP ? 1879-51 Jacob Francis Hirsch (1822-79) ?100,000 seed crusher and oil refiner of the City 1879/59 Lionel Lawson (ne Levy) (1824-79) ?900,000 printing-ink manufacturer and proprietor of The Daily Telegraph ?? 1879/65 John Henry Machu (d. 1879) ?180,000 trimming and braid manufacturer in the City 144</page><page sequence="13">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 1879/73 Joseph Benjamin Moses (1811-79) bristle merchant in the City 1879-77 Charles Augustus Oppenheim (d. 1878) merchant in the City 1879/82 Maurice Joseph Posno (1818-79) diamond merchant in the City 1879/84 Arthur Augustus Rasch (d. 1879) insurance broker in the City 1880-9 1880/4 George William Bahr (d. 1880) ship broker in Liverpool 1880/6 Julius Beer (1836-80) merchant in the City, then proprietor of The Observer 1880/7 Horatio Behrens (1824-80) merchant in Manchester 1880/32 Alexander De Laski (d. 1880) probably banker in the City and Paris 1880/48 Martin Goldstein (d. 1880) silversmith in Westminster 1880/81 William Meyerstein (d. 1880) merchant in the City 1880/83 Abraham Mocatta (1797-1880) stockbroker in the City 1880/84 Joseph Mayer Montefiore (1816-80) stockbroker in the City 1880/116 Joseph Stohwasser (d. 1880) military tailor in Westminster 1880/118 Ralph Sigismund Straus (1817-80) cotton merchant in Manchester 1881/101 Barnett Phillips (1807-81) diamond merchant of Westminster 1882/27 Lewis Cohen (1800-82) stockbroker and foreign banker in the City 1882/35 Nathan James, Baron de Rothschild (1844-81) merchant banker in Paris 1882/36 Solomon Benedict, Baron de Worms (1801-82) (Austrian baron) merchant banker in the City 145</page><page sequence="14">William Rubinstein 1882/52 John Goldenberg (d. 1882) ?113,995 unknown, lived Rangoon and Vienna, described as an 'adventurer' in Anglo-Jewish Notabilities 1882/87 Adolph Mosenthal (1812-82) ?350,001 South Africa merchant in the City and South Africa ?? 1882/92 Marco Olivo (d. 1882) ?146,890 merchant in Manchester 1882/110 Frederick Schwann (d. 1882) ?317,429 merchant in the City, Manchester and Glasgow ?? 1882/54 Jose Maria Pinto Guerra (d. 1882) ?238,807 merchant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1882/79 Albert Levy (1819-82) ?189,652 stockbroker in the City 1883/93 Nathaniel Montefiore (1819-83) ?455,594 stockbroker in the City; nephew of Sir Moses ? 1883/95 Edward Nathan (d. 1882) ?118,156 probably Australia and New Zealand in UK merchant in Manchester, lived in Paris 1884/30 Baroness Charlotte de Rothschild (nee ?295,139 Rothschild) (1819-84) widow of Baron Lionel de Rothschild (1808-79) ? 1884/31 Samuel Herman De Zoete (d. 1884) ?199,928 stockbroker in the City ?? 1884/34 Frederick Andrew Eck (1806-84) ?109,282 probably merchant in the City ?? 1884/90 Augustus Quitzow (d. 1884) ?125,472 yarn merchant in Bradford ?? 1884/96 George Schlotel (1806-84) ?103,190 stockbroker in the City 1884/98 Michael Sichel (1819-84) ?180,847 commission agent in the City 1885/69 George Isaac Leon (1820-85) ?104,589 stockbroker in the City 1885/79 Sir Moses Montefiore, ist Bt ?374,421 (1784-1885) stockbroker and insurance broker in the City, celebrated communal leader 1885/93 Joseph D'Aguilar Samuda (1813-1885) ?199,351 shipbuilder and engineer in Poplar; MP; apostate 146</page><page sequence="15">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 1885/95 Samuel Leo Schuster (d. 1884) ?211,004 merchant in Manchester and the City 1885/92 Sigismond James Stern (1807-85) ?157,801 merchant in the City 1885/143 David Lewis (1823-85) ?123,081 retailer in Liverpool 1886/22 Edward Cohen (1817-86) ?257,909 merchant and banker in the City ? 1886/49 Samuel Goldner (1833-86) ?161,022 stockbroker in the City ?? 1886/55 Frederick Ludwig Leopold Hausburg ?180,575 (1815-86) Mexico merchant in the City ?? 1886/94 Frederick Wodenwald (1808-86) ?137,761 possibly merchant in the City, died in Rettershauf, Germany 1886/97 Ralph Henry Samuel (1809-86) ?108,523 merchant in Liverpool 1887/40 Baroness Betty de Rothschild (1805-86) ?377,180 widow of Baron James Rothschild (1792-1868, head of the Paris branch) 1887/66 Samuel Isaac (1812-86) ?202,085 army contractor and engineer in Westminster 1887/83 Charles William Neumann (d. 1886) ?115,828 merchant in Liverpool 1887/99 Jonn Samuel (d. 1884) ?192,632 merchant and commission agent in the City ?? 1887/100 Alexander Schlusser (d. 1887) ?269,064 probably leather-goods importer in the City 1887/105 Albert Marcius [sic] Silber (1833-87) ?131,369 lamp manufacturer and importer in the City 1887/167 Sarah Neumann (d. 1887) ?132,783 widow of Charles William Neumann (No. 1887-83) 1888/12 Julius Behrens (1827-88) ?420,318 merchant in Manchester 1888/27 Baron Herman de Stern (1815-84) ?3,544,978 merchant banker in the City, Portuguese baron, one of the wealthiest men of his time 1888/67 Joseph Moses Levy (1812-88) ?490,284 proprietor of The Daily Telegraph, London 147</page><page sequence="16">William Rubinstein ?? 1887/104 Emil Springmann (d. 1887) ?131,875 merchant in Liverpool ?? 1889/29 Joaquin De Mancha (d. 1889) ?174,969 merchant in the City 1889/82 Philip Goldschmidt (1812-89) ?114,397 textile merchant in Manchester, Lord Mayor of Manchester 1889/90 Siegmund Ochs (1824-89) ?228,634 diamond merchant in the City 1889/105 Sir Benjamin Samuel Phillips (1811-89) ?291,282 fancy-goods importer in the City, Lord Mayor of London ?? 1889/110 Edward Raphael (d. 1888) presumably banker or merchant in the City, died a Catholic 1889/116 Joseph Leopold Rosenheim (1835-89) cotton merchant in Liverpool ?? 1889/127 George Simon (d. 1888) wine merchant in the City ?? 1889/167 Jacques Hartmann (d. 1887) calico printer in Accrington 1889/192 Moses Joseph (1803 or 1812-89) pastoralist and merchant in Sydney, transported to Australia for theft, 1827; also left ?321,335 in Australia ?339,2i6 ?122,741 ?138,491 ?131,277 ?126,693 in UK 1890-9 1890/35 David de Pass (d. 1890) ?143,855 probably merchant in the City ?? 1890/41 Frederick Joseph Edlmann (1829-90) ?109,435 merchant in the City ?? 1890/113 Anne Raphael (d. 1889) ?261,639 probably daughter of merchant in the City ?? 1890/121 Frederick John Pfeil (d. 1890) ?114,248 iron and hardware merchant in the City ?? 1890/128 John Ludwig Siltzer (d. 1889) ?175,229 possibly son of Manchester merchant 1891/72 Samuel Hyam (1812-91) ?118,777 probably wholesale clothier in the City ? 1891/75 Moss Joshua (1830-60) ? 108,076 merchant in the City 148</page><page sequence="17">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 1891/83 Augustus Frederick Lehmann (1826-91) ?530,999 probably strawboard importer in the City 1891/99 Louis Nathan (1852-91) ?112,089 merchant in the City 1891/128 Hannah, Countess of Rosebery (nee ?764,833 Rothschild) daughter of Baron Mayer Amschel de Rothschild (d. 1874), wife of Archibald, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Prime Minister 1891/140 Henry Solomon (1814-91) ?337,04! merchant in the City 1891 /167 Michael Zarifi (1819-91) ?474,957 merchant in the City ? 1892/61 Baron Samuel Arthur De Haber (d. 1892) ?249,107 lived in Paris ? 1892/123 Charles Keyser (1813-92) ?960,533 stockbroker in the City, possibly became Anglican ? 1892/167 Gustavus Sichel (d. 1892) ?119,981 financial agent and merchant in the City 1892/197 Samson Wertheimer (1811-94) ?382,810 art dealer in Westminster 1893/10 David Benjamin (1814-93) ?251,324 possibly merchant in the City 1893/25 Henry Louis Cohen (1827-93) ?127,680 stockbroker in the City 1893/55 Benedict Leopold Goldschmidt (d. 1892) ?173,005 lived Brussels in UK 1893/88 Frank Philip Leon (1848-93) ?255,578 stockbroker in the City ?? 1893/107 Caroline Reiss (1813-93) ?216,600 widow of Leopold Reiss (d. 1857), Manchester merchant 1893/110 George Samuel (1804-93) ?469,712 diplomat, son of Samuel M. Samuel (d. 1873), left ?500,000 1893/112 Hermann Maurice Schiff (d. 1893) ?157,407 stockbroker in the City 1893/121 Henry Sigismund Straus (1808-93) ?168,533 merchant in Manchester 1893/133 Simeon Warburg (1817-93) ?239,882 possibly export merchant in the City 149</page><page sequence="18">William Rubinstein 1893/173 Edward Joseph (d. 1893) ?106,391 art dealer in Westminster ? 1893/181 Herman Rucker (d. 1893) ?I23,944 colonial broker in the City ?? 1894/38 Francis Vincent Eck (1796-1894) ?306,422 stockbroker in the City ?? 1894/47 John James Henry Gebhardt (1821-94) ?217,039 possibly cattle dealer in the City 1894/51 Joseph Guedalla (1846-94) ?103,824 solicitor in Westminster ?? 1894/52 Henrietta Elizabeth Gruning (d. 1892) ?142,021 widow of John Frederick Gruning (d. 1865), merchant in the City 1894/71 Samuel Solomon Joseph (1842-94) ?382,392 merchant and importer in the City 1894/79 Jonas Levy (1812-94) ?135,229 barrister; newspaper owner and railway director; son of Lewis Levy (d. 1856), left ?250,000 ?? 1894/112 Frederick Alexander Schlusser (1833-94) ?I43,9I8 son of Alexander Schlusser (d. 1887), who in UK left ?269,000, lived in Paris ?? 1895-20 Alfred Ernst Brandt (1848-95) ?103,687 merchant in the City ?? 1895/80 Christian Klug (1811-95) ?183,394 foodstuffs importer in Westminster 1895/84 Sydney Lawrence (ne Levy) ?332,848 stockbroker in the City 1895/94 Arthur Montefiore Sebag-Montefiore ?149,191 (1853-95) probably stockbroker in the City 1895/95 Hyman Montagu (1844-95) ?101,188 solicitor in the City, coin collector ? 1895/123 Hermann Schill (1831-95) ?240,181 merchant in Manchester 1895/179 Baroness Louise de Rothschild (1819-94) ?113,519 widow of Mayer Charles Rothschild (d. 1896) of Frankfurt, lived in Frankfurt 1895/189 Edwin Levy (1839-95) ?261,519 occupation unknown, lived in West Hampstead 1895/192 Henry Nathan (1827-95) ?i53,777 wholesale jeweller in Birmingham 150</page><page sequence="19">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 ? 1896/1 Mendel Adolphe Albrecht (1834-61) ?116,194 merchant in Manchester 1896/33 Maurice, Baron de Hirsch de Gereuth ?1,372,164 (1831-96) in UK merchant banker in Paris and Austria, philanthropist 1896/47 Sir Julian Goldsmid, 3rd Bt (1838-96) ?1,100,964 financier, chairman of telegraph companies, landowner, MP ?? 1896/48 Carl John Wilhelm G?tz (1841-95) ?142,104 merchant in Manchester, buried as Anglican ?? 1896/98 Alphonse Alexander Charles Jacques ?311,930 R?ffner (1819-96) merchant and foreign banker in the City 1896/99 Myer Salaman (1834-96) ?288,674 ostrich-feather merchant and plumemaker in the City 1896/101 Sir Albert Abdallah David Sassoon, ist ?385,250 Bt (1818-96) in UK foreign merchant and textile manufacturer in India 1897/6 Barnett Isaacs Barnato (1852-97) ?2,807,326 gold and diamond magnate in South Africa, diamond merchant in the City ?? 1897/35 Ludwig Demuth (d. 1897) ?I39,0S2 manufacturer in Birmingham ? 1897/71 Ludwig Heinemann (1827-97) ?109,594 commission merchant in the City 1897/79 Henry Joachim (1824-97) ?103,364 wool broker in the City 1897/141 Gustav Christian Schwabe (1813-97) ?125,135 probably calico printer in the City and Manchester 1898/19 Maurice Beddington (ne Moses) ?1,030,574 (d. 1898) wholesale clothing manufacturer in the City, possibly stockbroker in the City 1898/19 Hyam Leopold Beddington (ne Moses) ?493,543 (1825-98) brother of previous, possibly wool broker in the City 151</page><page sequence="20">William Rubinstein 1898/107 Ernest Henri Brugmann (d. 1898) ?161,125 'property owner' in Brussels in UK 1898/107 Jacob Quixano Henriques (1811-98) ?222,900 Jamaica merchant in the City ?? 1898/138 Maximillian Lindner (1812-98) ?242,086 merchant in Birmingham ?? 1898/180 Ernest Eugen Sabel (1846-97) ?101,252 paper manufacturer in the City 1898/233 Woolf Joel (1863-98) ?1,228,660 mining magnate in South Africa and in the City, murdered in Johannesburg 1899/13 David Samuel Bles (1834-99) ?106,642 merchant in Manchester 1899/39 Frederick Davis (1826-99) ?254,847 art dealer in Westminster 1899/41 Baroness Julia de Stern (1823-99) ?209,178 widow of Baron Herman de Stern (d. 1887) 1899/42 Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild ?1,488,563 (1839-98) merchant banker in Vienna and London, MP 1899/45 Edward Zadok Dresden (1813-99) ?608,610 merchant in the City ?? 1899/49 Peter Jacob Godfrey Ermen (1812-99) ?368,157 cotton manufacturer in Manchester; business partner of Friedrich Engels, who was a textile manufacturer in Manchester 1899/89 Alexander Gedalje Joseph (1848-99) ?167,662 diamond merchant in the City ?? 1899/107 John Mahler (d. 1899) ?124,231 commission merchant in Liverpool ?? 1899/114 Agnes Savile (nee Raphael) ?122,252 Countess of Mexborough (d. 1898), daughter of John Raphael, banker in the City; became a Roman Catholic ?? 1899/146 Henry Louis Raphael (1832-99) ?1,527,842 stockbroker and gold refiner in the City, possibly a Roman Catholic at death ?? 1899/155 Marie Magdalene Pauline Satow ?205,607 (d. 1899) widow of Joachim Theodor Satow, merchant in the City 152</page><page sequence="21">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 1899/156 Charles Schwind (1842-99) ?190,062 ironmaster and banker in Derby 1899/164 Edward Silva (1841-99) ?157,141 merchant in the City, father was John Joseph Silva possibly of Jewish descent, mother non Jewish; his daughter married Disraeli's nephew 1899/165 Henry Simon (1835-99) ?251,9! 6 engineering-equipment manufacturer and flour miller in Manchester 1899/173 Robert Rintoul Symon (1838-99) ?136,001 armaments manufacturer and financier in the City 1899/187 Frederick Elias Warburg (1832-99) ?211,355 financier and merchant in the City 1899/214 Henry Micholls (1824-99) ?121,575 merchant in Manchester and the City 1899/217 Baron Paul Julius de Reuter ?262,604 (ne Josaphat) newsagency proprietor in the City 1900-09 1900/9 George Averoff (d. 1899) ?l9^?91 merchant in Alexandra, Egypt 1900/17 John Andrew Baumbach (1823-1900) ?120,603 probably merchant in India 1900/18 Alfred Henry Beddington (ne Moses) ?224,383 (1835-1900) wholesale clothing manufacturer in the City 1900/63 Baron Adolphe Charles de Rothschild ?2,259,175 (1822-1900) in UK merchant banker in Paris 1900/126 Thomas Kayler (1831-1900) ?300,292 money-lender in Westminster 1900/178 Sir Charles Oppenheimer (1836-1900) ?193,011 commission agent in the City, lived in Germany in UK 1900/196 Frederick Melchior Raphael (1870-1900) ?112,015 probably banker and gold refiner in the City 1900/199 James Reiss (1813-99) ?160,230 merchant in the City 1900/202 Henry Meinhard Robinow (d. 1899) ?146,411 diamond magnate in South Africa 153</page><page sequence="22">William Rubinstein ? 1900/273 Siegfried Rudolf Zunz (1843-99) ?123,989 merchant in the City ?? 1901/15 August Barsdorf (1831-1900) ?189,844 South Africa merchant in the City ? 1901/20 Alfred Biedermann (1824-1901) ?615,224 stockbroker in the City 1901/50 Abraham Cohen (d. 1901) ?100,625 merchant in Sydney, Australia, left ?144,409 in UK in Australia 1901/59 David Davis (1822-1901) ?125,472 probably stockbroker in the City ?? 1901/61 Emile, Baron D'Eichthal (d. 1901) ?141,023 wine-shipper of Chateau St Selve, France in UK 1901/63 Viscountess Sophia de Stern (nee ?261,324 Goldsmid) (d. 1900) widow of David, Viscount De Stern (d. 1877), banker 1901/79 Angelina Goetz (nee Levy) (1830-1901) ?111,710 widow of Edward L. Goetz, probably colonial broker of the City 1901/85 Philip Haldinstein (1819-1901) ?134,259 wholesale boot manufacturer in Norwich, Leicester and London ?? 1901/91 Paul Hardy (1843-1901) ?612,235 banker and merchant (Nathan and Sons) in the City ? 1901/102 Emil Heinemann (1832-1901) ?170,798 merchant in the City 1901/129 Samuel Lewis (1838-1901) ?2,671,094 money-lender in Westminster (see Gerry Black, Lender to the Lords, Giver to the Poor [1992]) 1901/138 Wilhelm Maschwitz (d. 1901) ?194,132 merchant in Birmingham 1901/144 Abraham Mocatta (1821-1900) ?236,130 stockbroker in the City ? 1901/177 Louis Schott (1835-1901) ?347,643 merchant (Louis Floerscheim and Co.) in the City ? 1901/178 Marx (sic) Schuback (1834-1901) ?160,045 cigar importer in the City ?? 1901/180 Henry William Segelcke (1813-1901) ?109,894 banker in the City 154</page><page sequence="23">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 1901/187 Sir Archibald Levin Smith (1836-1901) ?107,146 Judge and Master of the Rolls (non-Jewish father, Jewish mother) 1901/199 James Julius Stern (1835-1901) ?1,114,173 merchant banker in the City ?? 1901/214 The Noble Percy Feodorovitch von ?106,142 Jacobs (d. 1899) lived in Riga 1902/9 Frank Behrens (1839-1902) ?540,832 merchant in Manchester 1902/39 David Cohen (1827-1902) ?213,389 merchant in the City and Sydney ? 1902/56 Henry Durlacher (1825-1902) ?101,644 cigar merchant in Westminster 1902/85 Isaac Gordon (d. 1900) ?148,219 money-lender in Birmingham ?? 1902/909 Louis Gruning (1829-1901) ?325,314 merchant in Liverpool 1902/106 Alfred John Isaacs (1829-1902) ?148,009 wholesaler stationer in the City ? 1902/104 John Isaacs (d. 1902) ?102,769 unknown, lived in Gordon Square, Bloomsbury 1902/124 Emma Montefiore (net Goldsmid) ?827,775 daugher of Sir Isaac L. Goldsmid, ist Bt (d. 1859); widow of Nathaniel Montefiore (d. 1883) 1902/164 Charles Jacques Posno (1836-1901) ?105,000 merchant and diamond magnate in the City ? 1902/187 Frederick Sigismund Schwann (1835- ?153,826 1902) merchant in the City 1902/198 Joseph Solomon (1822-1902) ?107,369 leather merchant in Southwark 1903/10 Frederick Arthur Beer (1858-1901) ?440,111 proprietor of The Observer, died an Anglican ?? 1903/15 Julia Bestie (d. 1903) ?i44,52o lived in South Kensington and Sussex 1903/45 Anna Louisa Cohen (183 5-1902) ?34^235 daughter of Isaac Cohen (d. 1846); aunt of Hannah, Countess of Rosebery 1903/78 Arthur Halford (1841-1903) ?110,283 financier in the City 155</page><page sequence="24">William Rubinstein ?? 1903/79 George Leopold Halphen (d. 1903) ?174,942 lived in Paris in UK ?? 1903/88 James Hasslacher (1835-1903) ?157,962 wine merchant in the City ? !903/100 Charles Louis Theodor Holtzmann ?120,309 (1843-1903) stuff merchant in Bradford 1903/130 Siegmund Loewe (1856-1903) ?113,286 armaments manufacturer (Vickers and Maxims) in London 1903/149 Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore ?1,023,551 (1822-1903) financier in the City, nephew and heir of Sir Moses Montefiore 1903/169 Henry de Worms, ist Baron Pirbright ?368,906 (1840-1903) merchant banker in the City, MP and government minister ?? 1903/181 Edward Louis Raphael (1830-1903) ?1,127,723 merchant banker in the City ? !903/184 Henry Keyser Ricardo (1838-1903) ?207,845 probably stockbroker in the City ?? 1903/192 Bernard Critchley-Salmonson (1825- ?228,017 1902) unknown, lived Torquay 1903/193 Charles Samuel (1821-1903) ?333,589 probably financier in the City, chairman of United Engineering Co. ?? 1903/196 Frederick William Schlusser (1858-1903) ?138,589 commission merchant in the City ?? 1903/198 Henry Edward Schunk (1819-1903) ?147,240 cotton manufacturer in Manchester ? 1904/14 Philip Jacob Blessig (d. 1904) ?287,893 merchant in Liverpool ?? 1904/16 Augustus Ferdinand Brandt (d. 1904) ?913,837 merchant in the City, lived in Hamburg in UK ?? 1904/30 George Campbell 'otherwise Schonfeld' ?159,774 (1864-1904) merchant in the City 1904/35 Alfred Louis Cohen (1836-1903) ?566,767 stockbroker in the City 156</page><page sequence="25">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 1904/54 Edmond Dresden (1843-1903) ?343,602 probably merchant in the City 1904/75 Leopold Benedict Hyem Goldschmidt ?152,895 (d. 1904) in UK unknown, lived in Paris 1904/76 Rudolph Siegmund Goldschmidt (1879- ?113,582 1904) unknown, a native of Cassel, lived in Connaught Square, died aged 24 1904/77 Flora Goldsmid (d. 1904) ?106,115 daughter of Frederick David Goldsmid, MP (d. 1866) 1904/83 Julius Baruch Halle (1825-1904) ?206,576 fancy-goods importer in the City 1904/91 Henry Hart (1828-1904) ?120,927 probably stockbroker in the City 1904/123 Julius Lewisohn (d. 1903) ?240,306 bristle merchant in the City 1904/176 Leopold Schweich (d. 1904) ?194,148 unknown, lived in W?rzburg, Bavaria in UK 1904/185 Josephine Helene Silkenstadt ?126,571 (d. 1904) widow, lived in Didsbury, Lanes. 1904/215 Horaz Von Landau (d. 1903) ?1,485,950 banker of Florence, Paris and Budapest, in UK died in Florence 1905/13 Edward Behrens (1837-1905) ?562,081 merchant in Manchester 1905/45 Beresford Samuel Cohen (d. 1905) ?183,803 probably merchant in the City 1905/46 Bernhard Cohen (d. 1904) ?226,421 unknown, lived in Bradford 1905/47 Levi Cohen (d. 1905) ?147,299 probably stockbroker in the City 1905/81 Adolph Fass (d. 1905) ?287,306 South African merchant in the City 1905/99 Regine Goldschmidt (nee ?196,230 Bischoffsheim) in UK widow, lived in Paris 1905/108 Charles Frederick Gr?nhold (d. 1905) ?142,208 hotel owner in Westminster 157</page><page sequence="26">William Rubinstein 1905/146 Charles Kahn (d. 1905) ?220,806 tobacco merchant in the City 1905/147 Rudolphe Hirsch Kann (d. 1905) ?205,101 unknown, lived in Paris 1905/171 Frederick David Mocatta (1828-1905) ?155,704 bullion broker in the City, founder of the Mocatta Library 1905/172 Mary Ada Mocatta (nee Goldsmid) ?161,891 widow of preceding (d. 1905) ?? 1905/196 Henry Charles Alfred Quitzow (d. 1905) ?109,478 yarn merchant in Bradford ?? 1905/198 Isidor Ree (d. 1905) ?151,855 probably chemical manufacturer in Leeds 1905/204 Nathan Salaman (d. 1905) ?374,299 ostrich-feather merchant in the City 1905/206 Sir Bernhard Samuelson, ist Bt (1880- ?755,793 1905) ironmaster in Cleveland, Yorkshire, MP ?? 1905/211 Edmund David Schl?ter (d. 1905) ?102,961 merchant in the City ? 1905/256 Nicholas Wertheim (d. 1905) ?134,758 probably merchant in the City 1906/17 Alfred Beit (1853-1906) ?8,049,886 diamond magnate in South Africa and the City, one of the 'Randlords' 1906/55 Lucy Cohen (1839-1906) ?563,882 daughter of Isaac Cohen (d. 1846); related to Rothschilds and Lord Rosebery 1906/82 Alfred Hyam de Pass (d. 1906) ?114,128 stockbroker in the City 1906/109 Benedict Moritz Goldschmidt (d. 1906) ?100,601 probably commission merchant in the City; in U.K. lived in Frankfurt-on-Main 1906/130 Ada Hannah Lewis-Hill (nee Davis) ?1,167,549 widow of Samuel Lewis (d. 1901) 1906/141 Benjamin Isaac (d. 1905) ?421,667 commission agent in the City 1906/142 Leon Joseph Isaac (d. 1906) ?119,581 probably commission agent in the City 1906/147 Maurice Edouard Kann (d. 1906) ?147,264 unknown, lived in Paris in UK 158</page><page sequence="27">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 ? 1906/148 David Kappel (d. 1905) ?118,485 unknown, lived in Berlin in UK 1906/157 Simeon Lazarus (d. 1906) ?135,261 metal broker in the City ?? 1906/160 George Bagett Colvin Leverson ?228,525 (d. 1906) diamond broker in the City ?? 1906/202 George Charles Raphael (1837-1906) ?1,107,546 merchant banker in the City ? 1906/216 Henry Salmonson (d. 1906) ?383,523 unknown, lived in Manchester 1906/217 Francis Joseph Schuster (1823-1906) ?782,485 merchant in the City ? 1906/232 Mark Silverston (d. 1906) ?192,206 probably stockbroker in the City ? 1906/230 Louis Spitzel (d. 1906) ?161,455 probably merchant in the City, died in Austria ?? 1906/233 Edward Steinkopff (1837-1906) ?1,273,383 mineral water (Appolinaris) proprietor and newspaper owner in Westminster ? 1906/236 Alfred Henry Strauss (d. 1907) ?296,221 merchant in the City ? 1907/27 Philip Bendix (d. 1907) ?184,054 stockbroker in the City ?? 1907/70 Anne Elizabeth Davidis (d. 1907) ?171,580 unknown, lived in Mentone, France in UK ?? 1907/75 Henrique Julio de Seixas (d. 1907) ?114,311 unknown, lived in Lisbon in UK ? 1907/87 Samuel Engel (d. 1907) ?661,375 probably East India merchant in the City ?? 1907/99 Friedrich Christian Karl Fleischmann ?410,324 (d. 1907) merchant in the City ?? 1907/141 Samuel Joshua (d. 1907) ?114,721 banker in Sydney and the City ?? 1907/142 Charles William Kayser (1841-1906) ?260,545 steel manufacturer in Sheffield ?? 1907/146 Herman Hesse Lange (d. 1907) ?176,632 importer of musical instruments in the City ?? 1907/173 Alexander McDowell Nathan (d. 1907) ?143,847 West Indies merchant in the City 159</page><page sequence="28">William Rubinstein ?? 1907/180 Daniel Iffla Osiris (sic) (d. 1907) ?100,410 unknown, lived in Paris in UK ? 1907/221 Phineas Tellerman (d. 1907) ?203,498 stockbroker in the City ?? 1908/5 Edward Ascherson (d. 1908) ?107,280 merchant in the City 1908/n Henry Isaac Barnato (1850-1909) ?2,500,000 diamond magnate in South Africa and diamond merchant in the City 1908/23 Henri Louis Bischoffsheim (1829-1908) ?1,622,332 merchant banker in the City 1908/77 Sir Joseph Joel Duveen (1843-1908) ?601,820 art dealer in Westminster 1908/133 Moritz Gedalje Joseph (d. 1908) ?236,466 diamond merchant in the City ?? 1908/153 William Christian Meyer (d. 1908) ?130,726 probably Russia merchant in the City 1908/183 Alfred George Schiff (d. 1908) ?590,830 stockbroker in the City 1908/219 Charles Van Raalte (1857-1907) ?380,332 stockbroker in the City, Mayor of Poole 1909/1 Alfred Abrahams (1851-1908) ?679,755 diamond merchant in South Africa and the City ?? 1909/8 Robert Verney Asser (d. 1909) ?115,642 probably colonial broker in the City 1909/52 Sir Benjamin Louis Cohen, ist Bt ?386,413 (1844-1909) stockbroker in the City, MP 1909/62 Julius Caesar Czarnikow (1838-1909) ?774,009 sugar and commodities broker in the City 1909/83 Ellis Abraham Franklin (1829-1909) ?517,112 merchant banker in the City 1909/92 Lady Louisa Sophia Goldsmid (nee ?202,653 Goldsmid) widow of Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid, 2nd Bt (d. 1878) ?? 1909/99 Edward Augustus Gruning (1837-1908) ?190,092 architect in the City 1909/123 Gustavus Adolphus Kino (d. 1909) ?124,978 tailor on High Holborn 160</page><page sequence="29">Jewish top wealth-holders in Britain, 1809-1909 ? 1909/113 Emile Levita (d. 1909) ?272,012 merchant in the City ? 1909/145 George Augustus Mankiewicz (d. 1909) ?180,317 probably merchant in the City 1909/159 Wolf Myers (d. 1908) ?343,220 wholesale clothing manufacturer in the City 1909/174 Samuel Henry Faudel-Phillips ?329,175 (ne Phillips) (1838-1909), fancy-goods importer in the City, High Sheriff of London in 1898 ?? 1909/181 Edward Reinach (d. 1909) ?113,324 merchant in the City ?? 1909/251 John Abraham (d. 1907) ?104,021 unknown; lived Dublin ? 1909/255 Alfred Jaffe (d. 1908) ?104,416 lived in Eastbourne, possibly related to Daniel Jaffe (sic) of Belfast (d. 1874) 161</page></plain_text>