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Jew Brokers of the City of London

Dudley Abrahams

<plain_text><page sequence="1">80 MISCELLANIES. 9 Jew Brokers of the City of London The gradual resettlement of the Jews in England during the Protectorate of Cromwell, the defeat of the various attempts to dislodge them and the eventual admission of Solomon Dormido to the Royal Exchange, to be followed by other Jews in the period 1671-1697, have been graphically recorded by Mr. Lucien Wolf.1 An intensive study of the Guildhall Repertories which contain the summaries of the proceedings of the Court of Aldermen from 1657-1708 has moved the present writer to set down certain additional information about Jew brokers. Thanks to the kindness of Mr. P. E. Jones, Assistant Keeper of the City of London Records at Guildhall, he has also had access to a book2 containing the names of all the Jew brokers who acted from 1708-1801. These names are set out in the form of an appendix to this Paper, and will be the subject of further investigation. The office of broker is of ancient origin and the holder of it in Richard IFs time was defined as "one who was a broker trader by misfortune"3 and none but such were formerly admitted to that employment. In the reign of Edward III,4 it was enacted "that no stranger merchant or other stranger shall use or exercise the occupation of ' brocage' between mer? chant and merchant." The policy of the City Fathers with regard to the admission of brokers was always a restrictive one, but it will be seen that these two old ordinances had to be tacitly ignored, although the Alder manic reports5 on brokers even as late as 1674, always emphasized that "broking was principally intended for the support and livelihood of 1 Jewish Chronicle, Nov. 8th, Dec. 6th, 1889, Jan. 15th, 1894, April 16th, 1897. Essays in Jewish History (London, 1934) (see Index). 2M.R. 113. 8Malachy Postlethwayt, The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce, [London, 1774], Vol. 1, under Broker. 4 Charles Duguid, The Story of the Stock Exchange, pp. 2-3 [London, 1906]. 8 Rep. 79, fol. 321.</page><page sequence="2">RECORD OFFICE OF THE CITY OF LONDON.</page><page sequence="3">JEW BROKERS OP THE CITY OF LONDON. 81 decayed citizens and merchants who by great losses have been disabled to pursue their trades." It cannot be said of SOLOMON DORMIDO that he was a decayed merchant, but certainly the circumstances of his appointment were peculiar, for although he was admitted a broker in 1657,6 it was not until 1668 that he was sworn, interestingly enough a year after the Chief Justice had allowed Jewish witnesses to take the oath on the Old Testament only.7 Dormido's admission is not entered in the Repertories of 1657 which seems to show that his presence on the Exchange was necessary but that it was thought best not to introduce the question of his being sworn. On the 30th July, 1668,8 however, JOSEPH FLORES, EMANUEL da COSTA and SAMUEL SASPORTAS were committed to Newgate "for exercising the office of brokage without admittance or allowance of the Court of Aldermen." The Repertories show that the City Authorities were constantly worried by the numbers of unauthorised brokers who were to be found on the Royal Exchange, who not only cut brokerage rates to get business away from the sworn authorised brokers but often brought discredit on the City's reputation by neglecting to meet their obligations. Later during 1668 an enquiry was ordered; no report was made, but in 1671 the Court of Aldermen got to work. Candidates for the office of broker were ordered to petition the Committee appointed by the Court. They had to produce their testimonials and qualifications.9 On February 9th, 1671, Solomon Dormido was confirmed in his office and Flores was admitted as were also his fellow prisoners of 1668, Emanuel da Costa and Samuel Sasportas. The last named was formerly Shochet (slaughterer) of the Sephardi Congregation and was the son of the Haham Jacob Sasportas.10 The congregation had paid his passage to Barbados in 1665. He remained a broker until ? Rep. 73, fol. 213. He was a son of David Abarbanel Dormido, a relative of Menasseh ben Israel, cf. " Crypto-Jews under the Commonwealth." Transactions of the Society, i. 70. 7 H. S. Q. Henriques. The Jews and the English Law, p. 179 [Oxford, 19081. 8 Rep. 73, fol. 245. 9 Rep. 76, fol. 69. 10 L. D. Barnett, El Libro de los Acuerdos (Oxford, 1931) p. 30.</page><page sequence="4">82 MISCELLANIES. 1681 when he was dismissed11 "for trading and merchandising to his own use." The following were also appointed in 1671 by the Committee of Aldermen: JACOB MAZAHOD, ANTHONY RODRIGUEZ de MORAIS, BENJAMIN NUNES and DAVID da SILVA. In October of the same year DANIEL ABOAB12 was admitted and in March, 167213 SAMUEL DORMIDO; making ten appointments in all. In July, 1672, JONAS GAB AY,14 a recently baptised convert, was admitted but met with rough treatment from the Jews. In his broadsheet of 167615 he complained that he was "put out of his employment by which he gained his living." It is not difficult to understand that Gabay's position on the Exchange was an anomalous one, and so made it difficult either for the gentile or Jewish elements to do business with him. In 167316 FRANCIS TURCO and ISAAC RAMOS became brokers and, as Mr. Wolf has recorded, SAMUEL alias FRANCIS de CACERES in 1674. In this year, also, the Court of Aldermen caused another investigation of the conditions on the Royal Exchange to be made.17 Their report was interesting. It had been laid down that there should be one hundred English-born brokers and six each from the Dutch and French Congregations besides other aliens. They found on the Exchange only forty-two Englishmen, five from the Austin Friars and Savoy Congregations, but thirteen aliens, Jews and Roman Catholics. Incidentally, this is the first record of the Court of Aldermen recognising the Jews as such on the Royal Exchange. Solomon Dormido the first Jew broker was described as "a Merchant Stranger of the Kingdom of Spain" and those Jews admitted in 1671 as "Merchant Strangers." Even with this apparent shortage of sworn brokers it was recommended that" no apprentices be allowed as it was contrary to the custom of the City." At the end of 1674,18 JOSEPH COHEN D'AZEVEDO was admitted. He afterwards became one of the directors of the East India Company of Scotland. This company was set up to defeat the monopoly of the London East India Company. The directors of the Scottish Company were prosecuted as interlopers as their Company was declared by the 11 Rep. 86, fol. 234. 15 Barnett, op. ext. p. xiii. Note 4. 12 Rep. 76, fol. 302. 18 Rep. 78, fols. 290, 311. Rep. 79, fol. 293. 13 Rep. 77, fol. 108. 17 Rep. 79, fol. 321. 14 Rep. 77, fol. 210. 18 Rep. 80, fol. 52.</page><page sequence="5">JEW BROKERS OF THE CITY OF LONDON. 83 House of Commons to be illegal.18* The next entry records for the first time the interest of the Lord Mayor in certain cases. "Upon the motion of the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, JACOB ARIAS was admitted a broker and it is ordered that the admittance of JACOB FRANCO to be a broker shall be vacated."19 This may mean that, through the interest of the Lord Mayor,19* Jacob Franco surrendered his office to Arias, but no entry of Franco's admission is to be found. In order, no doubt, to exercise more control over the Royal Exchange brokers, the Court of Aldermen ruled in July, 1679,20 "that no Englishman not free of the City be admitted a broker upon the Royal Exchange." But the Jews, who technically could not be Freemen, were admitted. Some of them must have been English-born. In October of the same year, MOSES BARROW21 was admitted and, in 1680, ABRAHAM GUTTIERES and ABRAHAM de PAIBA.22 In this year, too, the Jews were included in an Aldermanic tirade on unauthorised brokers. " This Court doth desire the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor Elect . . . to consider and direct the prosecution of some speedy and effectual course for the suppressing of all brokers acting on the Royal Exchange without admission and especially Jewes." ISAAC LINDO23 the first of the famous family of brokers was admitted in 1681, DAVID de FARO24 was made a broker in October, 1682, and ALEXANDER LINDO25 in July, 1683. In September, 1685,26 the Court of Aldermen ordered that a list "of all brokers upon the Royal Exchange be hanged up publicly in the Chamberlain's office." ISAAC LOPEZ27 got on to the Royal Exchange in this year, being the seventeenth Jew broker to be appointed since 1657. In the next year it is interesting to note that two obvious gentiles, Henry Bowen and Henry Hackett28, were 18aN. Luttrell, A Brief Relation of State Affairs from September 1678 to April 1714, iv., p. 8, where Joseph Coen D'Azevedo is named. 19 Rep. 83, fol. 361. September, 1678. 19a Concerning the Lord Mayor and the London Jews, see pp. 99, 100. 20 Rep. 84, fol. 156. 21 Rep. 84, fol. 226. 22 Rep. 85, fol. 246. 23 Lucien Wolf, op. cit., p. 133, and Rep. 80, fol. 234. 24 Rep. 87, fol. 287. 25 Rep. 88, fol. 164. 28 Rep. 90, fol. 122. 27 Rep. 91, fol. 14. 28 Rep. 91, fol. 97.</page><page sequence="6">84 MISCELLANIES. prosecuted for acting as brokers without permission. Bowen was afterwards admitted. Another report on brokers was made to the Court of Aldermen in October, 1690.29 It was in about the same terms as previous ones but it did recommend that foreign brokers should pay ?4 per annum as rent as compared with 405. to be paid by the English Freemen brokers. A reference to the City Chamberlain's ledger begun in 1708 shews that Jew brokers paid only ?2 per annum from that year at least. In 1691,30 all the brokers of the Royal Exchange were summoned before the Court of Aldermen and ordered to produce their credentials. Out of the seventeen Jew brokers appointed before 1691 the deaths of Anthony Rodriguez de Morais in 1683 and of David da Silva in 1685 are recorded. Thirty-six Jewish and gentile brokers appeared, among whom the following seven Jews were confirmed in their office, Moses Barrow, Samuel alias Francis de Caceres, David de Faro, Isaac Lindo, Isaac Lopez, Jacob Mazante (sic), Benjamin Nunes. A further thirty Jews and gentiles, "desired the favour of this Honourable Court for admission" ; among the successful petitioners were the following Jews, MOSES CARREON, JOSEPH FERDINANDO (son of the famous Antonio Carvajal, the "first English Jew "), JACOB MAZAHOD and SOLOMON ZUZARTE. The Committee further recommended that brokers "ought to carry along with them under the seal of their mayoralties their several admissions." Once again they recommended that the brokers should not be allowed to take apprentices. There was an interesting petitioner in 169631 called HENRY COTIGNO who stated he was born a Jew but was converted to the Christian Faith and who was admitted in 1697, provided he took up his Freedom. This was not done until 1700 when he became a member of the Drapers' Company but he appears in the 1697 list of brokers as a member of the French Church. In spite of the efforts of the Court of Aldermen,32 the trouble with unauthorised brokers continued, and in 1697 the Corporation was 29 Rep. 95, fol. 35. 30 Rep. 96, fol. 205. 81 Rep. 100, fol. 2. 32 L. Wolf, op. cit., p. 134.</page><page sequence="7">JEW BROKERS OF THE CITY OF LONDON. 85 granted33 Parliamentary powers "for restraining the numbers and ill practices of brokers and stockjobbers." A Committee framed new rules which laid down that there should be one hundred English brokers, twelve alien brokers and twelve Jew brokers who were JACOB ARIAS, DAVID AVILA, MOSES BARROW, SAMUEL alias FRANCIS de CACERES, DAVID de FARO, JOSEPH FERDINANDO, ABRAHAM FRANCKE, BENJAMIN LEVI, ELIAS LINDO, BENJAMIN NUNES, ABRAHAM de PAIBA and ELIAS PAZ. It was a great tribute to the work and character of the Jews on the Royal Exchange that, at long last, they were properly recognised. Medals34 were to be prepared "of such form and dimensions and proportions for the brokers to be admitted." In the Guildhall Museum can be seen the six medals and the later certificates issued to successive members of the Lindo family, who have a record of service on 'Change from 1681, when Isaac Lindo, referred to above, was admitted until the registration of sworn brokers was abolished in 1886.35 Sir Charles Peers, London and Spanish merchant, and Lord Mayor in 1716,35a has an entry in his day-book36 to the effect that he had one of his bills negotiated "by the hand of Young Lindo." (Probably Alexander.) It is of interest to see what degree of success attended the Jewish brokers. In 167137 the Elders of the Synagogue determined that brokers "should henceforth be obliged to pay as Imposta (income tax) six pence on every pound sterling of the amounts of their brokerages." This, as Dr. Barnett shows, was a much smaller contribution than was imposed on the merchants, and it might be inferred from this that no contribution had been expected from them until that year. It will be remembered that 1671 was the year when several Jew brokers were admitted; but Joseph Flores38 and Samuel Sasportas, who were then unauthorised brokers had paid small amounts to the Synagogue in 33 " A Bill to restrain the Number and ill-Practice of Brokers and Stockjobbers.' * (Journals of the House of Commons, 1697 p. 769). 34 Rep. 101, fol. 206. 35 City Press, August 21st, 1931, p. 5. 35a See photograph of certificate of Mordecai d'Almeida (p. 80). 36 Fol. 67, July, 1691. [MSS. owned by Mr. Wilfred S. Samuel] 87 Barnett, op. cit.9 p. 50. 88 Ibid., pp. 38, 39.</page><page sequence="8">86 MISCELLANIES. 1669.39 Yet it was not until 1672 that Solomon Dormido's imposta is first seen, along with those of David da Silva and Samuel Sasportas. Compared with those of merchants like Abraham Israel de Sequiera (alias Gomez Rodriguez of Bury Street) and others, the contributions of the brokers to the Synagogue were not large, but they themselves were well respected. As evidence of this it is noted that Anthony de Morais, known to the Congregation as Abraham de Morais, held office in 1670 while David da Silva and Daniel Aboab were Parnassim (wardens) in 1671 and 1673 respectively. Benjamin Nunes was one of the signatories of the first Ascamot (laws), while Isaac Ramos was made Shochet of the Synagogue in succession to Benjamin Levy and did this work in addition to practising as a broker. Solomon Dormido, who until 1671 was the only sworn Jew broker, seems to have prospered. He retired some time after 1671 and died about 1697. He left ?10 to the Synagogue. One of the witnesses of his will was no less a person than Rabbi Jacob Judah Leon Templo.40 For the most part, however, the brokers did not become wealthy but it is evident that many of them made a respectable livelihood, judging by the length of time some held office. For instance, Benjamin Nunes was a broker for 39 years, Jacob Arias for 32 years and Moses Barrow for as long as 50 years. Barrow, or to give him his full name, Moses Baruch Lousada, became quite influential, for his name appears in the Entry Books of the period in which he lived as sponsor to many a Jew travelling to and from England. In the brokers' lists of 1697 and onwards are to be found the names of many whose story has already been told. Many, impatient of the restrictions of the broker's office, relinquished their appointments and became merchants or dealers in stocks. Abler pens than mine have written of BENJAMIN LEVI, MOSES HART and SAMSON GIDEON as well as of the wealth and fame of LEVY BARENT COHEN and his distinguished descendants. LAZARUS SIMON, one of the ancestors of the Franklin family, SOLOMON de MEDINA, great-grandson of Sir Solomon de Medina, the Duke of Marlborough's army contractor, JACOB SAMUDA, grandfather of Joseph Samuda, who built the first 39 Ibid., op. CiL, p. 62. 40 P.C.C. Noel, 177 (1700). See Transactions, iL, 156.</page><page sequence="9">jew brokers of the city of london. 87 British ironclad, are also interesting personalities. ABRAHAM RICARDO, who was made a broker in 1773, was the father of David Ricardo whom he disowned for leaving the community. David's gentile friends rallied round him, so that he prospered on 'Change and later became a member of Parliament. During the eighteenth century, many of the Jew brokers specialised in stockbroking. This was unfavourably pronounced upon by Mottley41 who declared that the Jew brokers were more concerned at stockjobbing than with merchandise to the great detriment of the City. This was written in 1735. Ten years later he might have felt inclined to retract when he had seen what a beneficent effect Samson Gideon's transactions had in the City during the Jacobite crisis. The City sent a deputation to present a congratulatory address to George III on his accession ;42 included in this deputation there were sixty Jews, and six out of the twelve brokers were present. The office of sworn broker declined in importance during the nineteenth century and, as has already been mentioned, was finally discontinued in 1886. Dudley Abrahams. APPENDIX I Appointment of Jew Brokers arranged under Reigns. The Protectorate 1653-1658. Admitted Solomon Dormido .... 1657 (but not sworn until 1668). Charles II. 1660-1685. Daniel Aboab. 1671 Jacob Arias . . . . 1678 Moses Barrow ..... 1679 Samuel alias Francis de Caceres . . 1674 Emanuel da Costa . . . . 1671 Joseph Cohen D'Azevedo . . . 1674 Samuel Dormido .... 1671 ^Survey of the cities of London and Westminster, borough of Southwark and parts adjacent. London, 1734/5, Vol. 2, p. 408. 42 Public Ledger, November 10th, 1760.</page><page sequence="10">88 miscellanies. David de Faro. 1682 Joseph Flores. 1671 Jonas Gabay . . . . . 1672 Abraham Guttieres .... 1680 Alexander Lindo .... 1683 Jacob Mazahod . . . . . 1671 Anthony Rodriguez de Morais . . 1671 Benjamin Nunes . . . . 1671 Abraham de Paiba .... 1680 Isaac Ramos ..... 1673 Samuel Sasportas . . . . 1671 David da Silva .... 1671 Francis Turco. 1673 James II. 1685-1688. Isaac Lopez .... 1685 William III. 1688-1702. David Avila. 1697 Moses de Caceres . . . . 1691 Moses Carreon de Paiba . . . 1691 Joseph Ferdinando . . . . 1691 Abraham Francke (Franks)1 . . 1697 Benjamin Levi1 . .... 1697 Elias Lindo. 1697 Isaac Lindo . . . . . 1691 Jacob Mazante (sie) . . . . 1691 Elias Paz. 1697 Solomon Zuzarte . . . . 1691 Admitted Address Successor Anne 1702-1714. Moses Hart 1704 Fenchurch Street Lazarus Simon succeeded David de Faro 1 The first Ashkenazim to be admitted.</page><page sequence="11">jew brokers of the city of london. 89 Admitted Address Successor Moses de Paiba 1704 Bury Street Isaac de Paiba succeeded Abraham de Paiba Gaspar D'Almeida 1704 Little St. Helen's, Abraham Mocatta succeeded A. Francke at Mr. Brooks' Aaron Alvares 1704 Bevis Marks succeeded Benjamin Levi 1705 St. Mary Axe Isaac de Faro succeeded Jos. Ferdinando Isaac de Paiba Abraham Mocatta Abraham Nunes Jacob Alvares Solomon da Costa Abraham de Paiba Abraham de Mattos Abram Israel Franco Emanuel Robles 1709 Bevis Marks 1710 Creechurch Lane 1710 Duke Street, Aldgate 1710 Little St. Helen's, Dan. Valentino at Mr. Savage's Jacob Alvares, Jun. 1714 Bury Street, Isaac Levy at Aaron Alvares George I. 1714-1727. Mordecai d'Almeida 1716 At Mr. D'Almeida's, Joshua de Fonseca Cook's Court, Camomile Street 1721 St. Mary Axe Samson Gideon Jacob Cohen de Azevedo Abram Israel Franco Jacob Salema 1723 St. Mary Axe Jacob Salema 1726 Booker's Gardens, David Salomons Leadenhall Street George II. 1727-1760. Isaac Lindo 1727 Bury Street (Elias Lindo)* Solomon da Costa 1728 Camomile Street (Jacob Israel Brandon)* * Probable successor but no name recorded in the register. G</page><page sequence="12">90 miscellanies. Mordecai Nogueira Samson Gideon Joshua da Fonseca Isaac Hamis Daniel Valentino Moses Alvarenga Lazarus Simon Isaac Levy David Salomons Moses de Mattos Abraham de Paiba Joshua da Fonseca Brandon Joseph D'Almeida Aaron Lara Abraham de Mattos Alexander Isaks Keyser Admitted Address 1729 Creechurch Lane, Leadenhall Street 1729 Bevis Marks 1729 Booker's Gardens, Leadenhall Street 1733 Gun Yard, Houndsditch 1736 Gravel Lane, Houndsditch 1736 Bevis Marks 1738 Warnford Court, Chiswell Street 1745 Bury Street 1745 Crutched Friars 1750 Bury Street 1751 Devonshire Square 1752 Bevis Marks 1754 1756 1758 1760 Cornhill Church Street, Houndsditch Bury Street Bevis Marks George III. Elias Lindo Isaac de Mattos Henry Salomons Abraham Levy 1760-1820. 1760 1763 1765 1765 Devonshire Square Crutched Friars Gould Square Bury Street, St. Mary Axe Successor Moses Alvarenga Joseph D'Almeida Joshua da Fonseca Brandon Aaron Lara (Asher Goldsmid)* Jacob Alvares, Jun. Abraham Mocatta (Henry Salomons)* (Abraham Lara)* (Isaac de Mattos)* (Jacob Levy Bensusan)* Isaac Moron * Probable successor but no name recorded in the register.</page><page sequence="13">JEW BROKERS OF THE CITY OF LONDON. 91 Admitted David Campan 1766 Michael Salomons 1767 Alex Keyser, Jun. 1768 Abraham Lara 1768 Jacob Levy Bensusan 1768 Jacob Israel Brandon 1769 Levy Hart 1769 Asher Goldsmid 1772 Abraham Ricardo 1773 Solomon de Medina 1777 Eleazar Philip 1780 Salomons Samuel Levy 1779 Bensusan Isaac Moron 1781 Solomon Israel Jacob Samuda Gabriel Israel Brandon Isaac Delvalle Gotchal Levien 1782 1782 1784 1784 1786 Isaac Sequiera, Jun. 1789 Address At Mr. Salomon's, Gould Square Gould Square, Crutched Friars 117 Fenchurch Street 35 Birchin Lane 4 Church Court, Houndsditch Brown's Buildings, St. Mary Axe 2 Devonshire Street 44 Mansell Street, Goodman's Fields Bury Street 40 Basinghall Street Brown's Buildings, St. Mary Axe 8 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe George Street, Minories 22 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe 15 Bury Street 8 Bevis Marks 9 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe 10 Prescot Street, Goodman's Fields Successor (Michael Solomons)* (Levy Hart)* (Gabriel Israel Brandon)* (Jacob Samuda)* (Levy Barent Cohen)* (Isaac Delvalle)* (Solomon Israel)* (Isaac Sequiera, Jun.)* (Isaac Keyser)* (Andw. Leway de Haes)* * Probable successor but no name recorded in the register.</page><page sequence="14">92 miscellanies. Admitted Levy Barent Cohen 1789 Andw. Leway de Haes Moses Lindo, Jun. Moses Lindo Joseph Cohen Isaac Keyser Moses Mocatta Address Successor 11 Angel Court, (Joseph Cohen)* Throgmorton Street 1 Crown Street, Westminster or Tom's Coffee House 30 Leadenhall Street (Moses Lindo)* 6 Prescot Street Angel Court, Throg? morton Street 8 Brown's Buildings, St. Mary Axe and Savage Gardens Kennington, Surrey, Grigsby's Coffee House * Probable successor but no name recorded in the register. 1795 1797 1799 1799 1800 1800 APPENDIX II Three Attempts to Raise the Number of Jew Brokers. The Repertories of 1723, 1730 and 1739 record petitions by the Jewish community for an increase in the numbers of Jew brokers.1 The first in 1723 merely shows that a petition was sent in by the Jews and a counter-petition by the gentiles. In 1730 the Jewish deputation2 was headed by David Bravo and they were opposed by a deputation of gentile Free brokers. Both sides were heard by the Court of Alder? men who pronounced against the Jews. But in 1739,3 the Jews made a much more powerful appeal. The petition was signed by a large number of influential Jewish merchants, viz.: Anthony Lopez Suasso Abraham Alvarez *Rep. 127, fol. 210. 8 Rep. 138, fol. 110. 8 Rep. 143, fol. 237.</page><page sequence="15">JEW BROKERS OF THE CITY OF LONDON. 93 Abm. D. J. Capadose Anthony da Costa4 Abraham Dias Moses Lopes Dias Moses Espinosa Daniel Dias Eernandes Isaac Dias Fernandez Abr. de Fonseca Abraham and Jacob Franco Moses Lamego Joseph Marquez, Jun. Francisco de Medina Anthony Mendes James Mendes Lewis Mendes Benjamin Mendes da Costa Jacob Mendes da Costa John Mendes da Costa Jacob Mendes da Costans (sic) Mendes da Costa Jacob Fernandes Nunes Abraham Osorio Rodrigo Pachuo (sic) Elias Paz Francis Pereira Jacob Pereira de Paiva Pereyra and Lima Francis Salvador Joseph Salvador Isaac Salvadore Moses Gomez Serra Alvaro Lopes Suasso Judah Supino and Son Aaron Franks 4 Of the Mendes da Costa family, q.v.</page><page sequence="16">94 MISCELLANIES. Moses Hart Hen. Isaac Levy and Ruben Solomons (sic) A week after the Jewish petition had been submitted, the counter petition was launched. The gentile brokers claimed that they could bring forward good reasons against an increase in the number of Jew brokers and emphasised that "your petitioners are freemen of the City where the Jews are not." The committee appointed to examine the Jews' case stated that there were "nearly double the number of English brokers than were first allowed for" and went on to say, "we conceive it may be reasonable to oblige the Jewish Nation with some increase in their number" which they recommended should be augmented to 18.5 Both sides retained Counsel, Mr. Clarke and Mr. Stacey acting for the Jews and the Solicitor-General and Sergeant Eyre for the gentile brokers. The case was argued before the Court of Aldermen who decided against the Jews by 8 votes to 7.6 It would appear that the restrictions as to the number of Jewish brokers were not removed until 1828.7</page></plain_text>

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