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Ibn Ezra in England

D. M. Friedlander

<plain_text><page sequence="1">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. By Dr. M. FRIEDL?NDER. Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra is one of the Jewish scholars thnt visited this island in the twelfth century. His name is not met with in commercial records (Sh'taroth), or in any other annals of the business transactions of contemporary Jews. He might have said in the words of the prophet, with a little variation, " I have not borrowed nor lent money, and yet will my people remember me for many generations." It is a rich legacy that Ibn Ezra left?even an embarras de richesse. It is difficult to assign to each of his numerous writings its exact date, place, and purpose ; but however interesting the discussion and solution of these problems may be, they do not concern us here, as we have only to deal at present with a visit paid by this famous scholar to England, and with the works that he produced while he stayed in this country. As to the life of Ibn Ezra, I have written what I had to say in a paper read before the Jews' College Literary Society, in the year 1872, and published by the Jewish Association for the Diffusion of Religious Knowledge in one of the Sabbath Readings.1 A short biography of Ibn Ezra also precedes my Translation of Ibn Ezra's Commentary on Isaiah. But there is one point that is not yet cleared up. When did Ibn Ezra come to England ? What kind of public or private reception was arranged for him ? When did he leave England ? I am sorry to say that I am perfectly ignorant on these matters ; the Jewish annals seem to have passed over these questions with silence?perhaps a just retribution to this scholar. History herein pays him measure for measure; for the study of geography and history were not treated by Ibn Ezra with due respect, and in the curriculum of studies recommended 1 It is to be regretted that these publications were discontinued, and it is to be hoped that they will be resumed under the auspices of the successor of the Association.</page><page sequence="2">48 IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. by him they occupy an inferior position.1 According to his own statements, he was in Rome in 1140; he was in Lucca in 1145 ; in the years which follow he visited various places in Italy, and wrote Grammars and Commentaries, without giving place and date of the compositions. From Italy he went to France ; the earliest work written there is the Commentary on Exodus, 1153, the latest is the Commentary on the Minor Prophets, written in the year 1157.2 In the month of Tammuz, 1158, he was in London, and began to write the Yesod Mora. This is the first mention of Ibn Ezra's stay in London, but it is within the bounds of possibility that this was not his first visit. Negative evidence is inconclusive. At all events the Yesod Mora is the first work known to us as produced by Ibn Ezra in England, for the benefit of a pious patron residing in this country. Let us now hear what Ibn Ezra has to say about this book, and in it. The title is? I.?YESOD MORA YESOD TORAH.3 " The foundation of the fear of Grod and the essence of the Torah." Ibn Ezra wrote for a Maecenas who had studied urider his direction other works composed by the same author.4 Ibn Ezra "took the 1 Comp. Yesod Mom, ch. i. : " The knowledge of the names of the towns in Palestine, the history of the Judges and the Kings, the building of the first Temple, that of the future Temple, or the prophecies that have already been fulfilled, can only be acquired by hard work and is of little benefit." 2 See Essays on Ibn Ezra by M. Friedl?nder, p. 195. 3 This title is mentioned in the superscription; but I doubt whether it is Ibn Ezra's choice. The title is probably taken from the following sentence that occurs in the first chapter : " The knowledge of Hebrew Grammar enables us to understand fcOl?il TlDl Hlinn 'The foundation of the Law and the essence (lit. secret) of the fear of God.'" Although the two terms T)D and TID* are employed here as synonyms, the originator of the title thought it necessary to interchange them so as to apply T)D to Tor ah in accordance with the use of the word by Ibn Ezra in his Commentaries. The correct title is probably that given in MS. Poc. 296, viz. HI^DH "IBD " On the Divine Commandments." Comp, end of ch. i: " And now I will continue to speak on the Commandments," and again in ch. ii: "I took the trouble to write for him a book on the Commandments (rn*D3 1QD)." 4 This statement suggests either that Ibn Ezra had already been staying in England for some months, or that he came to England together with his disciple.</page><page sequence="3">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 49 trouble to write a book for him, on the divine precepts, because he had found him to be a truthful and Grod-fearing man above many." The name of this pupil is not mentioned here,1 but the fact that Ibn Ezra had written other books for his pupil, which the latter studied in the presence of Ibn Ezra, suggests the name of Joseph of Maudviiie, the same who states in a postscript to Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Minor Prophets: "I, Joseph, son of Rabbi Jacob of Maudviiie, copied it from the original autograph of the author, and added such remarks as I heard him make viva voce, when I was with him." Here Ibn Ezra calls his pupil nadibh, "generous," and in one of his poems he attributes "generosity " (nidttbhath ruah) to this same Rabbi Joseph. The book " was commenced in London, in the island Angleterre, in the month of Tammuz, and finished, after four weeks, in the month of Ab, 4918 (1158)."2 Although it is not said that the book was fluished in London, this was probably the case, as, according to Ibn Ezra's own statement, he was in London five months later, in the month of Tebeth, 4919, if this statement is not altogether a fiction. The Yesod Mora is not quoted in any of the works of Ibn Ezra. On the other hand it contains references to the Commentaries on Exodus (short edition), Leviticus, Psalms, and Daniel. The following is an abstract of the contents of the book :? In the Preface Ibn Ezra reminds the reader that man is distinguished from the rest of the creation by his intellect, by the spirit that comes 1 In several MSS. the dedicatory poem has the following additional line : " When I finish it I shall give thanks to G-od, and to his beloved, Joseph son of Jacob, for his support." 2 A postscript to the book runs thus (see Orient, XI, p. 301) : " I, Abraham, the Sef ardi, son of Meir, called Ibn Ezra, commenced to write this book in London, in the island Angleterre ; and it was finished in the month of Ab, after four weeks, in the year 4919." In the book itself the name of London is not given, nor is the date mentioned. But when the author says: "Between Jerusalem and this island there is a difference of four hours as regards the time of sunrise," he probably meant between Jerusalem and England. He does not state on what authority he assumed a difference of four hours. The difference in degrees of longitude is only 35?, causing a difference of two hours twenty minutes. On the shortest day the number given by Ibn Ezra may approximately be right, if we take into account the difference in the length of the day. Another explanation is given below, p. 67, note \ VOL. II. E</page><page sequence="4">50 IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. from God and returns again to him when man has faithfully fulfilled his mission, viz., to study the works of his Master, and to live in accordance with his precepts. The acquisition of knowledge, of what? ever kind, is a step upwards towards the knowledge of the Most High. The author then proceeds, in the first chapter, to recommend certain branches of learning as auxiliary knowledge, as means for an end, but which must not be treated as the aim of man's life. Such are the study of Masora and Grammar, the Bible, Talmud, Casuistry and Midrash. When studying these things we must never lose sight of our principal aim, " to obtain a knowledge of the works and the will of the Creator;" and in order to attain this end, we must add to the above studies Natural Philosophy, Logic, Mathematics, Astronomy, and Psychology. Logic, Ibn Ezra says in the next chapter, enables us to define and to arrange things properly by correct classification ; and in the study of the Torah logic leads us to distinguish correctly between general principles and those individual precepts that emanate from them, and between the real precept and the fence round it. Incidentally1 he censures the authors of Azharoth, who enumerate the 613 precepts without being guided by these logical rules?counting identical precepts each separately, and general principles side by side with the detailed precepts contained in the former. The importance of these general principles shows itself in many ways. If they collide with certain individual precepts the latter are set aside. Only in three cases is the neglect of a positive precept (TWy niVD) visited with kareth, and one of these is the neglect of a positive general principle (ch. iii.).2 1 So it seems ; but it is possible that the rejection of such compositions as the Azharoth (a rhymed enumeration of the 613 precepts) is an essential point in this work of Ibn Ezra. He may have been asked by his pupil to write for him a kind of Azharoth; but Ibn Ezra refuses to do so, exhorting" his pupil to remember the general principles and to have constantly the chief aim of man's perfection before him; he might then dispense with a minute study of the individual precepts. 2 Neglect of positive commandments is threatened with hareth only in the case of circumcision and the Passover offering. Ibn Ezra seems to consider the term THX " cursed, be " as identical with kareth, and explains Deat. xxvii. 26 to refer to him who neglects to conceive y his heart the earnest resolve to be loyal to the Torah.</page><page sequence="5">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 51 The general principles are easily distinguished from the rest, which are dependent on time, place, and circumstances (ch. iv.), whilst the former are in force everywhere, at every time and under all cir? cumstances. They are implanted in man's heart; and the psalmist's praise of "the commandments1 of the Lord, which are upright, making the henrt glad" (Ps. xix. 8), applies especially to them (ch. v.). The precepts are in part fully explained in the Torah, partly they are only indicated there, and are described in the Oral Law ; there are also precepts which originated altogether in post-biblical times (ch. vi.): all these may be divided into such as concern our actions, such as concern our words, and such as concern our thoughts or our heart (pbn The latter must accompany every performance of a precept; without them the practice of the precept (ni?D) is meaning? less. The source of all the general principles is the fear of the Lord, which inspires us with the desire to abstain from that which is prohibited and to do that which is commanded. From another point of view Ibn Ezra considers loyalty to the words,44 the Lord thy God thou shalt fear " (Deut. vi. 13), as the source of man's obedience to the divine prohibitions (H?pyn #h f)1?D), and the first step towards his perfection, whilst man's obedience to the positive precepts (n?&gt;y niVD), which are comprehended in the words 44 and him thou shalt serve " (ibid.), leads him gradually towards the highest degree of man's perfection, i.e., the love of God and the cleaving to him (7"Q)V mpm). When this degree is reached, man's soul will in his lifetime 44 be filled with the fulness of joys in his presence," and will hereafter enjoy the "pleasures for evermore at the right hand of God" (Ps. xvi. 11). Although man's physical constitution greatly influences his moral disposition, strict obedience to the divine precepts minimises that in? fluence, and his perfection does not depend on a predestined order of things, but on his own free will, in accordance with the Tal mudical saying, 44 Everything is in the hands of heaven, except the fear of the Lord " (ch. vii.). How the single precepts affect man's moral faculty is not clear in every case ; but in many instances the reason for the precept is stated in 1 The Hebrew term is DHIpB, and according to Ibn Ezra the word is derived from "IpS "to entrust" (comp. }npQ "trust"), and signifies the things entrusted to the heart. E 2</page><page sequence="6">52 IBN EZKA IN ENGLAND. the Law. But whether the reason of the precept is clear to us or not, strict obedience is demanded in every case, the divine commandments being u just statutes and commandments " making the " people wise and reasonable " (Deut. iv. 6, 8) (ch. viii.). There exists, according to Ibn Ezra, a certain analogy1 between the Kosmos and some of the divine precepts (ch. ix.). Such analogy suggests a thorough study of the Kosmos, a study that leads to a knowledge and love of God. But in order to attain this end, it is necessary for man to abandon earthly pleasures, and to devote himself exclusively to the service of God, everyone according to his faculties (ch. x.). Some mystical relations are pointed out in the eleventh chapter between the properties of the four letters of the divine name, the Tetragrammaton,2 and various mathematical and astronomical pro? blems. " He whose soul is filled with the knowledge of mathematics and astronomy advances greatly towards a knowledge of the divine Being, secures for himself eternal existence, becomes like the angels3 who minister unto God, and sings praises to him together with the angels " (ch. xii.). Not long after the Yesod Mora, Ibn Ezra is said to have written in England another essay, The Letter of Sabbath: IGGERETH HA-SHABBATH. The personification of the Sabbath is frequently met with in Hebrew literature. In the well-known hymn of the Friday evening service, beginning rah. Sabbath is welcomed as a bride ; in the zemirothy Sabbath is introduced as a queen ; in the Sabbath morning service, Sabbath is the author of Psalm xcii., for " the seventh day 1 Ibn Ezra frequently refers to that analogy in his Commentary on the Pentateuch, Comp. Comm. on Exodus xxv. 40, xxvi. 18, xxviii. 8. 2 Comp. Sepher hashshem ; and Comm. on Exodus iii. 15. 3 It seems that Ibn Ezra thought of the ideal reconstruction of the Kosmos in the scholar's mind, and compared this construction with that of the real Kosmos by the angels. These spiritual beings, created, according to Ibn Ezra, for the purpose of forming and ruling the universe, are to some extent the forces that act in nature, and are in their combined action identical with the Demiourgos of Philo. In Hebrew they are called elohim, which term, by way of metonymy, signifies also " God."</page><page sequence="7">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 53 praises and sings 4a psalm, a song of the day of Sabbath.'" In the same way Ibn Ezra introduces here Sabbath as the writer of a letter. In this letter, which is addressed to Ibn Ezra, Sabbath presents herself as the crown of the religion of the distinguished people, which occupies the fourth place in the Decalogue, and is " the sign of an everlasting covenant between G-od and his children." She is proud that she brings the blessing of rest to all who sanctify the seventh day, and feels satisfied with the way she has hitherto been honoured. But she bitterly complains that a change has recently taken place in the conduct of Ibn Ezra, and that is the chief object of her letter. Ibn Ezra, who has in his younger days always been a strict observer of the Sabbath, has become lax in his old age ; for he allows books to remain in his house in which the profanation of the eve of the Sabbath is suggested, and does not at once write letters to all congregations and show them the error of that suggestion. Ibn Ezra tells us that one Friday evening (the 14th of Tebeth, 4919), when he happened to be in England, "in one of the cities of the island called 6 the corner of the earth' (Angleterre), and forming part of the seventh zone," he had a dream, in which a letter from Sabbath was brought to him. His attention was called to books which were left by his pupils in his house, and which contained a heterodox interpretation of Genesis i. 5. He soon found the corpus delicti; it was a note on Genesis i. 5, which verse was explained to mean that when there had been evening and also morning, one day had passed; and that the night was counted with the preceding day. The first day must consequently have commenced in the morning and ended the next morning. It being admitted by all commentators, says Ibn Ezra, that the object of the biblical account of the creation is to explain the institution of Sabbath, the suggestion would not be unreasonable, that the beginning and end of the Sabbath should be determined in accordance with this account.1 Ibn Ezra's indignation 1 If the Commentary referred to were that of Rashbam, it would not have been necessary for Ibn Ezra to show the inference that readers might draw as regards the observance of the Sabbath; it is clearly stated in the Commentary itself: " And it was evening and it was morning (i. e. dawn commenced), and thus one of the six days referred to in the decalogue ended." If Ibn Ezra had seen this Commentary, he would have quoted these words. See below.</page><page sequence="8">54 IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. would almost have induced him to destroy the book at once, even on the Sabbath, in order to prevent others from being misled by it. Reason, however, conquered passion, and Ibn Ezra contented himself with a solemn vow to write on the subject immediately after the Sabbath, and with the utterance of a curse against any one who would accept that explanation, or would read it aloud, or would copy it and add it to a commentary on the Torah. Whose Commentary was it that was thus condemned by Ibn Ezra ? If the author's name was known to Ibn Ezra, why does he not mention it ? Did he purposely withhold the name, because he feared lest the wrong comment should be, to some extent, sanctioned by the great authority of the commentator ? Or did he perhaps avoid offending an author that was generally respected ? Graetz {Geschichte der Juden, VI., page 447, note 8) believes that the Commentary of Rabbi Samuel ben Meir (D"355H), on the Pentateuch was meant, and, in fact, the impugned remark on Genesis i. 5 is found in that Com? mentary. If this view is correct, we can well understand the fear of Ibn Ezra that the force of his own arguments might be counter? balanced by the piety and learning of Rashbam. But why does Ibn Ezra employ the plural form "books" (DHDD), ucommentaries " (minn ^rVS) ? and why are the disciples introduced as having brought them into the house of their master ? Furthermore^ the various ways in which Genesis i. 5 was explained by different authors were not unknown to Ibn Ezra. In his commentary on Exodus xvi. 22, as well as in his remark on Genesis i. 5, he criticises the impugned interpretation of Genesis i. 5. The shock which he says he received at the sight of it must have been caused rather by the circumstances connected with the copy fomnd in his house than with its contents. It seems that the disciples had brought to their master for revision copies of explanations of biblical passages, in which the master found, to his great surprise, the very interpretation of Genesis i. 5 which he had always opposed. The Commentary of Rashbam could not have shocked him greatly, as a few lines' more reading would have convinced him of this Rabbi's loyalty to the traditional interpretation of the Biblical precepts. He says distinctly (on Genesis i. 14), " The time from one appearance of the stars (0*3313PI DN?) to the next is</page><page sequence="9">IBN EZRA JN ENGLAND. 55 called one day,"1 so that no one could honestly charge him with heterodox views concerning the beginning of the Sabbath. But for the disciples who, in spite of their master's strong opposition, copied the interpretation quoted above, it might prove dangerous as regards the right observance of the Sabbath. Hence the indignation of Ibn Ezra. The account of the dream, and the resolve of Ibn Ezra to write the "letter" (mJN) concerning the Sabbath, seems to have been written some time after the event, and somewhere far from England. If the letter were written in England he would not have said, " in one of the towns of the island called Angleterre," but u in one of the towns of this island," and would probably have named the place ; nor would he have further described the island as situated in the seventh zone.2 I doubt whether the whole account of the dream, which is intended as a poetical introduction to the three essays on the beginning of the year, of the month, and of the day, was written by Ibn Ezra himself. Some of the ideas contained therein seem to be foreign to the spirit of Ibn Ezra. This scholar does not at all lay stress on the use of wine for kiddush and habhdalah,3 as is done in this introduction. Ibn Ezra does not believe that the Sabbath is a day of rest for the dead more than any other day ; his idea of the future life of our soul is entirely different.4 The three essays themselves are by no means new; they are a modified and expanded form of notes occurring in Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Pentateuch? Ibn Ezra himself may have recast them, but it is also possible that one of his pupils wrote them in 1 It is difficult to see liow this dictum can be reconciled with the quoted interpretation of " And it was evening," etc. We must either assume that the Rabbi only intended to define the length of the day as consisting of twenty-four hours, and did nofc intend to fix the beginning of the day ; and this explanation is supported by the fact that the important sentence, " The night is counted with the preceding day," quoted by Ibn Ezra, is absent from the Commentary ascribed to Rashbam. Or we must assume that this Commentary is a compilation of notes from various books, and was not written by Rashbam, or that one of the two contradictory explanations was interpolated. 2 Kote especially the phrase : n^D nriK TJD Wil Wj. 3 Comp. Yesod Mora, ch. ii. 4 Ibid., Introd. and ch. x. 5 See Comm. of Ibn Ezra on Exodus xii. 2, and on Genesis i. 5.</page><page sequence="10">56 IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. the name of the master ; and the principal object of these essays may have been the same as described in the Introduction, viz., to refute, in the fullest possible way, the above-mentioned heterodox interpretation of Genesis i. 5. The title given to the three essays is Iggereth hcishshabbath, in a double sense of the word Iggereth, as the author states. First, it signifies a collection (from "to collect") of arguments for the right observance of the Sabbath, and secondly, it reminds the reader of " the letter of Sabbath " that gave the impulse to these essays. From this statement we might infer that the original sense of the title was " a collection of arguments concerning the Sabbath," and that the term iggereth suggested the idea of " the letter of Sabbath." 1 The three essays are preceded by a few preliminary remarks on the connection that exists between the course of the sun and the various seasons of the day and the year. Ibn Ezra then proceeds, in the first essay, to show that the year of the Torah (minn T\V?) begins in the spring, in the month Abib, which is 44 the first of the months of the year." An exception is made with regard to the year of release (ilDDE?) and with that of jubilee (^21*), which commence in the autumn in the month of Tishri. In the second essay the beginning of the month is explained as depending on the first reappearance of the moon after the conjunction. The year is called in Hebrew sha?iah, because in every year the course of the sun through the ecliptic is repeated without any change, whilst the light of the moon is renewed every month, and a month is therefore called in Hebrew 'hodesh, "renewal." If the term "month" is applied to the twelfth part of a solar year the name is borrowed from the lunar month, which is almost equal in length ; in the same way we give the name " year " to twelve revolutions of the moon, because the period of twelve revolutions of the moon is nearly equal to a solar year. The Jewish Calendar is based on a combination of both systems, on account of the month Abib, which is to be the first month and must be in the spring. Taking the length of the solar year to be 365 days 1 The title Iggereth was suggested in the letter of Sabbath; comp. " Why do you not at once vow that you would write letters in defence of our faith " ? In this postscript Ibn Ezra seems altogether to ignore the poetical introduction ; and the second explanation of the title is probably a later interpolation.</page><page sequence="11">ibn ezra in england. 57 5 hours 55 m. 45?* s., and the length of a month to be 29 days I^tAV hours, 19 solar years are equal to 235 lunar months. In the third essay Ibn Ezra approaches the chief question, the beginning of the day. The annual course of the sun, the ecliptic, is divided into four parts; the four points of division are the two points of intersection of the ecliptic with the equator, and the two points midway between the former. Similarly is the day circle of the sun divided into four parts by its two points of intersection with the horizon, and two points of intersection with the meridian, midway between the former. The four points in the ecliptic mark the begin? nings (niDlpn)1 of the seasons of the year?spring, summer, autumn, and winter ; and the points of division in the day circle of the sun mark the beginnings of the four seasons of the day?sunrise, noon, sunset, and midnight. Just as each of the four beginnings of the seasons of the year has found its advocates for its selection as the beginning of the year,2 so also has each of the four moments of the day found its supporters that fixed it as the beginning of the day.3 As the autumn has been fixed by the Tor ah as the beginning of the year of rest (T)1W)9 so is the evening, which corresponds in its pro? perties to the autumn, the beginning of the day of rest. 1 There are two kinds of tfkufoth, those of R. Samuel, and those of R. Ada; the former are based on the theory that the length of a year is 365J days; according to R. Ada 19 solar years are equal to 235 lunar months. Incidentally Ibn Ezra blames those that still continue to notice the fhufoth of R. Samuel, and especially those who superstitiously ascribe to them certain influences. 2 The Greeks (V) count the years from the spring, the Persians from the summer, the Chaldees from the autumn, and the Christians from the winter. (Igg. hasliabbath, ch. i.) 3 R. Abraham, son of R. Hiyya ha-nasi, in his Safer fia-ibbur (I. ch. ix.), says that the Christians count the days from the morning, and support their theory by pointing to passages in the Bible in which the day is mentioned before the night, and especially to the fact that light was first created. Also Ibn Ezra seems to ascribe this view to the Christians ; for he fears " Lest we become a mockery in the eyes of the Christians" (by adopting the impugned explanation of Genesis i. 5, and yet beginning Sabbath in the evening). Discussions on the subject must frequently have taken place between Jews and Christians. "Astronomers start from midnight or midday, when the sun passes through the meridian; Chris? tians begin the day with sunrise, and we begin with sunset." (Ibid., ch. x.)</page><page sequence="12">58 IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. Ibn Ezra then proceeds to criticise the various biblical passages that have been adduced in support of the theory that Sabbath begins in the morning, such as Exodus xvi. 23-25.1 Chief among these passages is G-enesis i. 1-5, which, according to Ibn Ezra, is the source of the dissension about the beginning of the Sabbath. His opponents hold that " the light" was the first object of the creation, and explain the passage thus : In the beginning, when God created heaven and earth, the earth was not in existence (tohu va-bohu) and darkness was (i.e., there was no light), &amp;c. Consequently day came first in the creation, and then followed night. Ibn Ezra rejects this interpretation, and explains the first paragraph of Genesis thus : In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth (i.e., the whole universe); but the earth was not as we see it at present; it was tohu va-bhohu} empty, without living beings ; and darkness was there, etc.; darkness con? sequently preceded the creation of light, and night was before the day. This interpretation of Genesis i. 1-5 fully agrees in sense and in expression with the latest (French) recension of Ibn Ezra's Commen? tary on the Pentateuch, extant on the first seventeen chapters of Genesis.2 It is remarkable that in the Iggereth hashshabbath refe? rences occur to the commentaries on Isaiah and Daniel, but the Commentary on the Pentateuch is never quoted. The reason for this circumstance is probably this : the arguments given in the earlier recensions were not considered satisfactory by those for whom they were chiefly intended, and the new recension was still fragmentary and unpublished. In the present letter Ibn Ezra sought, by fresh arguments, to defend the traditional law of Sabbath from the attacks of the heterodox, the J^D3 who rejected the theory that the day began in the evening. It seems that our author has not yet exhausted all his store 1 Other passages are found in Sefer 7ia-ibbur, 1. c. 2 See Essays on Ibn Ezra, by M. Friedl?nder, p. 160, and Appendix, p. 10, sqq. 3 Ibn Ezra designates by this term a Jewish sect, that observed the Sabbath from morning to morning; we do not know whether there were such Jews in England or France in the time of Ibn Ezra. Dr. G-aster called my attention to the fact mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela that they existed among the Jews of Cyprus. {Travels of Benjamin of Tudela, I. p. 25 (Hebrew) and 57 (English), ed. A. Asher, and note 119, vol. II., p. 56).</page><page sequence="13">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 59 of arguments, for he adds, in conclusion, " This letter has been finished in haste," and thereby implies that in case of emergency he might produce further arguments. He does not give any reason for the haste, nor does he tell us in how far there was periculum in mor?. A story-book in Judaso-Grerman ("{12 nfe5&gt;JJD) contains an account of Ibn Ezra's dream, but substitutes "Arnon" or "Aragon" for " Angleterre." Besides these two compositions, Ibn Ezra does not seem to have produced any further work in England ; but the result of his teaching may be noticed in the literary attempts of his pupil Joseph ben Jacob of Maudville (^ITIDD), who wrote notes on the Sidra, TP1,1 and added some explanatory remarks to Ibn Ezra's Commentaries on Exodus and on the Minor Prophets.2 Ibn Ezra continued to live after the date mentioned in the Iggereth hashshabbath about ten years ; but the question where he lived these years, and where he died, has not yet been satisfactorily settled. In the year 1161 Ibn Ezra was in Narbonne, where he calculated the nativity of a child.3 There is no trace that he returned after that to England, but there is a story4 that he died in England, surrounded by shedim in the form of black dogs. A traveller coming from England brought the story to Moses Tachau, of Vienna. Moses Tachau, an ardent opponent of Ibn Ezra's writings, was only too glad to hear stories of this kind about Ibn Ezra, and the traveller probably knew it; and, according to the rule inny p*m* ipvh n?*nn, the name of England was connected with the story. Ibn Ezra died seventy-five years old, and the words " Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran " (i.e., the troubles of this world) were applied to him, according to some writers, by himself, when he felt the approach of death.5 Others ascribe to him the 1 Essays on lb?i Ezra, etc,, p. 204, and Appendix, p. 65. 2 Essays on Ibn Ezra, etc., p. 155, note 2, and p. 166. 3 See Steinschneider, She?ie ha-meoroth, p. 4. 4 See Ozar Nechmad, vol. III., 97. 5 See Anecdota Oxoniensia, Semitic Series, vol. I., part 4; Medieval Jewish Chronicles, edited by Dr. A. Neubauer, p. 131.</page><page sequence="14">60 IBN EZBA IN ENGLAND. following words, uttered before his death, and containing sentiments which are more congenial to the spirit of Ibn Ezra : " My soul rejoices in the rock of my strength ; in his might he bestowed benefits on me according to my righteousness ; in his kindness he has taught me his ways, and kept me alive till I knew the object of my longing; and if my flesh and my heart is spent, the Lord remains my rock and my strength."</page><page sequence="15">61 APPENDIX. The following treatise is the above-mentioned "Letter of the Sabbath," edited according to the following MSS.: Brit. Mus. Add. 27038 (ed. S. D. Luzzatto, Kerem Chemed iv, p. 159), and four MSS. of the Bodl. Library, viz., Poc. 280 B.; Opp. 757 and 520 ; Mich. 185. In the notes these are referred to by the letters L, P, O, Op. and M. ira^ *vra to wn) nixa ywr\) d*b!?k nyma rwn w Tyi *n?n anil* p? 3fcnpjn 2hi2d Dira? nits snr6 w nyniia pan r-n^na? wibti Kin&amp;&gt; pan nvp anpan 4*?n n&amp;d nriK nanM naA iDiy mm mhm 5*nai ? "6 nmy *mn \w w ^ki * radian T^k nnW maatn natt np ?6k jyi * 6noinn matf iTm ?ma t&gt;k ? mm ibw D^n n? t^ki 'n^ mnnBw -npao : nnsrn ^inn ?an 8*nm m&amp;npKi lana *ti mt iwanai *TinDn n? ? *b&gt;bj 12natt* ntDyD3i ? *:np3 ^ on 10D^nn?n 9oni?n wipa ik ? pinn^ d^n *njnv# 13di*d *d ?*n?ttn no wa hd hjA noiyn n? Wki n*on d-i?ni Tin^n minx tAijfc ? wiwd wd^i ?l?Wn3 ispk 14nsi:n ? Dnnsai nn?ssa nroas n^D nnarea w*n * 2h nnanp^ w*n 1 me&gt; nWn **ra mc?, l. 2 oma? maon, p. 3 Omits, l. 4 Omits, 0. 5 ntTIKI, l. 6 Omits, p. 7 U1? 0 T*?k, omit, O, Op. and M. 8 n WI3 TUT), L. 9 Dnmn, O. 10 Omit, O. and Op. 11 Dp L. 12 Nxn, l. 13 dvhd, l. 14 *num nnrun, 0. 15 UfcTQ, L. 16 n^dd, M. and 0. 17 nxn, o. and Op.; N\m, m.</page><page sequence="16">62 I BN EZRA IN ENGLAND. ? Dninn rwjn irya*) ?Dnm xDnn W D^iy *2Dnaon nwa nina pi ? 4Dnm^ naiD rrn? ^ ? Dnnp ?gsb* Dy*? jmtdi ?D^yj oy 6MpT *2 DW) ? Dny^2 Dn Dnjm 7oni^2 oniDro d*dim ? hxd innas Dnn 1h2taiDi 10fan ? Dmyj nxt&gt; wide* 14Dn?D 11V2 1X2 tpx ? amy/i ^2 ^x Dn^m hfonx in^n ix&gt;2n 18t?x r6 nam Ttxn nnxi ? nn^n 19nx *&amp;r6 2iro x!?i *ri2^n ?cnx Dy rmnn nnnta ?morn Dipxi 4 ixd n!?mj w?ji * ^y ? n^n tx ^x onaon nvin x&gt;?ixi -02 23.Tn 22n?&gt;x2 tdix xim ?npn onp* m may * ri2^ &lt;ox nix ^x pi Di^n pni d^x i-62 v^yD ^2 ^21 )d 3nX J12^ d1*2 tt? *6l 5nmx ^y ?^n2? jjy ?ox ni2pj Di Dn2t nrm -ox d^&gt;2xn *n i^ixjt x^i hdxi *ny ixw Dp^ni &amp;^x T2 on mom ^2 pnw tnpo Kin U"2 ^2^d bi muri ny^ ix^d* di* ^22 9[D pi "pi niWD 122d jyo1? ? 12dw b2 -pmot? ^2 nwm nnw 13&gt;-|rj:}p?2 15D^ ^n1? 21H2 d?&gt;1 ruiDx Tn nn:ix nan^&gt; ? n2^n ^x tdxm 17fy^i dpi ? mmn ^its onao irva *?nrbrb ra^n t22 T2y2 toriD Tin Dyanni fpxi : 'oa x^n &gt; *t f mxi * 21nn s^xi : "&gt;2 mjn ?&gt;?T1 2"iy spits 21H2 dp 1 nvrnn, m. 2 onao hs, m., o. and Op. 3 w, Op. 4 Dmni), Op. ; Dnn^, 0. and M. 5 nJDIKn, O. and Op. 6 DOpTl d*B?B&gt;, 0. 7 omen oniDro d^dids, op. ; DniiBai oni?rn d^didi, o. and m. s nnnn D^^n, op.; annaa d*31btd, o.; onn? d^i^n, m. 9 fmi, Op.; 10yi, 0. and M.; -D pi, P. 10 ^ fan, 0. 11 ITT), L. 12 D?&gt;K hl2, 0.; DS?K *&gt;D?, Op.; ?m?, M. ^ WD, M.; ^pT3, O. u onaon wain, Op., o., and m. 15 l. 16 ipw, o. 17 WV). 18 X&gt;N HK, L. 19 nK, L. 20 na*6?a, 0. and M. 21 Omits, Op. 22 *3, Omit, 0. and M. 23 rhv, 0.</page><page sequence="17">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 63 myip top toyDDi : dim mx nM&gt;n ?o ? d*?p mx di* r6y *op dv Mit *6i 4 2nnx mp W&gt;r6 ma miDX ^ *ran m myip Dai ?nn d^pi 3ayb iab mna Da # jnn pitdi n? ixt dx ? nun nmnp ^ip1? nap jrix dx ma 5nxi : nnpn inn myn paxnxi ? ^lan w 4 nimn dv n^pxi mD ixn1? nmix max nmnx iy Pipn dv nxv mx d*pmn b Da d*?Piian ^x'ip* b ^ :ppiDi hd tdp6i ^ipsd Dnnb mjn pi di* bn 'n npyD n^pxm npiD nnnna &amp;6 ? d*jw Dnny 11 bd^ 7n^pn nnp 6ipxd mnp^p 4 nnpn iidp* niinn nDip wtp hdp*? iA ^ip di* 9ipn wn di* t|iD irn dx mm 4 8njrinpn w Dmipn Da niVDii mtDi 4 ^xx? nb nynD pitbi it nam : xnn nWn nDpa m Dip^ ntn nppn pitdi j^nohi ? DmDn Da d^nn Da * d^pinin Da nrvon 1s1d.1 Da 4 inn*? laip1? pain 'piia ^ipn mix xnp.n 4 udd nnpn ^xip* '?an W&gt;i) nnnn hid law pyi pirn Pi:r iyiit nimn pitbi mix : niaxn n^nn r#n nxn : (12nx rrnn jn \n ; nan 14m*?ay Dmp ^ Dwn 13nipn ^opd pa npi^ro fx 4 nmpa Dmpn nranno jm 4 pxn pmo nnxn p^idp mai%,i ninDDn nw nwDn mp *b:d 4 ^xdp1? Da \wh nnxn msa iy nnian? dpdi m^niTDn r#n 4 oh&amp;in myian b n^in xmp mnxn nyiann nam 4 W?an nynp pa M* ibddi n?D nnpi niyp Y'm d^iy ni^tD w d^apnp 4 d^W?an myian n^ia x^n Da nrnyon x^n n^arn nyianni ? Dmiran niDiP nia1? pdp.11 4 ni^rDn W&gt;a ^id ^x 15d^PDa DmiPD.i ^a ^id v PDni d^d&gt; no^pn ni^?Dn b tj^pn nmi * *?xdpi nnn x1? 4 ni^tDi ip Dys imp,? d^dti ^ ? nDxn napn x^ni 4 iDnn nap xmi nyp ^p^ni niyp pdph niDa mym 4 nap nxipa p hv * naipxin napn vn ipxd n*&gt;ap 1 Op.; DJl, 0. and m. 2 in?, 0. 3 3^, m. 4 d^nyn, l. 5 jnai, l. 6 x&gt;*o wnw, l. 7 nnrun D^n, l. ; iouro nnron dbm, o. and m. 8 The words nyU^H USD5? are out of place here ; their proper place is after DV hs2 in the preceding line. 9 npa ny, op. 10 l. 11 bJ? nyi?, o. 12 Added in m.; 0. has besides mtDBB&gt; TTO. 13 ^2?, m. 14 nibna ni^ay, p. is d^d p.?The right reading is perhaps d^dx</page><page sequence="18">64 IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. epm ppi Dim nip Dn&amp;*&gt; ? maipn ymab nwn npbnnn *Dmbi tyavb ? D^omn nation ewn nvm * na&amp;yn ?vn on ynrn ??? ?! ; (i"i 'n 'am) Bwn nvnn naipnn rw nbnni ? npn ^i bnm: D^aia^i nnvnn -vspn ?dm nbai ? nvpnnb nWn ibmi ? 2tapanb D^n ibm m * Dmb nnisa syiDi avn nm^ m * mmDn nmpai vmn nvnii * D^nbi anp naipnn ??? Dwn ibm nnbnnoi *D^nbi d^Dn naipnn nxr ?dm 'pan ban nb^bm d^di ? jiavb nmsa *)ioi naipnn *;idi ? pa* naab nDia ^wn ?! ? ^n^b mjpnnb anyn ibm w ?pa* naaD mnv &amp;wm *nnnxn naipnn bnn w?&amp;n nvnn *d^im dw p?n ??? ans? own nb*o *pKnb mb^bm D^n mpmc? ibmi ? nb^bn Dy Dvn ninB&gt;* m ? mwn rranon nmpan f ?pn maipn nv&gt;n niiyn * d^im anp naipnn n?r ?dm * mb^bn nn&amp;n D^Dtn nb&amp;u ?! tpnai fpi ('n mmr) iinm raa *pnm naai naibn nn nwyDD kvv Kin ?! 4 anvo iwd fin ? nnnan nom nD^n mm : Di^n naipn nn Da ? ^d^i nmbn m^n maipn mm : Dm ?mpi ix Dim ynab ik *pomb dx ?! ?n^yD nwb Dmn^Di ma p? ?! mayi Da ?nbinan nanin nnvn nnw *bi 4ns?yDi Bwn nTO ?! mm m^n ro*n nnyn :dvi n^iD wn Da #psn ^ nmp nnvn nnaan n?t ?npbn p by * 5jDpn iikdh naiba ^ibn ennro' ? awno ? nmnn tsnn n wd wn ? nnmn n^xn ji^xin ? anya? n^b i.nmnn Di*? nwnn ^b^n 11^-in -ivt^n Di^n mynn by i'7pD pbn naomn nonn na^ ^ Dnp ?Din iidk ? Dvn ir/DpD pbn naoinn ?i inDX ona ?Dim 4 D^b^n D^D^n by naoian jinonn ?! mDX |r ?Dim ? dvi y"p? pbn naoinn ?! nDK dh^i ?Dim 1 See Ibn Ezra, Comm. on Gen. viii. 22. 2 That is, the days begin to increase. 3 That is, the days begin to be longer than the nights. 4 Whatever may be the effect of the moon or of any of the planets (D*mf#D), it is due to the influence of the sun.?ilPJJDD P. 5 There does not seem to be any logical connection between this sentence and the next which is introduced by " therefore." I suspect that the original words were 0*0*2 Pinrn. Comp. Talm. Bab., RosJi Haslishanali, 5a.</page><page sequence="19">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 65 pionn *3 * D*ai Dm ? nox o*aiinxm ? Di*a mxo p*?po p?n Dim n*y*aio o*yman Da o*a*oion n^&gt;xi ? ova *"po p^n onoix p*i ? oi*a fpo p*?n pyiD? anp ipviop !?a^&gt;an nupao x*n o*a*oion nap *a ? noxn o*anp j12a.11 ? map Dys miano ^x jiMn naia manoo nanp napn nxn ? pxn Dalian napi 4nMon *obpo nap x*n nxn 4fpo P^n nsDinn nvtb iaiov*p km nxn 4pop.i pnio *aa ix 4nMian m^iayn mano nmpao nyian maya npMon nxai ? oi*a *?"p p^no anp pionm 4 Dixn b n*!?x ?nap nxoa nnx n^yo nymn *2 nox o*aioipn *a ? nitron uaia ji*oan Mi ; nap D*yapa d*ioix pi ? D*ap ppi D*ppa nox D*aiinxm ; oix *i* npyoa ^-D^ap *?y nMon p5?^ Mr x^&gt; *a ? nanp ina o*ipy naionn p b 4 maop ni^iay mp nianon nmpa mpa *a onoix p*i pan1? aipx nnyi : nonn nap noxa yn* nani ? mm* oya n^iy oya maya 4 nonn map i*n *?xip* map *2 *oian mm* ion 4nmnnnap^y ?mvpn niyiapi 4D*iyp a*axa noan *2 4D*yn* D*o*a onyion xyop npy* noi ? napn x*n nos pi*a x1? npo *a 4 npy* no nani ;*}*oxa niaoi map Dmap m*n maya d*oym ? popa Pinn* no *2 ? Pin n*?oa a/;* by napn mo* ip!?n ? naa^n *Pin a''* no*on napa ixvoi ? popn mx Pim ?d*pi?p mx pin n^yi *naa^n Pino anp iaoon nt nvrh napa x*op maya 4 nonn map i*n na map *d *oian min* iox Da ? x',{? nnxa ioix *p inxi 4^iaon xa (x"* 'r 'xia) na **n*? nap mxo pp n? *2 d*o* mpy naom Pinn iaooa p ^y ? (a"* 'n dp) nap mxo ppi 4 i*iai iniD laoon nn 4 naa^n nap by nonn nap naDirt&gt; anp iaoon nann niao 'xvo *2 ion nyi ,naa^ xm Pinn *2 niio xm nan *a livmi *(i"2 't dp) d1* nxoi D*pon i*np aimi 4d*pin npon inx n*n* nonn nap *pina Da *2 4 )*xi 4 *ipno na *ap nVnn dip1? p*un a*o** xh nonn nap apno na n*n Mi ,d*o* *apa aimno ai iaoon nani 4D*p*nyon o*pnpn *ao ik .ipoo nonn nap pana p hy 4ym pion ix naom M ^xiop naipn (i'a'pany) laxvo nan 4 ono bna 1 I.e., it is impossible to determine by mathematical or astronomical instru? ments the exact part of a degree the equinoctial points pass in one year; or read D*16? by, " to divide a degree into exactly equal parts," instead of DT hv. VOL. II. F</page><page sequence="20">66 IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. ? a^mnbnb nbiy pa^n new ? lnmn b? nanp wa nmm ? av my*an nvB^p &gt;nw by a^aou onp a*pbn yy a?&gt;n ab&amp;y ? 2*wnaa nwy n^aa naipm ? wasa ans an naipn * |n naipn wb&gt; ama Da * mabn tsnna ny&amp;? iym dk ? mb??an *ds^d niaya ? niy*m nn\ms&gt; aym j ^onnaa baiw av baa b*m ? miaa baw naipn pa ai*n mm : noan naipn amoan naipn ?auw nnn *a (?ffa n"n) ama myi ? b^ob jdm nyb aipD baa m^a mm ? nb tnmn abi Kny&amp;? r^nnb nnay ? |wa name* ny nao nat by unay mm ? jd^d 4n"aa baise* pa^na jdo naipn nmn mays? mp* ana an naipn p by : nyioa ann pn ? nb^bn nb*bn ? woan jiawb aim 71* pao ? natan naaon ja^ naipn mayn ?b ?a ? ia?d tnapn*a^ &gt;a mayn twiao uia^n ?a myi ? naipnn nynb anyion mm ab ?a ? nnx pbn *i*n pai ? a^pbn n"an aa nw mmo baa n;,bn naaaa an nonn nia^ tf* ?a aniD jvwn *?an ba aa ? abe* nirma enno ainp pnnm p aim nannn mm ? amay njntsm a/;y ? mabn nn pbn ?a myi ? ama n^y: ma baira^ naipn *aniK iaiy*m* ?biK ? 5^m baba naaa p naa^i ? awn babaa an naai ? d*ib&gt; a^pbna maipn yanxn DipDD npim iK nanp nmm &gt;aa nan^d wmn *\hr\m maya 4 nibtran ? naipnn nbnn ?m^ *nW?n ay aim niin^n yanD nabin mm *ninaan [1 naipnn] tpo mm ik [1] ^annnn b?Dn mi x)m * pav fjiaa nnvn ny ? n^n naipnn nao^n nto anpi * man nip ar n;/^d nnv * inKn avn mm ; nniDJ nvwia Jidk nti ? a^d1? t^yp ioa an an^an a&gt;n^n mm b^yin hd miaa mpbnD nn^n ibai ? bxiD^* naipn anaiab w nbym no 1 The difference between the Tekufa of Samuel and that of R. Ada was in the time of Samuel only about three days less than in the days of I. E., but he says that the Tekufah of Samuel was then almost accurate, probably out of regard for the authority of Samuel. 2 See Boraitha of Samuel, ch. v. 3 See Sefer ha-Ibbur of R. Abraham b. Hiyya, III. 5. 4 A similar statement with regard to the year 4899, but less accurate, is contained in the reply of Ibn Ezra to a question of R. David Karbon i. See Shene Ila-meoroth, by M. Steinschneider. 5 Should probably be ?Hn *VnD In a cycle of nineteen years there is a difference of lT%8-^h. between our calendar and the solar year (of 365|d.). In, 4902 A.M, the difference amounted to 15d. 13T9Q3^h,</page><page sequence="21">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 67 nmi? mm *a ?a*b&amp;$m* by Km *a ? naipnn ny&amp; nyib *m n? nsoab ma dhio wai?ipi * nw y3iK3 *ki nt by nitn^ *?3ab Dmby ?3 3ie*m nyi ? inmbi pnbi * Kpmyni Kmnn ('3 db&gt;) iidk^4 * nt naipn mm 4nb*bn nbmna p&gt;:3 naipn nnm mm 4nm wn by naipnn * niye4 yae4 pi nrn *K3 nb*bn fKi 4 mmtai niye4 y3?&gt; hk nmn ntan nw by naipnn idiki bai 4 r^d^n nut mK nmn naipnn mm nimb pm tk *a * 13dd b^oab mpn 4 nb^ba Da ova 3^ Dne4 nmiiynn p by * nibyo n"r) nniD nsppa 4 nibys nffp ii^on babaa nniD mp b?d,i *a 4 di* bi3 nib?D rr^ DipD b33 ibjw iny3 ? Daemon d^^in bi3 nib?D?i }d b?D nby* Kb dbiyb *3 4 mm 3?3 nn 4 Dmea nbiy ?|Ki ? dbiyb d*ib&gt; nb*bm Dime* mem ipn Dipna ib^aK 4 nw mea pan mnaa nbiy nrn wa nba b?n mm 4 ipnza 31 pnin ib DipD baa *a mi* T3di 4 rayoa nina niye4 vh&amp;2 nbiy miK birai 4 nie? nyw me?E&gt;n b3 Da 4 d^ikd brtaa ennn e&gt;Ki3 nnima maba Da 4la^ya nr n?i* baban byi 41113 133^ ie*K3i 1113 Kine&gt;3 neman biay3 jvom maib bar dik nb3 3emD 4 D'^e4 ba/;3ni nibnan nioei bfcoias? naipn yme&gt; ma ba p nn* n sjx 4 noann nyioe4 yoe&gt; Kb Kim 4 nibtoi niaipna aemo Kine&gt; naipnn ?m mo nyib unansn Kb niinn mm 4 mays Dyta* ik nnn amn bKie? 13m nob 2wn am *aab nnm nbKei ? nnye&gt; ?a ?|K idii ?Kin Kobya eim *a 3"&gt;emi 4naipnn nyea d^d ine? Kbe4 iDemb aiyoa iK^e4 d^d nine&gt;b i*t Kb 4 nmy&gt;3i nbmn ik mem nbnn Kme* naya me4 npmo idik *3Ki 4 npinD Dme4 mmb pino ba na ibaK* p by 4 D3n pin n 11DK Kb nmn naipn n^yum mm 4 nab ia nDian M i3iyn : ni3pm nin^ on 3ma^n iam 4 nm^bi baiKb 1 See supra p. 49, note 2. According to Ibn Ezra's Comm. on Gen. xxxii. 32, the sun rises in Lucca in Italy three hours later than in Jerusalem. The mistake perhaps arose from the fact that Ibn Ezra assumed Jerusalem to be the middle of the Continent, and therefore six hours distant from the extreme west of Spain; he reckons Italy to be midway, three hours distant from Jerusalem, and London, which is more western, is said to be four hours distant. Comp. Yesod Mora, ch. i. 2 D*01*On 'H of R. Jacob Musafiah, No. 14. 3 Compare Abudraham, p. 123. F 2</page><page sequence="22">68 IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. ? mpxn )h px *?iay *?a &gt;a n*?nna noixi ? napn rhnn hy nnyi popn aipai ? Mm yano din b nap mpxn px 4 p^xi p^x p^ro pn ppn mpxm 4 no*on nap )h n*?yn nbna dp nmnp naipxnn nmpan ^x Dy mnnno yano (d*)nnpon ppn mpxm 4nmaan Dipoo popn ^no mnaaa nmn nn^n Da 4 ppn Mb mnaaa nnpon mm tx *a *POPn &gt;o:an inox p b *Dnx W? mans p*r* m*pxnn n^xi 4psion W?a bn dpo npx nnanon nmpao napn mpxn mm*? noxn *a nMmn b xm pn 4 xnx an naipn xm m * napian pxn !?&amp;* nanp mm5? popn nyn^&gt; Dmy1? n:*a *jw nap mpxn xm nxn * amp naipm ? ??ysoxn ^non ? jD&gt;a naipn xm (xm) nxn * d*aipxnn own nap n*?nn nxt Da 4 d*pyon naipno Dnsam 4 npn naipno Dnpsni ? non naipno onap M* dkonam ; prsa iaa*x Daiapna nonn nap naoo *a niaya Dn1? xa Piapn pn 4 nao dd1? ntn pnnn ('a a"* mop) ains iax*o ? nnmn nap nyn1? pana npxm d*kvi* Dnx Dim ('n a'"* dp) ainm 4 napn nmn1? ppxn xmi 4 d*pnn pxn papn *a Dyom 4 a'axn pnn nx nop ('x t"o Dnan) pi 4 a^axn pnna ppxn xin *?xnp* pxa a'ax xso^p pnnn nani 4 naa^n *pnna ^xnp* pn ? nnay x1? ix naipnn nnay * napn mpxn Pinn pxm ? napn *pnrf? anai noy.n naian niaya *x?oa a^axni noan npyp nop1? pn nM p*p ? d^opan an niaya oyo pnnn? d*oya pn 4 naipna auxn pan d'opn xin npxD 4 pn n*a ^a hy bxrw nap n*?nn nam 4 nnva nap nmnp ix 4 pn n*a rwyh napn nay nani ? wpm ^on pym (;a 'h 'a *"nn) ama pn 4 nimna nrxna ibp nanan DPm 4 ppxnn pnna n*n npyp noam *6) p*aa jD^a nay inn * pnnn '?aab nayp Di*a nay x*?p * naop naap aap a-axn *o*a nnnx Dya naa1? pnn xa* npxm ('o 'n d^noa napo) )h mm p *?y ? a"* ix pnn a"* napn mnnp pa 4 nnx nap nhyn tx ? ^xnp* pixa ja hy * D*pnnn !?a nnai *ppxn pn 4fcd&gt;a a*axn pnn mpn ppb ixnp x^ naoa pn 4 p*a Dn^nnp * Di*n Dayman d*pnnn mop DnaD n'aa xvon x1? pnn pxn dvd pn 4 naipnn di*o naa^x ^xnp* nap n*pxn nani * n^?ian *aa ??a ? laoo *y*apn pnna Dnyion npya * ppxn n? *a layn^p nnxi ? naab ? ^oxa nnDi t?pa myiap an xa* ? Dniyp aux *D*a noan n*n dx 1 L.</page><page sequence="23">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 69 (r"o a"i moe4) nmi ? (i"i a"b De&gt;) me&gt;n nmpn mioi mm 13K?d my* ami 13ksdi 4 nKin mem Dam nmye4 mem nas di* mm 4 mem hksi me4! mion am nnmn bi Knpb bnpn mvD 'n ms *i ('* K"b 'nin) ? mem **n nnK nr mmb pia iaa*Ki ? nab* jyob (Y* De&gt;) iimi 4nD*nem (Y* Yb 'di*) moi nan *i 4 (D2&gt;) yie4 fpo ribs ^a^yn ne&gt;p* bKi mm 4 in bib e4* mivp D*ae&gt; *i * ximK rix e&gt;*K inbem D*ae&gt; yie&gt; po ? *y*iem BHnn Kine&gt; nemi nta*Dem me4 nbnn nn*m * *]1D1 ib e4* na*Dem mea urn nm 413 n*nn nynme4 mem **n bn* rK *i nuya enaKi 4 n*a*Dem mem hk Dnynn (n"i De&gt;) myi 4 ('n n"i 'p*i) iynrn Kb nnmn Dm nKe*a yan *i yn 4 (k,;i De4) D*aem vhvh naoann nK ib Dm nbian mm ('a 1"* De4) inbny nea bio* *a*Dem Dmi 4 di* idi nwn iby Kb nani 4 wn di* npa bioa Kin 4 nye4 **n mem w Kin *aab w *d e4* nani 4 me4 nem me&gt;a di* mm 4 D^be4 D*ra* nyae4 nyb nyD ib nK iKem (Yb Y* nm) aim nam 4 nn*bem by nmara e&gt;*i 4 nniK ms^e4 *aib e&gt;*ay* Kb'm 4n*aem mea nm newan nn 4 me4 D*yanK Dimiaiy ennb me&gt;yn ny pnm m my Kbe&gt; Kin D*yanKn isdd p by * jiyn nine4) me&gt; D*yanK pn riK ibiK nr ism 4 k"d nae&gt;i (0"* 'n 'in*) jie&gt;Knn 4(Yi f? ;'k i;/d ;Kffn Y* k;/d)d/;* Da n;/* nae4 K*n f*n Kipoai (,;nb rffo BBBwb r"* rus^n ibo innnKi (d;/n'd ;n"n xn i/7d) i,y* na^m k"* nas^m DDS^in*b n"* na^n vnK Dim* mnK nboi (Y'a Kffi*) D*na^ i?D Kim mrn Dy pin (d^4) nxnnn nK ne*yi mm 4 D*nn mm ('k'a Y'd) nKinnn p dji^dki nwn n^n riK Dnynn 11m Kin ibKD 4n*awn di*d mmi 4n*y*e4nn nas^n ku ny Dnb p*DDm 4nriKnn Km ny je4* bn Dy pn 4 i*bK nnpn oy pin iaa*K (i/;d i/;* niDe4) *y*ie4n di* ny p^Kin o*n nm by no d*ivd dk bKne4* ki*i mil 4 pmnn 'iai wn buK 1d1 mbi^Di nn* *i 4 no D*n^D hk D*n nm by bKne4* Kn*i (n"* 'b db&gt;) niTOi ^*alDD Kib nin 4 (1"* d^4) pK loyban iimi 4 ('n i'n De4) jik nime4 yie4 Kin bn*m ? nn D*im 4 nmn Kb iniKi Dy pin (d"* 'i 'nin) Dmsin Dm ('d Yi 'p*i) 11m pi 4 DniDin di*d bn*n nbnm 4 d*ae* nbnn mm 4 nae&gt; owonn nae4 m nnmp) 4 di^ik bn naie4 n*iyn 1 my, l.</page><page sequence="24">70 I BN EZRA IN ENGLAND. di*d napn rpnn n^&gt;p nuyn DDinpn hm 4 ^nvn nap rhnni ntsDPn nap nans noNn nmpn Dm p^a pin pni n\np mianpn dn n 4 pnntn nap ^hd naom iinyi ? d*d* ^pyn ^dM nDNn mp^pn naipnn nn*n p ^y 4 nononD nnnn ^hd ni*n nnyn Da 4 nan'pn nap *?y nonn sppn nm *o 4 nap nan^ pN ^ jni * niroon in Dmaran Dm napn n*PNn napo d*nnp nnhn *pnn a"* o nnyn 4 di* mp^Pi d*d* fan nitron hi Dys Dnnyio iNa* p ^&gt;y 4 d^xyopm iapn* nai ? ma*? nap nxipa 4 nonon nonn niap^ nap d"* ^na niip ro^nn ^nip* nupi 4 *pna Dya rpi Dmpan papna p? *a ym 4nDNn Nin m1? bxnp* papn Nim *nDNa amm 4 nnnn napn a"* D^n pn 4 naai?n *pnn Da*n Dmpnn *a ?op tin ?N*nn napa mn p 4naa iPima ?('? 'a Yidn) p*a pnn Kin pPNin pnna Dam1? pna pN p ^&gt;y 42t*Na prawn pnnn papn mm mayn napa *a : mnn ?'PaN ia*a*p maya pn 4 p'oa 4 pPNnn pnnn n^KU 4 iDvyn yna* n^i *?ov xh 4 ny5? (D*)nDiy d*aaan bi PDPn mN uksd maya Da 4anp in pirn Dipraa nNmn nvn maya 4pyn .into naan pi naa^? dn *a pnnno m? pni 4 vmi in ovn nwn miNn nianpn 4 imPNn mo ppaa nam ;n^n pnn dn *a noNa pnn pN p ^y 4nnn{? nonn Dy nan^n nnannn yaio pnnn n^nnp nitron *Dnn hi nor* nani ? *y^DNn ^noa iniapn woani Mion ia*aionp iniNipp inn ?nnNp^na Nap Dwa y;t won nnm imapn n/;nNi 4nMDn *onn ipy nsm ? D*np nnnnnon o nnym 4 ('n n"n n#/n) mvpn ^ip D*Dyai nnnNi D-Dys p* *d 4 nispi in nnnNi nnN hi N*n *nD nyn^ p'^^4 nwn* 4 nnspn nan^ni nmiNi nonn in 4 nispi jn&gt;np in nnriNi pmp na*nnp nnnn nnmn yanp ny 4 nmn Da 4 w? nispi nnnN p* Da ; mm ^an1 n^iD pm d^nya laainpn n^io pn n*n* nani ? myp a"* nnnn mvpn Da yan nNi ^ idnp 3pNan nyo p ^y 4 unN^ in d^ mypn n^N nroNn 1 According to I. E. spring and summer are together about 189 days. 2 The MSS. have UK which is probably a corruption of 1"K. The second Adar in a leap year would be Nisan, and Iyar would be " the first month." 3 See BiMure lia- ittim, 5589, p. 29, note 23.</page><page sequence="25">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 71 D^ionpn paem *a noK p by ? nbion nya nm Kb nKmaa ewn nmp nnKn ? ni*yo yanK nyo Kim ? pam Kin amem pn ? na* pnpnn nm Kb pK &gt;a * mbton *oan w ne*Ka ? nnvprn nanan pn yme&gt; MKn nm *a mo yme* ny * *yvoKn ibnoa a*un paem nbiob bK'ne? nbio pa npibno pai m*ai *a*benT by nbion paem *a hth mynm ;moKn nbion Kin Kin to* *a me?bem myom ;?nye&gt; nw*be&gt; me* piKn pnnoa nKma niyom ;pyn nKiob nmpn *a maya *T^a nKnon nimem nynb lyme* maya ? inna anayo m : annon *aa nKnon nunem myann pnnon ibanaM ? mayn mo by noy *a a*ae*m jw"r#n 3"*k paem ikt ne*Kai * mabn nKnn mo an^ub noK*i nb*bn nbnn pi nbion pa by *ie&gt;y nbion *a laem* ? aoipoa nw two nina anwn a*oya e? *a mm a*oyai ? nb*bn nbnna jvku mabne&gt; a*oya w mm ; aemo ba oipo p^em *a a*ae*in am *mabn iki* Kbi 'ni 'r anyn pai nbion pa PK *a ?anwjn a*oan ane* ?awon an pn *nb*bn nb*bn #niyo mayn yn mo yme&gt; :enaK ne*Ka wie*y ny mabn nKnn mo nynb b*ae*03 na yn ny nb*bn nbnno maab bm pn *niye* a/;* nb*bb yhw Kbi nbion ibno aK nKTi bron nbyo pbna nmanon aipo ymi * niye* pi p nbion yn jrw ny ym* ik tpon ? mabn *|bno noai * nnvpa ik nama vmn niye* nb*bn nbnno nbion m pnno noa nKmi abenn* by noKn nbio * abenn*b *anyo Kin dk ioipo piK pnno niye* amby *pai*i ? nye* *pbm ? 101* ibnoa pnnon niyea ewn -jbno noa ymi ? mnro Kin aK nan* ik mabn nbio aipoa nw naai ? noKn nbio yna ewn aipo by mawi Kwe* nibyon np*i i^nKa nib?on mbyo mba aaa* a'nKi ;nabno *aa 4 anno oyon man*i naabn naa mbyoa naa aa ,^oe*n aipo na:b |pnb * naabn anno nynb * nan *bnn e*Kn aipo yn*i pnn*n mp kvo* tk # anna aa iniKa nKnon nimem ppn *aa nniK jpn* a"nKi : n^pn nKt nr*k aipo baa naabn nKnn *no yn* tk ? noKa nKnon ne&gt;p ib n*nn tk ?('a 'a n/;n) nivn anp nbu ma panb bai* anann nbK ymmi ; nvn*e* e*nn ib enaKe* nnn *b*ae*oo nnK *aoo e&gt;pae* maya nr ba n*arnb manKm ib mm *jki nb nnn mennne* mayai 4 nnK bn by nisn anp nbia ma nnbi mno ab ib Knab *bai* ba ne&gt;K naaan ae*?n *aab myn*e? *noK my *bao iabo nioann ba pa*e* ny t noan nn i*by iae*b nenn mn lanpa</page><page sequence="26">72 I BN EZRA IN ENGLAND. ^1N 4 piNH *&gt;JJ DIN N11P DVD Pfcn b1? p HPy N*? 1PN 4 DWl D^D* 11D1? pnN^ *ap imm*? ? naiDim niNm t6?n m )h Pimi 4 irftan 'n yop* in *ysDNi ^hd3 i^idid Pinn mPNi mm*? paa iaa*N nam 4Dyb mN Pinnnn Nin Pinn mPNi p1? ; din hi n? ym n1? *a * nDNn i*?idd ppNin Pinn Nin ipnd mm 4 napDi nma naai 4 pyn ?inid^ nan^n inid*? Pinn pni hdd Dnwn mN NSDnn boi ^dpd hi *aM yim : din hi d 1 * n n^na nyurh p* mi 4 napi maipn ct nwn rtyian^ p* ipns n^iy PDPnp Dinn naipna * rM Dn Dim *sn iy ipmD mm 4 nmitDn naipn naaa 4 mm* imxn *smai ; d*dp.i **n^&gt; n!?iy nny moi 4 pas riNa^ paam 4iipnnaipm&gt; nwm 4*]inn naipna rh'hn *sn iy myDi -ppn mm 4 mmpa yniNn h^nd inN dini b rMra Nmp Dim rMn mm!? dVp di* mn * nw i"a in? Dim iy Dim *snD Mn nMon *Dan 4 mibn *Dan pi Dia^n* n1? 4 ami *ap mn 4 Dais1? jidn Nim 4 Dainpmi n*?p d*Dya pi 4 oyD pi imtaa pan ? ivp di* b *snn *a iinym mm rM* pn npnan Ma Da 4 Mi Da 4 nr mM din.i py bi)n Nmp nnaon n*?an *a mo*6 ia*aiDip isism p ^y 4 Dim *sn yai nyi^&gt; hv 4 nyD is^&gt; nnoa pdpip pyn nNin tn *a 4 nyp *vn ihn ? d*imn hi si 4 nWn *sn *a tqr* 4 hdnh jo npmi Dim mPNi dn? mm^ *ini p ppn1? ppni pr* Pin *a mNSDi mpan nyi 4 m nyi^ hiv xh din id-dp5? napn n*PNi pi 4d*isdd lamiiN ins* 11 *&gt;! mnyn 4D*iyiD.i 4( n M Nity) NanD1? inpi ioa dhpd ppb iPimap 4npnD hdni d*aiDipn hi mNSD nyi 4npm nmp ppnn naipn^ ,idii myn nam *a ('t 'i Dmn?) ia*Dan mNSD iiyi 4 nh^hn nhnrvi i^id.i D*npnD $h 4 ipm Dim n'mn nnm i^ni 4 ihn nW&gt;i d*d* wh DMxa d*d^p?i nipD *a mNSDi iiy mpam 4 *ap inN pi whwn Dim mm^ pm i.iNDDi (;i iF,i 'p*i) nman idn M ndd* ipn hii yaan in 4di* in nh^h iid'-p ^ni nm ipmD Dim n^nn nm i^n *a 4 Dim *pD nihp 4 myn iy 1 KDtD*, L.</page><page sequence="27">I BN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 73 pe^na eniao mK*o myi * npa niaab Kine4 * Dim epoa nb*b nnpo anya ennb w ne&gt;y ?nyanKa * naem *aab bKne?b 'n lame4 Dnyion anyno f ra di* mm * (ro"? De&gt;) d*d* nyae4 ama a'tiKi * (nff* a"* moe4) 4('n t"o 'nan) npab pe&gt;Knn ova anya natn ne&gt;k amai ? ji^&amp;nn di* Kine* Di*a (t"ra 'n 'noa) ama mm * mmaa nao nnm nb*bn **na *a yimi ma ny warn Kin nmea Dik ntn Dim ('d 't a"o) Knpoai 4 maa ba mian mnem any ny anyo Dmaan Diha (a"b a"a yphi) mK*o myi 4npan iK naKbo ia ne&gt;iyn by nna (6 ta"a nw) nrn Dim Dvya amai 4 Danae4 4anyno Dim D*y nbnn ka 4Diha ik nbkba nt nimb enan pKi 4baiKn ?naemi Dnyion ba Dn naai * anyno Dim nwi ka DfcaoKa Dny mm nnw 4 'nb nae&gt; nKnpa nnab naem pn 4 enp fcKnpo 'n myio on Dba 'a Dmem ka ?ewa Dmbn Dim Da mem mm mayai ;n^Kna ne^yoa m ama p by 4 nae&gt;b noin nwn mem nnm ja by 4 irb it mom myun naipn koka nofcoem me&gt; nbnn Km ne&gt;K3i 4 ('a n"a De4) mb nae4 na 4anyn nnbnne4 4?pnb noinn Dim naipna naem di&gt; me&gt;Kn naa ?spnn 4 (y'a t"ta moe4) nno 'nb ^np nae4 jinae4 amae4 maya Doinem bKi Kb 'n fca yn 4 jyiran ninnb nenan ib enaK nnyi ; anyno nr nkatn Kbi 4 noyo di* ny 4 naKbo ba ne&gt;yn Kb pn nm Kbe&gt; naie?Knn nae&gt;a nir* npa ny iaoo nnik bK nisi 4(foDe4) nbabab noy ne&gt;o mse4 maya ka akem Kim 4(awa De4) ne&gt;ob imam noyn k3e&gt; wn Dika irapb mm 4(ta,/k De4) Kim 4 jon nnn kaab nt 'n kb nan naa Dyom 4 (a/;a De4) 'n nan ne&gt;K Kin nae4 pnae4 ka 4 me^o Dyta nob Dnb noKi 4 fn De4) "ui wn Dika mm mse4 spun w no Kbi 4niD.n nt Dnb nba Kbi tnno map* me4 e&gt;np Kb Derne4 4 (n"a De4) 'nb Dim nae4 *a Dnb noK nae4 di* npai ; imn^^e* naaa imnatn e^in^an nti 4opbb iK^n bK *iniKVon Kb Dvn 4jon mm* noKn e^in^ai 4 any ny anyo naeme4 lamiaK nana D*ahoKo nvm d^^on *a 4nb*bn nt Kbi [nno] aman Tatm 4naem mm nnoa *a 4ipmyne4 no e^np nae4 '*a mm ; naKbo ban dw Dva *a 4 ama mnn by aman nan (a"a tff0 ?n*on*ai ; ('b De4) ^a^n ova Dyn inae4^ 4 ie&gt;y naai 4 inae4^ 4 Dim Kine4 nno n*a?m ; naKbo na nie&gt;y mbab naem di* nK e^npb ama 4 (y'a Y'p 6nn) any ny mnaybi ibyab DnK kv* 10a 4 mnn by nan *a 1 prop mp, l.</page><page sequence="28">74 ibn ezra in england. ? mil ppD? pin nm &gt;i ? (6 i"i mot?) teran n*&gt; nsno niPi ipi ion ? (a"!? n"i mop) mon in hp (in) nop bm * a/?i ^i) nb^b nipo nm ioini ^&gt;y mpn^ !?n?i * mPNii npyoi panN nnyi ? n!?Ni mini D-om iy ipio pmao mnin ion n^ no1? * p mn M ? dvh mN ^in nWn *i mm ?ny wi ysoNi D*ain noh ?ipi iy und in *mN dv ipi ov Nin ipi iy nyo *i ipi *mi my *mi ('n 'n 'nii) nnin yopo m n*nn ipni 4(dp) dv iin^j dMn Nipn naiPNii imp no *pn mnN mm Mi dMn nii mPNii *i D*in npnp miyi ? mm nisi Piaon nmnp 4 inn inn nmn pNn pNn nNi D*opn hn dMn nii mPNii iaa*n pimsn mi ? iaa*n Dyom 4 uni nyn npnni 4 naaw Dyom ? nnya loi inn vn dn pma n^?p ?d^opi mirM )h im no *i *bbi jna pfm nNt ioi pNi vffm naoin^ Dyon no pp*?n -pio myi ?pNn i?yi 4 ('i i"i dp) va*y nN dihn np*i &gt;p^pn bvi ioi dMim D^Dian Daip^&gt; mimop ? ^Nyop* ppb nai n?i di *i * (n"i'd mop) vny nN mm vm nm Piman ^ *i nyi ? epia i"i pN mopii 4Pipn pp1?! ?ms Nin *o Dmap by ('n n"op) nMn iddi imn 4D*Niia D*om noNni 4 ipn nuii hn isv ('? n"o 'yp'?) nni pi * Niia ^nn Da ? iNiiai ipn ioi dp d*op?ii 4inN im bin *i pNni D^opn mim nnin *i pi 4 is !?io d*oi nmn piNn mm 4 ysoNi psion ioi piNm ? inon n^Ni 4 d*on mo mim 4 piN.i niDi^&gt; pup* *?i ('o i;/p Mn) nni ; PNn naai d*opi *i 4 D*om mini piNm D*opn Dnp dhdio nyiiN.i msp1? Nin *i ? nioi pn d*oi 4 !?pPo mi^ mpyS (nvi n"i ivn) nin d*o Mpi no *o (i/,fc'd 'yp*) nin ; nNi* D*opn bi nnn o^i* piNn nin ; 'n mi nN pn *o pNn lay p^pi bi) pn nin d^opi ('n 'n n!?np) nin ; d*op nnN np^pni ? imi dw nby *o ('i 6 *^po) bi * mm i^in mid mid 4 moy th)yb piNni ? d^op.i laai popn mn ? piNn Ninp psiom ? own Ninp ipnp inNi ? dm ^n d^m DMan n^p Mnn inn nmn Pimn *Dnioi Niia Diim ipn bi mn ?Dwia inn mm pini nN kn*Ni (a/;i 'i) n*oi* pi*d ipni ? nonn din ni n*n uni ()"b h ,w) -pi * nonn din pn mm wan i"m Dyon pi^si 4 inn mi mnN piid nMN ipn (i/;&gt; 'a mop) 101 ? D&gt;nyiP pii^q * d^om nyip (i"* 'n ;nii "?pi p*y) imtoi ia*aioipi (Vi h 'yp* by 'a) d^nyip hd* ^npmD</page><page sequence="29">IBN EZRA IN ENGLAND. 75 worn nan mm ! paob ibm nbo ma^ mai * nniKDn ibm noa?? *oab mn pmn mm 4pK at44 pate? mai inn n anniKn nan pss?ro? 4ar n&amp;npj arm mam i^nn pi nbbia nbimn nyunm ?uro naai 4niKn amba* anpn Tatnb anpns? maya njyo pao fnw n"a 4abe&gt; aih kw fD bmm anan w Tap n?&gt;Ka pr^bn nar^a p n 4 nb*bn ^ab ai* niKb jnao wy nao apy* nK pn^b jnati ("i ^ 'bw) wa *t^nKn b&amp;nD amp ppn niKDn marm 4 nb*b ib *)K ai? lb (t"b n"y 'bnn) naai (a"*'d 'ye?) jiman nDKGS4 pyrab pa* dj urara naaa aonc? bimn *oab nb^ba l^nnfc4 *a"yK 4 -jenn p pnm ib *ab itanpn *a 4 i^n aniai nix nsi&gt; nK nap noe4 pi 4 im hxy?m prw ('ra n"a 'ana) itaa 4 mKn k:iab mn Tame4 maya mm 4 nmK nap Kim 4 (Wfh b"d at?) )nm nnt44 nKi annaK t^iTa a 4 nninn aih naDn tk niDKb ainan pvin ? ar niKb amba* Knpfci bbia npai any ant? ni win. w nbK n nraK p by 4 ahann ?ot? by ar mtnaa a^ao manyno nmsnt44 pin my f?iTa a 4 nninn av aniK nibnaa mmvne4 pi npai ; afcm lanymi (n"b i"p 'bnn) iroa 4 pyn nanob - '?m) inny nyin nnpaa 4|nan npa* Kb (fb y"? 'pki) iraa 4ninpiafii nnaai nbbia nnK nyunt44 4 d*jD?n awn ibat nbbia av nbo mm (a'/fc Y'b ainai 4 anK d?b&gt; nK Knpfci aKna napai nar ('a 'n 'ana) inraai 4 amats4 ntwa aa n^ann mm 4 a^abn my niaro m^?bi anxb e*y*i (K"a 'a ae4) npai any (rr7* n"3 ynn) nmr^Dn nDK naai 4 any ny anyn aim *a n^Kna ahm an^ne4 a*yan nr^br^n marm 4anyi annvi npa nDK ?bi 4annvi mmnb aipK nb*b nisn inn *aw ana *ja yann *a 4 ana bbannb ?im 4 npa any ny *bK noK-i (n//(&gt; 'n) aina b^^nai 4 (a"d o"*p nu&gt;) ^b npam anyn nanoi nym 4 nbiar noy nn* (?"* 'a 'pan) ioa 4 V'n nan *D*a nnsa bKne4* ime4 ai* a^abK -ayom 4abr^ w nt mm (i"a 'nb^rr) nDKa n^K npam anyn nmoi ^bon im p by ;ioipoa vnr^n^a n^Ka 4p,? : i? nD*o nr^Ka a^be4 a^D* an p *a r^nab ins pa ir^imai 4 Kin nDK mom mm ^nnKann ib n^Kb namn 4nmKn nKT prana nnb^j ae4 by [1] nmiaie*n ba nmiK Kme4 4 nar^n nmK mnKnpe4 nKtn nmKa n^Kn aa 4 vim nwi aa 4 avn m^Kn mra 4 wbna WKne4 nm*Kn anp* Kin 4 mnnK *ba pnnsi 4 n^Kn *ba p^Kn Kine4 naam a^m 5 n^n ! JDK 4 nvaitnp awai abiy wa laa^nb 4 a*D*n nnnK yp</page></plain_text>

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