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Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland, 1739-1862

Kenneth E. Collins

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland, 1739-1862* KENNETH E. COLLINS From earliest times Jewish tradition has linked medical science with religion. Many passages in the Talmud deal with medical matters, and the Rabbis recommended that no wise person should reside in a town without a resident physician.1 Indeed, a long tradition of Rabbi physicians dates back to Talmudic times. When medical schools came to be established in Christian Europe during the Middle Ages, restrictions were often placed on Jewish students. Many univer? sities were religious institutions, so were frequently closed to Jews. Physicians were often trained by a system of apprenticeship rather than at university schools of medicine, and records of Jewish physicians entering into contracts for training medical apprentices can be found dating back to the fifteenth century.2 Some system of medical apprenticeship is likely to be much older than that, and there is evidence of it in Talmudic times.3 The Church Council of Basel (1431-3) decreed that no Jew should possess a university degree, and this was confirmed by a Bull of Pope Pius IV in 1565.4 Despite the prohibition, the Jews of the Middle Ages found their greatest freedom in Italy, and there is a tradition (with no firm evidence to support it) that the first medical school at Salerno was founded with Jewish help and that some of the earliest teaching was in Hebrew.5 For many years Italian universities were the only ones where Jews could study medicine, and, with the support of the Senate in Venice, the University of Padua admitted many Jewish students from all over Europe, while for two centuries, beginning in 1515, there were over 200 Jewish medical graduates there.6 Smaller numbers of Jews received their degrees from the universities in Rome, Siena and Ferrara, where admission was more difficult. In France the University of Montpellier saw some Jewish involvement in the medical faculty, but Paris and elsewhere remained closed to the Jews until after the Revolution in 1789.6 In Germany the doors of the universities were gradually opened to Jews during the eighteenth century. Restrictions also applied in England. Candidates for matriculation at Oxford had to subscribe to the articles of the Church of England, and while Jews could study at Cambridge, they could not graduate there in medicine until after the abolition of the Test Acts in 18 71. The situation in Scotland was quite different and no religious tests were required by the universities either for matriculation or at graduation. For this reason many students-dissenters and Jews alike * Paper delivered to the Society on 12 October 1983. 75</page><page sequence="2">Kenneth E. Collins were attracted to the Scottish universities in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, St Andrews and Glasgow. Some came from England and Ireland, while others were from further afield: Europe, the West Indies and North America.7 While the number of Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland in the eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries was small, when set against the diminutive size of the Jewish community in Britain at that time they do show some degree of significance. The role of Scottish universities in enabling Jewish medical students to study and qualify over more than 200 years is of considerable importance, and has never been studied in depth before either in histories of the Jews in medicine or in the published literature of medicine in Scotland. The universities in Scotland had all set up some form of medical education early in the nineteenth century, although developments varied at the different centres depending on particular local circumstances. St Andrews University, based in a small coastal town with no local teaching hospital facilities, was unable to build up medical educational facilities.8 In Aberdeen there were two rival universities, Marischal College and King's College, both of which jealously guarded their degree-awarding privi? leges. The two colleges did not unite to form the University of Aberdeen until i860, and their previous rivalry hampered early development. In Edinburgh the medical faculty was established in 1726, and its fame and reputation grew throughout the century. Nurtured and encouraged by an ambitious local Town Council which had been saddened by the loss of the Scottish Parliament in 1707, the Edinburgh medical school flourished during the eighteenth century, achieving recognition at the expense of the Continental universities as well as the declining medical schools in Oxford and Cambridge.9 Indeed, for a period of over 100 years, more than 80 per cent of all British medical graduates qualified in Scotland. (See Table 1.) TABLE 1 Place of Graduation of British Medical Graduates 1701-1850 Date Oxford/Cambridge Continental Scottish Total Universities Universities 1701-1750 617 385 406 1408 1751-1800 246 194 2594 3034 1801-1850 273 29 7989 8291 Figures derived from Table VI of A. M. T. Robb-Smith's chapter on medical education at Oxford and Cambridge prior to 1850 in The Evolution of Medical Education in Britain ed. F. N. L. Poynter (London 1966). In Glasgow a chair in medicine was established in 1714. The first Glasgow medical graduate, Samuel Benion, an English nonconformist minister, had graduated some years earlier in 1702.10 However, developments in Glasgow lagged behind partly because suitable hospital facilities were not available until 76</page><page sequence="3">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland the building of the Royal Infirmary in the 1790s and because the strongly entrenched Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons resisted university develop? ments which would have affected their local monopoly on licensing practition? ers.11 (See Table 2.) TABLE 2 Medical Graduands at Glasgow University 1746-1800 Date Number Average number per annum 1746-1774 73 2-6 1774-1800 177 6-8 Figures from J. Coutts, A History of the University of Glasgow (1451-1909) (Glasgow 1909). Licensing practitioners was a prerogative of the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in Edinburgh and London as well as of the Faculty in Glasgow. The Colleges guarded their privileges carefully and the right to practise in certain geographical locations, especially in London and around Glasgow and Edin? burgh, depended on College permission. The professors at Edinburgh University depended on class fees for their income, a system that had the merit of attracting charismatic teachers who drew many students to their lectures.12 The degree of Doctor of Medicine would be awarded after the candidate had completed the medical course of his choice and had submitted a thesis. The regulations concerning these component parts varied from university to university. It was common for English medical students, of whom there were large numbers especially in Edinburgh, to come to Scotland only for their final year of study. Students who had completed all their studies at one university often took their degree at another either to save on examination fees or to avoid having to present a thesis. Many established medical men also sought to become Doctors of Medicine later in their careers in order to improve their status and thereby, perhaps, also to increase their fees.13 The regulations for admission varied, but the minimum requirement was a ?10 fee and a testimonial concerning the skills of the candidate from one, or more frequently from two or three, established or reputable colleagues. These minimum standards, enabling doctors to graduate in absentia, proved a useful source of income especially to the universities of Aberdeen and St Andrews. This practice was not followed in Glasgow, however, where rigorous academic standards were required from the middle of the eighteenth century, and where graduation followed a period of approved undergraduate study, usually in Glasgow or Edinburgh. In Edinburgh both systems existed side by side for a time, and an Edinburgh degree might involve either several years of under? graduate study at what was increasingly being recognized as the best medical school in the world, or merely recognition of a practitioner's medical standing 77</page><page sequence="4">Kenneth E. Collins as recommended by his peers. However, the authorities in Edinburgh were well aware of the dangers of the latter system, especially after the Sam Leeds scandal when an itinerant brush-maker was able to obtain an MD merely with affidavits and, presumably, with a forged thesis.13 Regulations in Edinburgh were tightened along the lines followed in Glasgow to protect the reputation of the medical school. The 'Scotch Degree', at least those awarded in absentia, attracted consider? able suspicion especially in London, as possession of a university medical degree conferred on the holder certain rights concerning freedom of medical practice. But most of the degrees awarded in this way constituted legitimate recognition of service given to the medical profession by reputable and experienced physicians. Abuse of the system by a few rogues should not be allowed to obscure its positive side. For example, the first MD awarded to a Jew in this country was received by Jacob de Castro Sarmento in 1739. Sarmento obtained it from Marischal College, with affidavits from three physicians: Dr Alexander Stewart, Dr Cromwell Mortimer and Sir Hans Sloane, who was President of the Royal Society and whose recommendation would be held in some regard. The awarding of degrees to doctors with suitable work experience on the basis of sponsorship by their fellow practitioners had several defenders, the best known of whom was the famous Scottish economist Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations. In 1774 William Cullen, as President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, called for more stringent control of the awarding of degrees in medicine at Scottish universities. Those of Aberdeen and St Andrews were bringing Scottish qualifications into disrepute by awarding degrees in absentia. The Duke of Buccleugh undertook to use his influence with the Government in favour of proposals to regulate undergraduate study and examinations, but before doing so he sought the opinion of Adam Smith who rejected the proposals out of hand. He felt that the standards at Scottish universities were adequate, and he had no wish to see the colleges develop a monopoly on medical education. He could not support the practice of giving an affidavit in favour of a person one did not know, but he felt that there was merit in being able to receive a degree with the approval of one's colleagues. He pointed out that if a student resided at Edinburgh, paid the fees and was dutiful to his professors, the university was disposed to be favourable to the candidate at the time of the examination. Adam Smith was sorry that the practice had developed in Scotland, but he felt that the real fault lay in the medical profession and with the English universities. While Smith's reasoning carried many flaws, plans for change were dropped.14 Some doctors spent many years at one university, while others took varied training, including, for instance, a period of apprenticeship with an apothecary or surgeon, a period at a university and some time in medical studies abroad. These components could be taken in any order, and the degree could be awarded, if at all, at any time thereafter. Since even by 1850 the average 78</page><page sequence="5">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland medical practitioner was a man of little culture and general education, and only one third of all practitioners were qualified,15 it can be seen that the standards maintained by Jewish medical students and graduates of this period in Scotland were mostly of the best. The universities in Scotland all have published lists of medical graduates from the earliest period in which these degrees were awarded. In some instances, especially in Glasgow and Edinburgh, the Senate Minutes covering the conduct of examinations for the degree of Doctor of Medicine are available. In Aberdeen the records of Marischal College and King's College, although compiled long after the events to which they relate, contain much useful information about some of the medical graduates. The published lists of Marischal College have been perused before, as have those of the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh,16 but there has not been, as far as I am aware, any research on the Jewish graduates appearing in the lists of King's College, Aberdeen, or of St Andrews University. It is now possible to construct lists of Jewish medical graduates for each of the universities. (See Tables 3-6.) TABLE 3 a-b Jewish Medical Graduates in Aberdeen 1739-1859 Marischal College 1739 Jacob de Castro Sarmento 1745 Ralph Sch?mberg 1755 David Cohen 1775 Gumpertz Lewisohn 1783 Benjamin Lyon 1791 William Brodum 1796 Samuel Solomon 1802 Benjamin Lara 1814 Joseph da Cunha 1816 Jacob Adolphus 1819 Nathaniel Wallich King's College 1816 Daniel Baruh 1817 Emmanuel Pacifico 1824 Judah Israel Montefiore Daniel Garcia 1859 Samuel Cardozo Attested by Sir Hans Sloane, Dr Alexander Stewart, Dr Cromwell Mortimer Dr J. Colec, Dr Leon Welsted, Dr M. Sch?mberg, Dr John Phillipson 'good attestations from London and Edinburgh' Dr Smith, Dr Wilson Dr Saunders and Dr Luis Leo Dr Joseph Moore and Dr Isaac Fisher of Liverpool Dr Jamieson of London and Dr Thomson of Haslar Hospital Dr George Pearson, Dr Richard Harrison, Dr P. M. Roget Sir James M'Gregor, Dr Edmond Sommers of London Dr Hamilton, Dr Fleming Dr J. Sequira, Dr Joseph Hart Myers Dr Joseph Hart Myers, Dr Sutherland, Dr Babington Dr Algernon Frampton, Dr John Meyer Dr John Meyer, Dr John Ramsbotham 79</page><page sequence="6">Kenneth E. Collins TABLE 4 Jewish Students at Edinburgh University 1767-1859 1 A. R. Mendes da Costa 2 Joseph Hart Myers 3 Levi Myers 4 Solomon de Leon 5 Moses Nunes Henriques 6 Joao Pereira de Castro 7 HeymanLion 8 Moses Bravo 9 Joel Hart 10 Abraham Solomon 11 David Bravo 12 Miguel Caetano de Castro 13 Alexander Zeigler 14 Hananel Mendes da Costa 15 Hananel de Leon 16 Joseph Gutteres Henriques 17 Douglas Cohen 18 George Charles Wallich 19 Aaron Hart David 20 Louis Ashenheim 21 Edwin Adolphus 22 Benjamin Lara 23 Charles Ashenheim 24 Michael Levy 25 Moritz Stern 1839-49 1843-52 1851-2 1854-9 MD Edinburgh 'De diabete' MD Glasgow MD Leiden 'De inflammatione' MD Edinburgh 'Variola' Date of studies Qualifications Title of thesis 1767-8 1775-9 1785- 8 1786- 8 1789- 90 1790- 3 1790-5 1800-1 1804-5 1804-10 1808-9 1808-11 1813-16 1815- 8 1816- 8 1818-9 1825-8 1832-6 1834-5 1834-7 1834-8 LRCS England MD Edinburgh MD Edinburgh MDSt Andrews 'De cerebri tumoribus' 'De aquae frigidae usu' MD Edinburgh 'De hydracephalo' MD Edinburgh MD Edinburgh MD Edinburgh MD St Andrews MD Edinburgh 'De gangrene' 'On pneumonia' 'On infanticide' 'On the pathological characters of urine as indicating the presence &amp; extent of disease' MD Edinburgh 'delirium tremens' MRCS England LRCP London TABLE 5 Jewish Medical Graduates at the University of Glasgow 1 Levi Myers 1787 2 Laurence Alfred Joseph 1831 3 Joseph Marcus Joseph 1852 (LID 1866) 4 AsherAsher 1855 5 Samuel Levenston 1859 6 Reuben Gross 1862 8o</page><page sequence="7">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland TABLE 6 Jewish Medical Graduates at St Andrews University 1 Louis Ashenheim 1839 2 Alexander Zeigler 1845 3 Maurice Davis 1852 4 Leonard Emanuel 1859 5 Simon Belinfante 1862 Student records are not so easy to analyse. The best facilities for the study of undergraduate medical records are at the University of Edinburgh, where a card index covers every medical student to matriculate between 1760 and i860. Class lists survive for the period before 1760 dating back to about 1740. Because all medical students in Edinburgh matriculated, this index yields much valuable information. More than two dozen Jewish names emerge from a search through several thousand names (See Table 4). But it has not been possible to identify any Jewish undergraduates in Scotland prior to 1767 when the name A. R. (perhaps Abraham Raphael) Mendes da Costa appears in the Edinburgh index. He would seem to have been the first Jewish undergraduate at a British university. In the years after 1767 Jewish students regularly appear in Edinburgh. The Edinburgh Jewish community dates from the 1770s, and hardly a year passes without there being a matriculated Jewish student at the university. The first local Jewish resident to matriculate, Heyman Lion, did so in 1790. The nineteenth century saw the first native-born Jewish Scotsmen to graduate in medicine. Student records in Glasgow are fragmentary by comparison. Medical students were not required to matriculate there until the 1840s, so medical students cannot be identified from matriculation albums. Glasgow University Archives have recently compiled an index of medical students attending the various undergraduate classes between 1803 and 1820. There were seven Jewish students at Edinburgh during this period; at Glasgow no Jews can be positively identified in these years. Identifying Jewish names from large lists poses problems: Jewish and Scottish surnames are sometimes similar, and biblical forenames are particularly common. Jews, in addition, often altered their names to make them less identifiably Jewish. Mystery surrounds the many Portuguese surnames, which may belong either to Jews of Marrano origin or to the significant number of Portuguese Catholics who came to Scotland at roughly the same time. I have followed precedent by erring on the conservative side in my identifications, and have included not only those with good evidence for their Jewishness, but also those who are likely to be Jewish and for whom no evidence to the contrary exists. I have omitted some names from Rosenbaum's lists of Jews in Freemasonry and from Arnold's 'Wills and Letters of Administration', when I have been able to establish that it was unlikely that the persons were Jewish. I have followed in this the advice of the late historian Albert M. Hyamson: 'Unjustified inclusion is considered preferable to unwarranted exclusion. In this 81</page><page sequence="8">Kenneth E. Collins instance the sin of commission is less serious than of omission.' To put these figures into perspective, it must be remembered that there were virtually no Jews in Scotland before 1770, and that even by 1850 there were probably fewer than 300 Jewish souls in all. Even in England the Jewish community was still below 50,000 in 1850. The twenty-five Jewish under? graduates in Edinburgh and well over thirty Jewish medical graduates in Scotland are surely enough to refute suggestions that Jewish practitioners failed to take advantage of the facilities available to Jews in Scotland.17 The figures also support the view expressed by other researchers that the Jewish Encyclo? paedia erred in stating that there was a lack of Jewish physicians in England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.18 Marischal College, Aberdeen A professor of medicine was appointed at Marischal College as early as 1700, whereas the Infirmary in Aberdeen was opened about forty years later. Most students took only one or two classes of instruction, since the bulk of their training was obtained by apprenticeship. Systematic training began only in the nineteenth century, when the two universities began cooperating. Eventually Marischal College and King's College amalgamated to form the University of Aberdeen is somewhat isolated, lying far to the north of other places of higher two institutions, with one college attempting to poach students from the other.19 Following criticism of the degree-awarding procedure in Aberdeen, the regulations were tightened in 1825. In the following fourteen years only twenty-nine medical degrees were awarded. While it is true that the city of Aberdeen is somewhat isolated, lying far to the north of other places of higher learning in Britain, the Aberdonians have prided themselves on setting high academic standards. An Aberdonian is credited with the splendid comment on hearing of the size of London, 'Sic a large toun tae be sae far south'.20 However, more cyncial was the jingle applied to Marischal College during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries: Ne'er doubt my pretensions I am a physician, See here's my diploma and in good condition, From Aberdeen sent by the coach on my honour, I paid English gold to the generous donor.21 The first Jew to obtain a medical degree in Scotland was, as we have already noted, Jacob de Castro Sarmento (1691-1762). At the time of his graduation the fee for graduating as a Doctor of Medicine at Marischal College was ?11.1.6, of which ?8 was given to the Professor of Medicine.22 This can be construed as a useful source of income for the professor, but it should be remembered that Marischal College did not, at that time, award a large number of MD degrees. Sarmento was only the fourteenth physician to receive the 82</page><page sequence="9">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland Marischal College MD, and when six years later Ralph Sch?mberg received the MD his was the twenty-ninth awarded.23 Sarmento has been described as the best-known physician of his day. Towards the end of his life he withdrew from membership of the Congregation of Spanish and Portuguese Jews, but at the time of his graduation he was still a member. Indeed, the records of Marischal College, and Munk's 'Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London', mistakenly describe him as a Rabbi.24 The impression may have come about because, like many others who returned to Judaism after life as a Marrano, he was keen to popularize Judaism and wrote widely on Jewish faith and belief. In addition he gave the funeral oration on the occasion of the death in 1729 of David Nieto, the Haham of the Sephardim in London, who had himself studied medicine at the University of Padua.25 Sarmento had even been physician to the Hebra for a time, although he was relieved of his duties there for irreligious behaviour, namely writing on the festival of Passover and riding in his carriage on the eighth day of the festival of Tabernacles.25 Sarmento was a clever and distinguished physician as well as being a medical scientist of some skill. He wrote extensively on fevers, and introduced quinine into Britain in his medication 'Agoas de Inglaterra', which proved to be a financially successful venture.26 In addition he is credited by some with the description of vaccination for smallpox.27 The award of a medical degree to Sarmento proved to be the first of many in the years which followed, and the knowledge that a prominent Jewish doctor had received a medical degree encouraged others to come to Scotland, knowing that no religious tests would be required. Ralph Sch?mberg (1714-92), who graduated as an MD in 1745, was a member of a distinguished family which originated in Germany. His father, Meyer Sch?mberg, had been one of the first Jewish graduates in medicine, receiving his MD from the University of Giessen in 1710. Sch?mberg, a provincial physician and literary hack, had studied in Holland at the University of Rotterdam and managed to graduate from Marischal College despite the fact that the fees for his diploma were not remitted to Aberdeen until he was practising in Yarmouth in 1752.28 Other Jewish graduates at Marischal College were practitioners of some distinction. Gumpertz (Mordecai Gumpel Schnaber), or George Lewisohn (d. 1797)? was born on the Continent and practised in London after studying under John Hunter. He wrote a medical work on blood in 1776, and another on epidemic sore throat in 1778. After a disputation with the leaders of the Great Synagogue in London he left for Sweden where he became Court Physician and Professor of Medicine at Uppsala.29 Nathaniel Wallich (1786-1854) was a native of Copenhagen and became a licentiate of the Royal Academy of Surgeons there. He went to the Danish settlement of Serampore in India, and after it fell to the British entered the Indian Medical Service where he pursued a distinguished medical and botanical career. He travelled widely through Hindustan, Assam and Burma and was for 83</page><page sequence="10">Kenneth E. Collins many years director of the Botanical Gardens in Calcutta.30 Benjamin Lara (i769-1847) was one of two or possibly three doctors, fathers and sons, who practised in London and Portsmouth and all had the same name. His father was appointed surgeon to the Hebra in 1770. He himself was the author of a 'Dictionary of Surgery' and was resident physician in Portsmouth for more than forty years.31 He graduated at Marischal College in 1802 and became the first Jewish Fellow at the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh in 1814. Sir Jacob Adolphus was one of the many Jamaican Jewish physicians who developed a link with the Scottish medical schools. He graduated as MD from Marischal College and was recommended as a candidate to the college for the MD degree. He was knighted as a reward for long service in the army and held the rank of Inspector General of Army Hospitals and Physician General to the Militia Forces on Jamaica. He died in England in 1845.32 Besides the regular physicians who received MD degrees at Marischal College were the two Jewish quack practitioners, William Brodum and Samuel Solomon. They obtained their qualifications improperly, but their university qualifications proved to be a considerable asset to them-as they had no doubt calculated. William Brodum received his degree on 15 January 1791 with affidavits from Dr Luis Leo, a Jewish practitioner in Houndsditch, London, and a Dr Saunders, who had frequently supplied recommendations for doctors seeking diplomas from Marischal College.33 Dr Saunders claimed that he had been deceived by Dr Leo, but it seems more likely that he had omitted to make the appropriate checks to ensure that the recommendation being issued in his name was genuine. Marischal College were distressed that they had awarded an MD to the Empiric Brodum, who ran a stall at Covent Garden and was to make a fortune with his Botanical Syrup. Perhaps even more offensive to the authorities in Aberdeen was Brodum's book A Guide to Old Age; a cure for the indiscretions of youth, with its explicit sexual references that brought him both notoriety and success! Marischal College took advice from the Solicitor-General for Scotland on the possibility of degraduating Dr Brodum. Mr Blair, the Solicitor-General, ruled, however, that a university did not have the power to remove a degree once awarded, and in any case he felt that he could not draw a line between quackery and proper practice of medicine in someone who was a medical graduate. He advised them to deal more circumspectly in the future.33 The other Jewish quack of his day was Samuel Solomon, the Cork-born son of Abraham Solomon who was a ritual slaughterer in Cork, Ireland. Solomon (1745-1819) began his career in Ireland, but soon came to Liverpool.34 He made a fortune from the sale of his medicine 'Balm of Gilead' and his writings were widely read. Typical of Solomon and Brodum are advertisements which appeared regularly in the Glasgow Advertiser in 1798, and which show the involvement of John Mennons, the founder and proprietor of what was later called the Glasgow Herald, in printing their books and selling their wares. In the face of determined attempts by the unscrupulous to obtain 84</page><page sequence="11">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland qualifications to which they were not entitled, the Marischal College system offered no protection. Indeed, the authorities there believed that Solomon had obtained his affidavits in Liverpool by forgery.35 They were aware that the system reflected no credit on them, and they did attempt to detect fraudulent applicants and to prevent them from obtaining'qualifications. The Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh deplored laxity in the degree process, as it was obliged to grant degree holders a licence to practice.36 In London also the Royal College of Physicians were sceptical about some of the degrees awarded by Marischal College. When William Brodum set up his plate as a doctor in London he was called before the Board of Censors. They had no wish to prevent his legitimate pharmaceutical trade, but on discovering that his diploma from Aberdeen was in order and that the recommendation had been signed by one of their members they were unable to stop him practising. Brodum's ready admission that he had paid for his qualification must have been galling, but nothing more could be done.37 King's College, Aberdeen King's College is the older of the two Aberdeen colleges, founded in Old Aberdeen under a Papal bull from Alexander VI in 1495, while Marischal College was founded in New Aberdeen in 1593 by George Keith, fifth Earl Marischal of Scotland. The two colleges were, in effect, two separate degree-awarding universities until they were united by a royal ordinance in September i860, thus forming the University of Aberdeen.38 Some Jewish physicians were awarded MD degrees at King's College, especially between 1816 and 1824, and it is interesting to note that so many of the affidavits for these degrees were supplied by other Jewish doctors. This indicates the increasing numbers of Jewish physicians held in respect in the medical world of the period. Not all who applied for medical degrees were successful, and the case of the unfortunate Heyman Lion, a Jewish chiropodist and dentist from Edinburgh, illustrates this point. He had no wish to change his chosen career, but had set his sights on obtaining an MD and was prepared to attain his objective in the correct manner. Accordingly, he enrolled at the University of Edinburgh for no less than five years of study. He was turned down in Edinburgh when he applied for the MD, and no reason for the refusal was given. He then turned to King's College with letters of recommendation from Dr Barclay, Dr Yule and Dr Farquharson, but was again turned down, not on account of his qualifications, which were more than adequate, but because his type of practice was not felt to be in keeping with possession of a King's College degree. Lion returned to his chiropody and wrote a book on the subject which can still be found in Edinburgh University Library.39 The first Jewish graduate at King's College was Daniel Baruh, and other Jewish medical graduates include two more physicians to the Hebra: Emmanuel 85</page><page sequence="12">Kenneth E. Collins Pacifico and Judah Israel Montefiore. They were both remembered as notable London doctors by Joseph Barrow Montefiore in his conversation with Lucien Wolf.40 By the time that Samuel Cardozo received his MD in 1859 the regulations of the Medical Act were being applied, and he graduated after examination and without the need for any sponsors. Cardozo was already a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and of the Society of Apothecaries. Aberdeen Affidavits While the lists show that a number of Jewish physicians supplied one or two affidavits for candidates seeking the degree of MD, there were three Jewish physicians who supplied five or more (see Table 7). TABLE 7 Jewish Physicians Providing Affidavits for Aberdeen MDs Marischal College Jacob Adolphus 1 Philip de la Cour 1 Luis Leo 1 Meyer Sch?mberg 5 John Meyer 2 Hart Wessels 5 King's College Benjamin Lara 1 Joseph Hart Myers 2 John Meyer 7 Ralph Sch?mberg 1 Joseph Sequira 1 The most prolific of these, who supported no less than seven candidates, was John Meyer (1749-1825). He was born in Austria and educated in Strasbourg, settling in London in 1784.41 His nearest rival was Hart Wessels (d. 1767), who provided recommendations for five candidates at Marischal College, whereas Meyer only gave recommendations for King's College. Wessels was one of the earliest Ashkenazi doctors in Britain, and served as doctor to the poor at the Great Synagogue in London.42 He received a rebuke, however, for his sponsor? ship of Dr Walker who was a purveyor of patent medicines. Wessels replied that he had been giving preference to Marischal College, but would not again apply. The Marischal College records note that while Wessels was held in much respect as a physician in London, he 'was a little doubtful with respect to nostrums'.43 Marischal College had lost a lucrative source of obtaining graduates. Meyer Sch?mberg (1690-1761) also provided five affidavits for candidates at Marischal College, including the recommendation for his son Ralph who had, as has already been noted, graduated at Marischal College in 1745. Meyer Sch?mberg was a colourful and controversial physician who had a long? standing feud with Jacob de Castro Sarmento.44 He had an extensive and 86</page><page sequence="13">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland lucrative private practice and was noted for his outspoken unorthodox religious views, which he expressed in Emunat Omen, a critical polemic on London's Jewish community in the mid-eighteenth century.45 University of Edinburgh As we have seen, the medical school in Edinburgh was at the height of its reputation at the end of the eighteenth century. Students flocked there from America, the West Indies, Europe, and elsewhere in the British Isles, and the tradition of a cosmopolitan student body has continued into modern times. Many Edinburgh students studied only for a short time, sometimes as little as one academic year, and some of those who completed their studies graduated elsewhere. Qualifications could be obtained from the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh or from one of the other Scottish universities. A few, however, did not graduate, and may have become irregular practitioners in areas where practice was not restricted by a Royal College. Joseph Hart Myers (i758-1823) was the first Jew to graduate at a British university after a regular period of undergraduate study, and he entered Edinburgh University in 1775 just eight years after A. R. Mendes da Costa, who studied for only one session. Myers had been born in New York, but was sent to London for his education. The family had close links with the Jewish community in London, and his father Naphtali Hart Myers had been a Warden of the Great Synagogue there. He commenced his studies with extramural lectures in London, before proceeding to Edinburgh where he graduated with a thesis on diabetes in 1779. These Edinburgh theses for graduation should be seen as student dissertations rather than as evidence of specialization in the subject. Other American Jews in Edinburgh were Levi Myers (d. 1827), the first Jewish graduate at the University of Glasgow, who completed his third year of studies in Edinburgh already armed with his Glasgow MD; and Joel Hart (1784-1842), who later returned to Scotland as US Consul in Leith, being appointed by President Madison, a post he held for fifteen years. Louis Ashenheim (1816-58) was the first Scots-born Jew to graduate in medicine in Scotland, and he graduated in St Andrews in 1839 after completing his studies in Edinburgh. Ashenheim later emigrated to Jamaica, where he had a distinguished career as a doctor with an interest in public helath and in journalism. His younger brother Charles (1828-66) also studied medicine in Edinburgh, pursuing a long and often-interrupted course of undergraduate studies before eventually graduating at Edinburgh University in 1852 with a thesis on delirium tremens. Charles Ashenheim emigrated to Australia, practising in Dubbo, New South Wales, where he died at the early age of thirty-eight years. The Ashenheim family came to Scotland from Holland, and their descendants are still active in the community in Jamaica. Solomon de Leon, who originated from the small island of St Kitts in the 87</page><page sequence="14">Kenneth E. Collins West Indies, was another Edinburgh student who graduated elsewhere, receiving his MD from the University of Leyden in Holland in 1790 with a thesis on inflammation. After the death of Joseph Hart Myers he offered himself as honorary physician to the Hebra, an offer which was duly accepted. The career of Joseph Gutteres Henriques provides insight into the pattern of study often followed early in the nineteenth century, when there was still scope for a self-constructed programme of undergraduate activity. Born in Jamaica in 1796, Henriques came to London in 1816 and entered St Thomas's Hospital as a surgical student, gaining a considerable number of prizes there. He is said to have been a favourite pupil of Sir Astley Cooper and Sir William Lawrence. After two years in London, Henriques came to Edinburgh where he spent the 1818-19 session. He was admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons in 1821 in London and returned to Jamaica to practise as an ophthalmologist for a few years, before coming back to London in 1825 to continue with his ophthalm? ology career. He later had a distinguished communal career and was acting President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews during the absence from Britain in 1840 of Sir Moses Montefiore, who was conducting delicate international diplomacy in the wake of the Damascus blood libel.46 Little evidence remains of the undergraduate activities of these students, and of their involvement in the clubs and societies in Edinburgh at that time. Hananel Mendes da Costa, another member of that large and prominent Anglo-Jewish Sephardi family, was President of the Royal Medical Society in 1815-16, immediately preceding in that office Charles Hastings, later the founder of the British Medical Association.47 The Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, which has now been in existence for over 200 years, is a student body with a regular programme of meetings of medical interest. At the time of da Costa's Presidency there were four student Presidents each year, and each would in turn give a medical dissertation to fellow society members.48 Unfortunately his dissertation is one of the few missing from the Society's archives. After leaving Edinburgh, da Costa set up in practice in London in 1818, but he died within a few months.49 Other Edinburgh Jewish medical students are recorded as having been members of the Royal Medical Society, notably Joel Hart and Aaron Hart David. Another form of student activity was membership of the Freemasons, and it is recorded that a few were active in the Masons while still students in Edinburgh.50 There were few natives of Scotland among the Jewish students in Edinburgh-the Ashenheim brothers, and the unfortunate Edinburgh dentist and chiropodist Heyman Lion mentioned above. Among provincial Jewish practitioners in England was Isaac Abraham Franklin, who is believed to have studied in Edinburgh probably early in the nineteenth century. He did not matriculate for studies at the university, however, and it may be that he undertook a medical apprenticeship in Edinburgh. Franklin became one of the leading medical men in Manchester, was temporary hospital medical officer 88</page><page sequence="15">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland during the Manchester cholera outbreak of 1849, and was an active member of the Manchester Jewish community.51 Prominent among overseas students was Aaron Hart David (1812-82), who began his medical studies in Canada. He became Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Bishop College, later absorbed into M'Gill University. David was one of the founding members of the Canadian Medical Association and was elected its general secretary in 1869.52 While many Edinburgh students and graduates reached prominent positions within the profession, only the name of George Charles Wallich (1815-99) appears in The Dictionary of National Biography. He was the son of Nathaniel Wallich mentioned above, whose details are also recorded in the DNB, and he followed his father into the Indian Medical Service. As well as being a physician he was a noted marine biologist, and received army medals for his services in the Sutlej and Punjab campaigns of 1842 and 1847 and was field-surgeon during the Sonthal Rebellion of 1855-6.53 The Edinburgh University medical school was thus the most popular with Jewish students at this period, attracting students from North America and the West Indies as well as from England. It does seem apt that Abraham Solomon (1790-1827), son of the Liverpool quack Samuel Solomon mentioned above, graduated MD in Edinburgh in 1810 after completing a full undergraduate course over six years with a thesis on brain tumours. University of Glasgow While the University of Glasgow dates back to 1451 and the Medical Faculty has its origins in the early years of the eighteenth century, the first MD, Samuel Benion, graduating in 1703, the number of Jews coming to Glasgow for their undergraduate studies or for graduation does not approach that of Edinburgh. A number of factors may be responsible for this. The lack of a suitable teaching hospital in Glasgow until 1791 hampered developments, and the powerful and combined Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow jealously protected the right to practise in the greater Glasgow area.54 Edinburgh also had the benefits of a sponsoring Town Council, which devoted much of its resources to the university following the loss of the Parliament in Edinburgh in 1707. In addition, the Medical Faculty in Edinburgh was able to attract some of the ablest and most charismatic teachers to whom large numbers of students were keen to flock. As already noted the first Jewish graduate at the University of Glasgow was Levi Myers (c. 1765-182 7), a native of South Carolina. The Senate minutes for the period record, in a clear copperplate script, the conduct of the medical examinations. On 10 September 1787 Mr Hamilton, Professor of Anatomy and Botany, reported to the Senate that Levi Myers had produced certificates proving that he had studied in Edinburgh for two sessions and that he was offering himself as a candidate for a degree in medicine. Myers was to be 89</page><page sequence="16">Kenneth E. Collins examined privately by Mr Hamilton and Dr Stevenson, Professor of the Practice of Medicine, who would report back to another meeting of the Senate to be held on the following day. At the Senate meeting it was reported that Myers was qualified to undergo a public examination, and he was prescribed an aphorism of Hippocrates and a medical case, both in Latin, to be explained and solved. A date was set for this further test. On 21 September 1787 Myers and two other candidates appeared before the Senate, explained the aphorisms and solved the cases. They then withdrew so that the Senate could make its decisions. After due deliberation the Senate announced that it was 'well pleased' and that the candidates were 'well worthy' to receive the degree of Doctor of Medicine. The degree of MD was conferred on Myers and the two other Edinburgh students by the Vice Chancellor, the remaining student being required to proceed to defend a thesis publicly. At graduation Myers would have been required to take an oath of loyalty to the university and to take the medical oath. Although there might be a benediction either by the Vice-Chancellor or by the Professor of Divinity the graduation ceremony did not require any religious test on the part of the graduates.55 After graduating in Glasgow, Myers returned to Edinburgh for a year to complete his studies, and then went back home to South Carolina where he practised as a physician in Charleston and Georgetown. He became a member of the State Legislature, and was appointed Apothecary-General in 1799, a post he held until his death.56 Unlike in Edinburgh, the first Jewish undergraduate in Glasgow was not a medical student but an American arts student, Marx Cohen (1808-81), the son of Mordecai Cohen, a wealthy English-born American southerner with interests in South Carolina, who could have been a contemporary of Levi Myers. Cohen studied for three years in Glasgow, having arrived when he was only sixteen years old, but there is no record of his graduation. He suffered heavy losses during the American Civil War and was forced to sell his plantation near Charleston. He lived out the rest of his life in obscurity.57 The first Jewish medical undergraduate appears to have been Laurence Joseph (d. 1840), who was later known as Dr Joseph Laurence. He commenced his studies in 1829 and graduated after a special request in 1831, as his regiment, the 4th Dragoon Guards, was due to leave for service in Ireland.58 Probably the best known of the early Jewish medical graduates in Glasgow is Asher Asher (1837-89). He was born in Glasgow and attended the High School of Glasgow. From his youngest days he proved to be an assiduous Hebrew and biblical scholar and a skilled linguist. He supported himself while an under? graduate by working as a bookkeeper in a local Jewish firm.59 During his undergraduate years he won a class prize in materia medica and won first place in the class of forensic medicine. He graduated in 1855 and in the following year became a licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh. Dr Asher became the first Jewish doctor to practise in Scotland. His first medical 90</page><page sequence="17">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland job was in Bishopbriggs, then a colliery town near Glasgow, where he acted as Medical Officer for West District Cadder, covering a population of 5000 and receiving a salary of ?15 per annum.59 With this meagre salary he would have had to augment his income with some private practice. During this time he took an active part in the affairs of the Glasgow Hebrew Congregation, becoming its Honorary Secretary. When he moved to London in 1862 he received a handsome presentation from his patients, and the Glasgow Hebrew Congrega? tion gave him a silver tea and coffee service and an illuminated address.60 In London he worked initially with Dr Jacob Canstatt as medical officer for the Jewish Board of Guardians which had just taken over the care of the Jewish poor from the synagogues. After he became secretary of the newly formed United Synagogue he maintained an active interest in convalescence and public-health measures. It is fitting that some links between Asher Asher and his native city remain. There is a memorial tablet in the vestibule of Garnethill Synagogue, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons has a benevolent fund established in his memory. In addition, the Asher Asher Gold Medal and Prize, instituted in 1910, is still awarded every year to the best student in the class of diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Joseph Marcus Joseph (1826-86) graduated MD and CM in 1852. Joseph, who hailed from India, had studied at St George's Hospital and had become a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1846. Prior to entering the Indian Army as a surgeon, Joseph had come to Glasgow for the new combined degree of Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery. The new Masters' degree in Surgery had been instituted in 1816 as the first university degree emphasizing the practice of surgery. The University of Glasgow had felt frustrated by the local monopoly of licensing surgeons, possessed by the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, and they hoped that this new degree would obviate the need for their graduates to obtain a surgical licence from the Faculty. The degree proved to be a popular one, although the ancient rights of the Faculty were upheld by a decision of the House of Lords in 1826.61 The Edinburgh College of Surgeons was developing its role at this time as a postgraduate institution, and many graduates, like Asher Asher, were encouraged to obtain qualifications there after graduation. Joseph also became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. He reached the rank of Deputy Surgeon General in the Madras Army and was awarded an LID by the University of Glasgow in 1866. The career of Samuel Levenston (1823-1914) is of interest partly as he was the first Jewish medical graduate in Scotland to spend his career in Scotland, and also because of the Levenston family's involvement in medical botany and herbalism in Scotland and Ireland in the middle of the nineteenth century. It is possible to reconstruct some of the Levenstons' business from their entries in the Glasgow Post Office Directories. In 1852 Samuel Levenston is listed with a business or surgery address at 5 London Street, and a residence at 23 London Street. Despite his being known as 4Dr' and having practice premises (which 9i</page><page sequence="18">Kenneth E. Collins were formerly a tobacconist's shop), Levenston did not graduate from the University of Glasgow until 1859. Indeed, at the time of the building of the new synagogue of the Glasgow Hebrew Congregation in George Street in 1857, Samuel Levenston is listed as a trustee and described as a medical student rather than as a practitioner.62 At the time, in fact, he would have been the only Jewish undergraduate in the city, Asher Asher having already completed his studies more than a year before. It is possible that the Levenston family came to Glasgow from Edinburgh. Solomon Levenston, Samuel's brother, settled in Dublin after leaving Edinburgh in 1859. Solomon Levenston gave private tuition in physiology and other medical subjects, and afterwards ran a dispensary in the High Street, with a reputation for holding a patent for the cure of venereal diseases. His wife ran a second-hand clothes business.63 This combination of activity, physiology and unqualified medical treatment suggests an involvement in the medical-reform movement of medical botanists then sweeping the country. After 1855 both Michael Jacob Levenston and William Levenston are in Glasgow, and operating medical-botany stores. Additionally, they style them? selves 'Doctor', but fail to prove to the Medical Directory for Scotland that they are entitled to be designated in this way, and by 1859 the title of 'Dr' is dropped. For a short period Henry Levenston was also in Glasgow and operating out of Dr Samuel Levenston's premises. There was at this time in Glasgow a medically qualified practitioner called Dr Dale, who advertised in the Glasgow Herald that he held daily consultations. He offered herbal remedies for all ills and had medical texts on sale for the public. It is quite possible that Samuel Levenston's career, from his undergraduate days to his early post? graduate period, included an element of practice of this kind. Both Michael Jacob and Samuel Levenston were active members of the Glasgow Hebrew Congregation, although the records show that their financial contributions were frequently in arrears. Michael Jacob Levenston left Glasgow in about i860 to join his son Solomon in Dublin and he is buried in the Jewish cemetery there.64 Samuel Levenston again served as a trustee when the Garnethill Synagogue was erected on its present site in 1879, and although he never held office he served for many years on the synagogue council. The Post Office Directory continues to list a surgery address for Samuel Levenston until 1906 when he would have been 85 years old. He died in 1914 at the age of 93 and is buried in the Jewish section of the Western Necropolis in Glasgow. It is interesting to note the musical talent in the Levenston family. There were some distinguished musicians among the Levenstons in Dublin and their dance academy was mentioned by James Joyce in Ulysses. Another Henry Levenston is listed in the Glasgow Post Office Directory between 1906 and 1914, employed both as a music teacher and as a violinist at the Theatre Royal. 92</page><page sequence="19">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland St Andrews University The Jewish interest at St Andrews is much smaller than at any of the other universities. None of the Jewish graduates actually pursued their studies there, although all completed a regular course of medical study either in Edinburgh or London and took their medical degree after examination. In the period leading up to the Medical Act, the number of degrees awarded in Aberdeen to external candidates was fairly rigorously controlled, in St Andrews, however, no such caution was being shown, and between 1839 and 1862 many hundreds of degrees were awarded after due examination, but not following on local study.65 It is interesting to note that with four Jewish medical graduates between 1839 and 1862 more Jews did in fact graduate from the University of St Andrews during this period than from any other Scottish university. The first Jewish graduate at St Andrews was Louis Ashenheim mentioned above. He provided proof of his studies in Edinburgh and was examined by the Senate before his degree was awarded in 1839. In 1852 Maurice Davis (1821-98), who had studied at King's College in London, graduated with an MD, and later played an active role in both Jewish and medical activities in London.66 In 1859 Leonard Emanuel (1835-64) received his MD after completing his studies with great distinction at University College, London. He was involved, like other members of his family, in voluntary work on behalf of the newly formed Visitation Committee of the Jewish Board of Guardians.67 He accepted a commission in the Indian Medical Service,68 but unfortunately died suddenly at the age of only twenty-nine in 1864, of a rapidly fatal form of spinal paralysis. The illness was thought to be of such medical interest that it was fully written up in the Lancet a week or two after the appearance of the obituary.69 One of the most gifted academically of the St Andrews Jewish medical graduates was Simon Belinfante (d. 1874) who came originally from Holland. He did not study in St Andrews, but his performance in the examinations was such that he was one of the few who graduated with first-class honours. He emigrated to Australia where he studied law, practising both in medicine and in law. He died in a drowning accident in the Cudgegong River while it was in flood, and the site is marked today by the Belinfante Bridge.70 The Jamaican Link The records show a remarkably strong and enduring link between the medical schools of the Scottish universities and the Jewish community on the Caribbean island of Jamaica. The Jews on Jamaica received political emancipation at an early date, and those who contemplated a medical education appear to have found the arrangements in Scotland congenial. Names like de Leon, Henriques, Bravo, Adolphus and Stern belong to Jamaican Jews who came to Edinburgh to study from the last quarter of the eighteenth century onwards. In addition, Sir Jacob Adolphus, Physician General to the Militia on Jamaica, 93</page><page sequence="20">Kenneth E. Collins received an Aberdeen MD, as did Judah Israel Montefiore, the Gibraltar-born cousin of Sir Moses Montefiore, who for a time was surgeon to the militia on Jamaica, before returning to a successful practice in London. Solomon Iffla (i 816-86), who was the first Jewish licentiate of the Faculty (now Royal College) of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, lived for many years on Jamaica, although he had been born at Bordeaux in France and spent the last twenty-five years of his life in Australia. Iffla, like his brother Daniel, may have been a convert to Judaism. His wife Rachel, daughter of David Israel Pereira of Amsterdam, was certainly Jewish, and while in Australia Iffla took part in Jewish educational activities and in the Melbourne Hebrew Congregation.71 As noted already, Louis Ashenheim emigrated to Jamaica and his descendants are still prominent in the Jewish community there. The Henriques families have maintained a remarkable Scottish connection continuing into the present century. Moses Nunes Henriques came to Edin? burgh in 1789, and Joseph Gutteres Henriques followed in 1818. Ernest, son of Nathaniel Henriques, came to Aberdeen from Jamaica, graduating MD there in 1898 and settling to practise in Lancashire. His daughter Stella also graduated in Aberdeen (MB ChB in 1923), although by this time this line had severed all connection with Jewish life. More recently Horace Leslie Cohen Henriques of Jamaica graduated MB ChB at the University of Glasgow in 1933. The first Jewish woman from Jamaica to graduate in medicine is Marilyn Reid (nee Alberga), whose mother was a Henriques and who graduated MB ChB from the University of Glasgow in i960. Other Jamaican Jews to have qualified in Scotland include Florizel de Lorne Myers who graduated at Edinburgh University in 1898, and Charles Isaac Levy who qualified LRCP and S (Edin.) and LRFPS (Glas.) in 1902. The records show many more Jamaican and West Indian non-Jews who studied and graduated in Scotland during this period; nevertheless the close connection between the Jews of Jamaica and the medical schools of Scotland must form a partnership unique in the annals of Commonwealth Jewry. A few remarks will be helpful in closing this brief study. It was only to be expected that the number of Jewish students coming to Scotland to study would diminish as facilities became increasingly available nearer home. At the end of the nineteenth century there were only a few Jewish medical graduates in Scotland, as the number of local Jews entering medicine did not become significant until the children of the Jewish immigrants to Scotland at the turn of the century began to enter university in the years after the First World War. However, the era of overseas doctors coming to Scotland to study was not yet over. In the twentieth century three distinct groups of overseas Jews came to Scot? land. Firstly were the large number of South African Jews studying especially in Edinburgh in the years up to the outbreak of the Second World War. Next came the American Jews who had been excluded from American medical schools 94</page><page sequence="21">Jewish medical students and graduates in Scotland because of a numerus clausus. Lastly, a considerable number of German-Jewish medical refugees came to Scotland to obtain the qualifications necessary to practise in Britain. In the past century over 1500 Jewish medical graduates from the Scottish universities and colleges have practised medicine with distinction both at home and abroad. The students and physicians described here were the pioneers of Jewish medical study in Scotland. NOTES 1 Babylonian Talmnd: Sanhedrin 17b. 2 Harry Friedenwald, The Jews and Medicine I (Baltimore 1944) 221. 3 Midrash: Deuteronomy Rabbah 6,13. 4 Friedenwald (see n. 2) 226. 5 Ibid. 223-4. 6 Ibid. 235-6. 7 David Hamilton, The Healers (Edinburgh 1981) 115-6. 8 Ibid. 120. 9 Ibid. 142. 10 W. B. Howie, Scottish Medical Journal XXIV (1979) 76. 11 Hamilton (see n. 7) 12 5. 12 Lester S. King, The Medical World of the 18th Century (Chicago 1958) 26. 13 Hamilton (see n. 7) 143. 14 James Courts, A History of the University of Glasgow (Glasgow 1909) 508-10. 15 Ernest Muirhead Little, A History of the British Medical Association (London 1932) 6, 62. 16 Cecil Roth, 'The Jews in the English Universities' Misc. JHSE IV (1942) 107-8, 114-5 17 Richard Barnett, 'Dr Jacob de Castro Sarmento' Trans JHSE XXVII (1982) 113. 18 Jewish Encyclopaedia VIII (New York 1904)419. 19 John D. Comrie, History of Scottish Medicine I (London 1932) 390. 20 W. S. Craig, History of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (Oxford 1976) 446. 21 John Camp, The Healer's Art (London 1978)87. 22 Comrie (see n. 19) 359. 23 Peter John Anderson, Fasti Academiae Mariscallanae Aberdonensis II (Aberdeen 1898) 112-15. 24 William M?nk, Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London (London 1878) 92-3. 25 Barnett (see n. 17) 86. 26 FriedenwaldII(seen.2)457-8. 27 Encyclopaedia Judaica II (Jerusalem 1972) Col. 247. 28 Anderson (see n. 23) 115. 29 Cecil Roth, History of the Great Synagogue (London 1950). 30 Dictionary of National Biography XX (Oxford 1917) 592-3. 31 Barnett (see n. 17) 111. 32 J. A. P. M. Andrade, Record of the Jews on Jamaica (Kingston 1941) 148-9. 33 Anderson (see n. 23) 133-4. 34 Louis Hyman, The Jews of Ireland (Lon? don, Jerusalem 1972) 76. 35 Anderson (see n. 23) 142. 36 Craig(seen.20)447. 37 C. J. S. Thompson, The Quacks of Old London (London 1928) 328-9. 38 Notes on the University of Abderdeen (1982). 39 A. Levy, The Origins of Scottish Jewry (1958)11-12. 40 Lucien Wolf, Essays in Jewish History (London 1934) 32. 41 Gentleman's Magazine XCV (London 1825)372-3. 42 Roth (see n. 16) 85. 43 Anderson (see n. 23) 120. 44 Edgar R. Samuel, 'Dr Meyer Schomberg's Attack on the Jews of London, 1746', Trans JHSE XX (1964) 91-7. 45 Meyer Sch?mberg, Emunat Omen (trans. Harold Levy) Trans JHSE XX (1964) 101-11. 46 Jewish Chronicle: obituary on 11 August 1885. 47 James Gray, History of the Royal Medical Society 1737-1937 (Edinburgh 1952)31. 48 Hamilton (see n. 7) 122. 49 Gentleman's Magazine LXXXVIII (London 1818)468. 50 John M. Shaftesley, 'Jews in Regular Freemasonry, 1717-1860', Trans JHSE XXV (1977) 179. 51 Bill Williams, The Making of Manchester Jewry: 1740-1875 (Manchester) 123-4. 52 Harry C. Ballon, 'Aaron Hart David M.D.' Can. Med. Ass. J. LXXXVI (1962) 115-22. 53 Dictionary of National Biography XX 95</page><page sequence="22">Kenneth E. Collins (Oxford 1917) 593. 54 Hamilton (see n. 7) 125. 5 5 David Murray, Memories of the Old College of Glasgow (Glasgow 1927) 309. 56 Friedenwald II (see n. 2) 745. 57 Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia III (New York 1948) 251. 58 List of Commissioned Medical Officers in the British Army. 59 Minutes of Parochial Board for Cadder, 1848-60. 60 A. Levy, Origins of Glasgow Jewry (Glas? gow 1949) 58-9. 61 Hamilton (see n. 7) 160-1. 62 Levy (see n. 60) 46. 63 Hyman (see n. 34) I44~5 64 Ibid. 262. 65 Hamilton (see n. 7) 15 7. 66 Jewish Chronicle: obituary on 30 Septem? ber 1898. 67 Annual Report of the Jewish Board of Guardians of London (1864): Visitations Com? mittee Report. 68 D. G. Crawford, Roll of the Indian Medical Service 1615-1930 (London 1930) 166. 69 W. Jenner, Note on the Case of Dr Leonard Emanuel 1(1864)645. 70 J. H. Heaton, Australian Dictionary of Dates (Sydney 1879) 182. 71 L. M. Goldman, Jews in Victoria in the 19th Century 272. 96</page></plain_text>