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Hebrew Loyalty Under the First Four Georges

Dr. I. Abrahams

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Hebrew Loyalty under the First Four Georges. By Dr. I. Abrahams. introductory. In the title of this paper, Hebrew is used where possibly Jewish was expected. But one of the curiosities of the Hanoverian age was the prevalence of loyal poems written in Hebrew by Christians as well as Jews. Nor was the word English introduced in the title, for some remarkable Hebrew compositions in honour of the English throne emanated from foreigners. We may, therefore, divide our survey into three parts: (1) Academic, (2) Continental, and (3) Liturgical. i. academic tributes. As regards the English Universities, the eighteenth century was not strong in Hebraists. Oxford, it is true, had Kennicott and Lowth, but Cambridge had lost without replacing the giants of the age of Light foot. In an oration delivered in Cambridge, somewhere about 1654, Isaac Barrow complimented his contemporaries on their Hebrew attain? ments, and declared that there were men, among the juniors, capable of carrying on a conversation in Eden with its primeval denizens.1 But, despite Bentley's claim, this can hardly be said of the century later than Barrow, and it is with that century that we have to do. At the end of the seventeenth century Henry Lloyd, while Regius Professor 1 Oratio ad Academicos in Comitiis {The Theological Works of Isaac Barrow, ed. A. Napier, 1859, vol. ix. p. 37): c% Quid Hebraeas literas commemorem, reli quarum parentes, quarum intelleetum adipisci, olim supra liumanam sortem, et non nisi daemonum ope attentandum videbatur ? Jam vero multos apud vos etiam tyrones invenire est, quasi idoneos qui in primsev? Paradiso versarentur; et qui, primum omnium parentem sua rebus universis indentem nomina fuissent intellect uri."</page><page sequence="2">104 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. of Hebrew in Cambridge, actually advertised for pupils in his house in Edinburgh. As C. Wordsworth writes, the Oriental Professors " lost the habit of lecturing, and satisfied their consciences, or the requirements of the age, by contributing their copy of verses to the collections of Luctus et Gratulationes and the like, on those public occasions which were found then indeed with tolerable regularity." 2 These Laments and Congratulations were issued from both Oxford and Cambridge whenever any episode occurred in the royal family calling for expressions of grief or joy. A full list of those who con? tributed Hebrew verses to such volumes under the Four Georges will be given below.3 It is not necessary to enter at any length into the character of these quaint products of Academic loyalty, for a good general account of them was given by the Rev. S. Singer in his paper on " Coronations." 4 Mr. Singer also printed specimens 5 enough to enable the student to gain an impression of the University man's quality as a Hebrew poet. Though, in general, the Oxford and Cambridge verses are not of high merit, they are sometimes interesting enough. Gagnier's verses (1714) are distinctly good, so areLowth's (1751) and Kennicott's (1761). Again, Hunt (1761) gives us a" Carmen Hebraicum Pentametrum," just as (1734) the Bishop of Peterborough had previously ventured on a" Carmen Tetrametrum." Lowth, indeed, breathes a fine lyric spirit in his unrhymed elegy on the death of Frederick, the popular Prince of Wales. All these were Oxonians. Of the Cambridge effusions a reference is due to Israel Lyons (1738), the only Jew who appears in the whole series. He begins with the diffident protest that he has no right to appear in such august Academic company. At all events, his inclusion is a striking testimony to the University's tolerance and Lyons' personal repute. Another interesting name is that of John Cowper (1762),? who contributed to the congratulations on the birth 2 C. Wordsworth, Scholw Academicce, p. 267. 3 See Appendix I., p. 123. * Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, vol. v. p. 89. 5 Ibid., p. 108. 6 His Hebrew verses are reprinted with an English version by Dr. H. P. Stokes in his Records of the Rev. John Cowper, M.A., and of other Members of the Family of William Cowper the Poet. (Olney, 1904, pp. 128-9.)</page><page sequence="3">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 105 of the prince who afterwards became George IY. That modern readers do not stand alone in wondering at some of the extraordinary curiosities of these Academic products seems evidenced by the Oxford volume of 1727. In it Thomas Morrison, Fellow of New College, seems to be poking fun at his colleagues. Addressing the Queen in English he writes: While others pay their tribute due, In foreign verse and tongues unknown; My humbler Muse resorts to You, And strives to pay it in her own. To the Academic series must be added the Eev. Henry Dimock, M.A., author of a rather remarkable volume,7 well worth attention. He was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford, and was (as the title page informs us) " Rector of St. Edmund the King and St. Nicolas Aeons, London ; many years Librarian and Chaplain to his Grace the late Archbishop of Canterbury." The latter was John Moore, who was Archbishop from 1783 to 1805. Dimock was an accomplished scholar; he was a disciple of Kennicott and De Rossi. He had a genuinely scientific turn of mind, as is manifest from his other works on Psalms and Proverbs (1791) and on other parts of the Hebrew Bible (1804).8 Dimock's " Hebrew Odes" were, as he remarks, " mostly on Public Occasions." There are in all fifteen: i. A sacred Ode in memory of the Honourable and Reverend George Talbot, D.D., who died in Barton, in Gloucestershire, November 19, 1785. This is in rhymed Hebrew, with an unrhymed English version (p. 90). ii. Ode of Invocation on his Majesty's going to Cheltenham to 7 Eight Sermons . . . Several Hebrew Odes, Literally Translated. London, 1806, 4to. 8 The 1791 work was published in " Glocester " ; the 1804 volume in London. The title of the latter is curious : " Critical and Explanatory Notes on [various Biblical books], with Observations on the Worship of the Serpent and Kemarks on the Thirty-Nine Articles."</page><page sequence="4">106 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. drink the waters, July 1788 (p. 92). The Hebrew is unrhymed, the English rhymed. It runs thus : Come, Holy Spirit! from above, As in the first creative hour; And on the waters gently move, To give them ev'ry healing pow'r. Physicians' skill will nought avail, Unless Jehovah lends his aid ; The best of waters can't prevail, Unless, it shall be, he hath said. Make then, O Lord ! this copious spring A well of life at thy decree ! May it preserve our gracious king, That long his people blest may be ! Dr. Butler, the Bishop of Hereford, wrote to Dimock : " I have just Hebrew enough to read your Ode with pleasure." The English verses were, the author records, " set to music and performed at Windsor Castle." iii. An address of thanks from the Church, to the Right Honour? able Lord Chancellor, on the promotion of Dr. Horsley, now bishop of St. Davids, and Dr. White, professor of Arabic in Oxford. iv. A Thanksgiving Ode on his Majesty's nappy recovery, April 23, 1789 (p. 94). Though unrhymed, the Hebrew is pleasantly rhythmical. v. A sacred Ode on the marriage of the Duke of York with Frederica Charlotte Ulrica Catharina, daughter of the King of Prussia, September 29, 1791 (p. 95). vi. A sacred Ode on the marriage of his Royal Highness George Prince of Wales with the Princess Caroline of Brunswic, April 25, 1795 (p. 96). " As |they are one flesh," exclaims the poet, " so give them one heart." vii. A sacred Ode on the providential deliverance of our most gracious Sovereign, October 29, 1795 (p. 98). In thk Ode the English is more Hebraic in spirit tban the Hebrew. The English is worth quoting in full:</page><page sequence="5">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 107 Who would believe this horrible thing, which hath been committed in the land! Wicked men conspired together to destroy the anointed of Jehovah. Because there was no fear of God amongst them, in the wickedness of their rebellious heart they said, The King shall not reign over us: we will do that which is right in our own eyes. Then they, diligently seeking his life, hid their snare for him in the way. They prepared the instruments of death in secret, and well-nigh had killed him.' Unless Jehovah had delivered him from all those that hate him without a cause, he would have been a prey to their fury, and to us would have been lamentation and woe. Rejoice now, 0 happy nation ! Behold ! thy king surely liveth. Shout, O people ! with the voice of thanksgiving. Behold ! they that devise mischief against him are defeated. The king shall rejoice in the strength of Jehovah; for great is his mercy towards him. He shall sing unto God with his whole heart; for his soul is precious in his eyes. Blessed be Jehovah, our God, who hath shown this salvation to our king and his people ! Blessed be the name of his majesty for ever. In thee, O God ! the king putteth his trust. Let not his enemies triumph over him ! Let them all be clothed with shame; but upon his head let the crown flourish ! viii. An Elegiac Dialogue, sacred to the memory of Miss Moore, only daughter of the Archbishop of Canterbury, who died, June 6,1797, after a very short illness, aged 17 (p. 100). A curious footnote states that the author at first printed the Ode in Hebrew only, " to prevent any additional trouble to his Grace and family." Hence he omitted any translation, " as it was improper to revive the memory of this sad event so soon." The implication is that his Grace (and also naturally his family) could not understand the Hebrew. The author's translation first appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine, late in 1798. ix. A sacred Ode on the marriage of the Duke of Wirtemburg with the Princess Royal, May 18, 1797 (p. 102). " By a most wonderful, unforeseen change in the state of Europe," 9 Author's footnote : " A stone, sent forth from a sling, went through the window of the chariot, very near to the king's head."</page><page sequence="6">108 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. Dimock informs us, " the Duke is now made King of Suabia by the most inveterate enemy of the British Empire." Of course Napoleon I. is alluded to. This Ode is the least Hebraic in spirit of all. It ends off with the aspiration on behalf of the members of the royal house : " And when they are full of years, may they go down to their fathers in peace ! And when they hear the trump of God (shofar ha-El), may they all arise to everlasting glory." x. A sacred 04e, most humbly addressed to his Majesty, on our late Naval Victories, particularly that of Lord Nelson, August 1, 1798 (p. 104). xi. A sacred Ode on the Peace between Great Britain, the French Republic, his Catholic Majesty, and the Batavian Republic, ratified and proclaimed the 29th of April 1802 (p. 107). The peace was of short duration. xii. A sacred Ode on the intended invasion of Napoleon (p. 109). As thou didst drown Pharaoh and all his people in the Red Sea (be~ydm adorn), so, I beseech thee, destroy this man of blood (ha-ish damim); bury him in the heart of the deep. As he hath profaned thy holy name and despised the might of thy hand, let him know assuredly the fierceness of thine anger, and that thou rulest the sea and the winds. xiv. and xv. Sacred Ode on the . . . Victory of October 21, 1805 (p. Ill), and an Elegiac Ode on the ever-to-be-lamented death of Lord Viscount Nelson, who fell, on the very day of victory, by a shot (p. 112). The sentiments of the triumphal song over Nelson's victory may be gathered from this specimen : Howl! ye ships of Tarshish ! let your sails be sackcloth instead of fine linen. Mourn bitterly, O fleet of Gallia I thy mast is broken, thy tackling is loosed: thy admiral and captains have gone into captivity. Dimock evidently accepted the view that identified Tarshish with Spain. The Spanish fleet was allied with the French at Trafalgar. With regard to Nelson's heroic fall, Dimock thus expresses him? self in sentences not without pathos : Behold Britannia mourning over his grave, in the bitterness of her soul, Alas, my son, alas, my son ! Would to God my life had been [given] for the life of thee !</page><page sequence="7">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 109 Hear this brave man answering, O ! my dear mother! weep not for me; for thy glory was the joy of my life, and I rejoice in death for thy salvation. While I was yet alive, my name was a terror to all thine enemies round about: now I am dead, I shall live for ever in all the hearts of thy people. An honour far greater than all others, except the honour from God above. Taking them as a whole, Dimock's Hebrew verses are a creditable effort, and he deserves to have his name enshrined in this Society's records. The academic aspect is represented, on the Jewish side, by Professor Hyman Hurwitz (1770-1844). His work in this direction might, however, be included in the third section of this paper, as it was designed for liturgical use. Hurwitz may be fitly described as the Hebrew Poet Laureate. His Hebrew Dirge, chanted in the Great Synagogue on November 19, 1817, was a lament over the death of Princess Charlotte. The title-page runs : fW* rtt*p. A Hebrew Dirge, Chaunted in the Great Synagogue, St. James's Place, Aldgate, on the [19th November 1817] Day of the Funeral of Her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte. By Hyman Hurwitz, Master of the Hebrew Academy, Highgate. With a translation in English verse by S. T. Coleridge, Esq. London, 1817. Among Hurwitz's neighbours at Highgate (where Hurwitz had his " Hebrew Academy ") was the poet S. T. Coleridge. They were close friends, and Coleridge turned Hurwitz's Hebrew hymn to verses, which bear the honour of Coleridge's name. Not much more can be said of the English ; the Hebrew is much superior, and shows Hurwitz no mean Hebraist. Coleridge's version (and very free it is) runs thus: Israel's Lament. i. Mourn, Israel! Sons of Israel, mourn ! Give utterance to the inward throe ! As wails, of her first love forlorn, The Virgin clad in robes of woe. ii. Mourn the young Mother, snatch'd away From Light and Life's ascending Sun! Mourn for the Babe, Death's voiceless prey, Earn'd by long pangs and lost ere won.</page><page sequence="8">110 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. iii. Mourn the bright Rose that bloom'd and went, Ere half disclosed its vernal hue ! Mourn the green Bud, so rudely rent, It brake the stem on which it grew. iv. Mourn for the universal woe With solemn dirge and fault'ring tongue: For England's Lady is laid low, So dear, so lovely, and so young ! v. The blossoms on her Tree of Life Shone with the dews of recent bliss : Transplanted in that dreadful strife, She plucks its fruits in Paradise. vi. Mourn for the widow'd Lord in chief, Who wails and will not solaced be ! Mourn for the childless Father's grief, The wedded Lover's agony I vii. Mourn for the Prince, who rose at morn To seek and bless the firstli?g bud Of his own Rose, and found the thorn, Its point bedewed with tears of blood. viii. 0 press again that murmuring string ! Again bewail that princely Sire ! A destined Queen, a future King, He mourns on one funereal pyre. ix. Mourn for Britannia's hopes deeay'd, Her daughters wail their dear defence; Their fair example, prostrate laid, Chaste Love and fervid Innocence. x. While Grief in song shall seek repose, We will take up a Mourning yearly, To wail the blow that crush'd the Rose, So dearly priz'd and lov'd so dearly. xi. Long as the fount of Song o'erflows Will I the yearly dirge renew: Mourn for the firstling of the Rose, That snap't the stem on which it grew. xii. The proud shall pass forgot; the chill, Damp, trickling Vault their only mourner! Not so the regal Rose, that still Clung to the breast which first had worn her!</page><page sequence="9">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. Ill xiii. xiv. O thou, who mark'st the Mourner's Jehovah frowns! the Islands bow! path And Prince and People kiss the To sad Jeshurun's Sons attend ! Rod !? Amid the Light'nings of thy Wrath Their dread chastising Judge wert The showers of Consolation send ! thou ! Be thou their Comforter, 0 God I On the death of George III., Hurwitz composed an Elegy (Kol Nehi) in twenty stanzas of four lines each, followed by a prayer of five similar stanzas with refrain. The whole was published in a curious guise in 1827 at Thurso. The title-page runs : The Knell, an Elegy on George the Third, who died at Windsor, January 29, 1820, and entombed February 16, after. From the Hebrew of Hyman Hurwitz, Master of the Hebrew Academy, Highgate, by the Rev. William Smith, A.M., Minister of Bower. Inscripti nomina regum nascantur flores. Thurso : Printed and published for the translator, by William Todd, 1827. Price in English, Qd.; with the Hebrew, 25. The Hebrew is transliterated into English type. As a specimen we may quote the concluding Prayer. In the Thurso edition, the Hebrew and English appear not side by side, but the one followed by the other in separate pagination. It will be more convenient if here we print the two in parallel columns, retaining the misprints of the 1827 issue. The system of transliteration is, in several respects, of some interest. It will be observed that Hurwitz's Hebrew is far superior to Smith's English. i. Adon Adonim ! sehoehen meromim ! Hashbeth tefillah 10 baneycha ! Rofe shevure leb ! we eol-machob ! Refa no hhole gnammecha. Ci El rahhum attah. i. Of Lord of lords ! who dwellst on high, Give ear unto thy children's cry; Their Broken hearts, their wounds O heal! Thy folk, to thee, their griefs reveal; For God of mercy thou art still. 10 Read : Haksheb tefillath.</page><page sequence="10">112 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. ii. Gam beyasserecha eth gnabdeeha, Tarem rob rahhamecha. Ubeterem tacceh, terufah lemaccah Tachin coach yadecha. Ci El rahhum attah. iii. Regang anafta ; gnets katafta, Gnod hisharta pirehu. Avinu halach, uvenu 11 malach; Ligdor pirtsath gnamme(c)hu Ci El rahhum attah. iv. Anno Eli! hhai goeli! Barech no eth Malchenu No nahhamehu behod lla gnaterehu Legnad yimloch gnalenu Ci El rahhum attah. v. Shelahh aruchah, libne hamelucah, Le artsenu shalom umenuchah. Nahhem Sareyah, wegam yoshveyah Wenasallb yagon wa-anahhah. Ci El rahhum attah. ii. Chastised whilst thy servants be, Thy tender mercies cause them see. Although thine anger on them low'r; Yet by thy finger pow'r restore. Divine's the mercy we implore. iii. Our tree thou'st cut, yet spared the shoot. The stock remains still bearing fruit. Our father's gone; yet reigns his son, To close the gap his people moan. Our hope thy mercy is upon. iv. O God ! who hast our Saviour been, We pray thee, now, to bless our King; Solace his heart; exalt his throne ; And grant his reign o'er us be long ; For still thy mercy is our song. v. Give health to all the royal race ; To all our realms give joy and peace; To prince and people comfort send ; And cause our griefs and sighings end. For on thy mercy we attend. Only one expression of Hurwitz's loyalty survived. This was his Hebrew version of the national anthem. It is usually thought that Hurwitz composed this for the coronation of William IV.12 We can, 11 Read: uveno. lla The Rev. M. Rosenbaum points out to me that Hurwitz makes the same syntactical misconstruction (of the verb with the preposition 2) in his version of the National Anthem. llb Read: Wenasu. 12 Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society, vol. v. p. 92.</page><page sequence="11">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 113 however, trace it rather earlier. It appears in the Order of Service for the Consecration of St. Alban's Place Synagogue, in September 1825,13 the opening line expressly mentioning King George (IV.). In Hurwitz's Elements of the Hebrew Language (ed^ 2, 1832, p. 285) the name in the first line is changed to William. When, as late as 1855, Young . reprinted the translation,14 he retained William, though Victoria had been long on the throne. The queen gave the liturgists much trouble. Thus at the consecration of the New Synagogue, Great Yarmouth, on Tuesday, August 31, 18-17, Hurwitz's Hebrew version was used. Only three stanzas occur, and in the first two the masculine of the Hebrew is corrected to the requisite feminine forms. In the third stanza, however, the revision breaks down, so that the Hebrew runs to what in English would be : "Thy choicest gifts in store, On her be pleased to pour, long may he reign." More recently M. Steinschneider, I believe, made another Hebrew rendering for use in Indian schools. The same order of service which first contains Hurwitz's Hebrew yersion of " God Save the King " 15 includes an Ode by Hurwitz. It begins with an " Introductory Symphony," and the following gives a good idea of its style and merits.16 Prolong our Monarch's life, we pray, And prosp'rous make his race; Grant ever such benignant sway, This blessed Isle to grace: Whose people all one shout do raise, To thank the Lord, and sound His praise Chorus. Thanks to thee, 0 Lord ! we render, Let Thy grace accept our lay; Words are all we now can tender, All the homage man can pay. 13 For full title-page see Appendix. 14 See Young's Israelitish Gleaner and Biblical Repository (Edinburgh, 1855), p. 21. The same occurs, as the Rev. M. Rosenbaum informs me, in a copy of the Gleaner (apparently of date 1848), p. 32. 15 Consecration of Western Synagogue, 1825. 16 The same poem was used ten years later (September 5, 1835), after the same synagogue had been repaired. VOL. IX. I</page><page sequence="12">114 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. II. CONTINENTAL TRIBUTES. The Hanoverian connections of the English Royal house gave the people of this country a close interest in the Seven Years' War. Hanover was endangered during the struggle, and on February 11,1757, a " General Fast and Humiliation " was held by command.17 A great change occurred later in the year, when Frederick *e saved Hanover by his victory at Rossbach." 18 The Convention of West? minster in 1756 had cemented the alliance between England and Prussia. This explains the otherwise curious fact revealed by the following publication : A Thanksgiving Sermon For The Important and Astonishing Victory Obtain'd on the Fifth of December, 1757, By the Glorious King of Prussia. Over the united and far superior Forces of the Austrians in Silesia. Preached On The Sabbath of the 10th of the said Month At The Synagogue of the Jews in Berlin. By David Hirschel Franckel, Arch-Rabbi. Translated from the German Original printed at Berlin. The Second Edition. London. 1758. 8?. [24 pp.] David ben Naphtali Frankel was a man of scholarly attainments, and had a considerable part in the education of Moses Mendelssohn, who followed Frankel from Dessau to Berlin. Frederick's victory in 1757 was an event of much moment to England. Conversely, the fortunes of the Hanoverian English line were watched with keen interest in Germany. With the Jews, ne^ political enthusiasm was aroused as the day of emancipation drew near. The changed outlook reveals itself in an outburst of patriotism in Hebrew prose and verse. We are, in this place, only concerned with it in relation to England. Naphtali Hirz Wessely was a supporter of Mendelssohn, and one of the leaders both of the new learning and of the revival of Hebrew. N. Slouschz passes a true judgment when he says : "As a poet 11 See Appendix II., p. 124 below. 18 Cambridge Modern History, vol. vi. p. 408, where an illuminating account is given of the English treaties with Prussia, and Pitt's policy regarding them. Pitt considered these treaties as incidental to his great anti-French schemes, but he was bound " to the Prussian alliance, both for England's sake and for the sake of the Hanoverian connections of the English royal house."</page><page sequence="13">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 115 Wessely possessed perfection of style, but lacked feeling and artistic imagination." 19 All Wessely's work is competent rather than inspired. Why Wessely should have written a Hebrew prayer for George III.'s recovery in 1788 is not quite clear. It was obviously written for use in England, though there is no evidence that it was so used. Possibly it was asked for, but when the time came, local patriotism in London rebelled against the admission of a foreign import. Certainly the printed prayers extant, as used in the English synagogues, are not Wessely's. His composition was, however, printed in his periodical,20 and we can see that the London prayers were greatly influenced by it. The heading would run in English : " Supplication of our brethren the Jews who dwell in the dominions of Great Britain, when their King, the mighty and saintly George III., fell ill in the present year. May God heal him and preserve him in life." Wessely opens with a passage acclaiming the divine appointment of kings : 0 Thou who lookest down from Thy dwelling-place on all the sons of man, inhabitants of the earth,?all of them beloved of Thee, for all of them didst Thou create in Thine image ; for whom, out of Thy love for them, Thou didst devise plans, to deliver them from ill: and to unite the divisions of their hearts, to turn all of them unto one head, Thou didst make to reign over them Kings, who should lead them out and bring them in, that each man might go to his place in peace. Thou from Thy holy habitation shinest forth on the counsel of men's Kings, giving unto them royal majesty, to the end that they may do what Thou hast ordained in Thy wisdom for every nation on earth;?for the heart of Kings is in Thy hand, and Thou inclinest them to whatever Thou desirest! He proceeds to eulogise the House of L?neburg,21 "from whom hath come forth Thy friend a righteous King who rules over us 22 to-day, our Lord the King George III." Then the prayer asserts that George's illness was due to England's sin : " Because Thy wrath is hot against the sheep, Thou hast stricken the shepherd. 'Tis for our sins 19 Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. xii. p. 507. 20 Hameassef, vol. v. p. 97 (Tebet 549). 21 On the L?neburg line of the Brunswieks, see Cambridge Modern History, vol. vi. p. 2. The English Georges were descended from the L?neburgs. 22 This and several other phrases conclusively prove that Wessely wrote the prayer for use in England (or Hanover).</page><page sequence="14">116 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. that Thou hast withheld good from him. Therefore is our heart faint, and our eyes dim. In bitterness of spirit we come to pour our souls out before Thee, to entreat Thee for the welfare of our lord the King, that Thou mayest pardon the iniquity of the dwellers of the land, and restore to their head the beauty of their glory. ... If Thou healest him we shall know that Thou hast healed the land and the offence of its inhabitants." The precedent of Hezekiah's recovery is cited, and the prayer concludes with an appeal on behalf of Queen Charlotte: 66 Comfort her in her agony, remember unto her the great righteous? ness she has wrought, and may she speedily behold the King at her right hand, going out as the sun in his might." 23 George's attack was of short duration, and his recovery was hailed with widespread joy. In this the Continent shared, and Wessely wrote a long Hebrew Ode on the occasion.24 It consists of twelve stanzas, of six lines each ; the rhymes being aabaab. It may be observed that the Ode is melodious and stately, a model of correct versification and language. Yet it somehow misses its effect. Wessely might, perhaps, have pleaded the fate of others who write patriotic verse to order.25 The poem is, however, of considerable merit as an exercise in Hebrew. The substance of it, in English, is as follows : He calls on the Earth to deck herself in ornaments once more, for George, the gift of God, again lives ! In him love and power meet; he is a mighty King and a wise father, under him knowledge flourishes, folly withers. When thy light was dimmed, continues the poet, amid the cloud was radiant thy people's love; for it was against them, not against him, that they felt God's wrath was enkindled. Seeing men's hearts humbled, the King was healed and the nation with him. Happy art thou, O King, in thus acquiring thy people's affection, thou beloved of all men, beloved of thy Maker! And she also that dwells in thy tent, wise and benevolent, Queen Charlotte, Britannia behold thy King?like the full Moon in the middle of the month? again his voice will be heard in Council?and though the sea on every side set bounds to his dominions, his wings of righteousness, like the wings of the 23 The forms actually used in London play on these same three notes : the king's sickness is due to England's sin; the precedent of Hezekiah ; the final prayer for Charlotte. Cf. p. 122 below. 24 printed in Hameassef, vol. v. p. 257 (Sivan 549). 25 Thus Ephraim Luzzatto's sonnet on the marriage of George III. is one of his weakest efforts, Cf. p. 92 above.</page><page sequence="15">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 117 dawn, take swift flight to cross the waters to the utmost frontiers of earth lovers of him everywhere seekers of his majestic peace?so that all recognising that God is with him, join in their paeans to the God of all. No doubt there were several expressions of Hebrew loyalty to the English throne in Hanover during the following generation. One such we know of, dating from 1st of January 1802. It is a Hebrew and German Thanksgiving for the Peace between England and France. Dankfeyer beym Frieden zwischen England und Frankreich, Gehalten von der j?dischen Gemeinde in der Synagoge in Hannover am ersten Januarii 1802 (27 Shebat 562). [Folio.] Here is a characteristic passage from the Prayer on behalf of George III. and Queen Charlotte: Nie m?sse wieder die f?rchterliche Posaune des Zwistes ert?nen. Lenke vielmehr das Herz Deiner Menschen, dass sie sich lieben, und in Noth einer dem andern beystehen. Lass endlich, das Licht Deiner Tugend und Gerechtigkeit ewig unsern Geist erhellen ! Amen !! I have called the passage " characteristic," because it breathes the noble spirit of Moses Mendelssohn's humanism. It is good for us to remind ourselves that if there has been a Germany of the Treitschke spirit, there has also been a Germany animated by the spirit of Lessing. III. LITURGICAL TRIBUTES. The issue of forms of service for special occasions in England is " co-eval with the Reformation." 26 They were often additions to the Book of Common Prayer, and were printed for congregational use. As no other liturgy than the Book of Common Prayer was lawful in the churches, such forms needed royal authority. That authority was not withheld, whether the occasion was a prayer for " Her Majesty's safety," or " thrise a week for seasonable wether."27 As is expressly stated in the form issued because of the plague, on 30 July 1563, 26 W. K. Clay, Liturgies and Occasional Forms of Prayer set forth in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, Parker Society, 1847, p. xxxiii. Strype in his Crantner, referring to the forms of the year 1544, attributes them to the Archbishop's desire to familiarise the worshippers with prayers in the English language. 27 Both these forms appeared in 1560. Op. cit, p. 458.</page><page sequence="16">118 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. the service was held by " the Queenes Maiesties speciall Commande ment." 28 The Jewish communities, which considerably increased in the reign of William III., followed suit. The Royal Command was, it is true, limited to all " Churches and Chapels," but the synagogues held services mostly on the same day as the churches, and like the latter printed their forms. Besides these, it goes without saying that prayers for the Sovereign and Parliament were regularly offered up in the synagogues.29 The Sephardic congregation used very elaborate forms. One of the oldest extant was printed in 1701, towards the close of the reign of William III.: Devota, y Humilde Supplicacion. Dirigida al Grande y Omnipotente. A. Dios de Israel, por la Congrega delos Hebreos de Londres, en la qual implora la assistencia, y auxilio del Cielo alas deliberaciones dela Majestad del inuieto Hey Guillelme III. su Senor, de su Alto Consejo, y de ambas Cameras de su Augusto Parlamento. 19 En 29 Quisleu 5462, qui corresponde a ^ Deziembre 1701. [London. Pp. 4. 4?.] The use of Spanish continued until the middle of the nineteenth century.80 Thus, in the Order of Service (8th March 1841), on the day of " A General Thanksgiving " on the success of Sir Moses Monte fiore's mission to the East (in connection with the Damascus outrage), the Prayer is in Hebrew with this insertion : " A sua Majestade a Rainha Victoria a Dowager Rainha Adelaide o Principe Alberto e toda a Real Familha." 31 Similarly, in 1843, in the form on occa 28 Op. cit, p. 459. 29 Cf. S. Singer, Lectures and Addresses, London, 1908. (Reprinted from Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society, vol. iii. Mr. Singer's essay on " Jews and Coronations " referred to above is also reprinted in the volume cited at the beginning of this note.) 30 The Ashkenazim used a less ornate form?that with which the modern liturgy is familiar. A form of this kind (in MS.) as used in the reign of Anne lies before me. 31 It is interesting to note that, in the 1841 form, in the Hebrew we have DHD^DD hv D^D* IDn&amp;W* The use of the plural points to the form having been first composed in the reign of William and Mary, who indeed were joint sovereigns.</page><page sequence="17">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 119 sion of the funeral of the Duke of Sussex are the words : " S.A.E. Agosto Frederigo Duque de Sussex."32 But we must turn from the regular to the special, and must note a few of the points of interest presented by the occasional services of a patriotic nature held in the synagogues of this country n the period under discussion. The share of English Jews in all the national emotions associated with the lives and deaths of occupants of the throne has often been illustrated in the publications of this Society.33 Mr. E. N. Adler published two elegies by Joseph Abendanon on the death of Queen Mary, in 1694, one on the death of William III. in 1702, and one, in 1700, on the death of " the young Duke of Gloucester, the son of Queen Anne, and heir to the throne, failing whom the succession has passed to the House of Hanover." Under the Second George, opportunities for patriotic tributes began to multiply. The stirring times of Frederick the Great, the episodes of the war with France, the fortunes and misfortunes of royal princes, offered occasions of joy and sorrow which, under Royal Pro? clamations of Thanksgiving or Fast, were publicly observed in all places of worship, the synagogues of course included. The Hebrew tributes were not all liturgical. Thus reference has already been made to Ephraim Luzzatto's Ode on the coming of Princess Charlotte from Mecklenburg to wed George III.34 The years that preceded the acces? sion of George III. were a period of panic. " The years 1756 and 1757," writes Lecky,35 " were among the most humiliating in English history.' Burke later on poured his scorn on the national despondency from which Pitt so gloriously extricated the country. Adjournments of the Houses of Parliament for General Fasts were frequent, while naval victories in particular were acclaimed in General Thanksgivings. 32 By 1859 the form was turned into English ; this may be seen in the service at the reopening of the Bevis Marks Synagogue in that year. 33 Cf. in particular E. N. Adler (" Hebrew Elegies on English Monarchs ") in Transactions, vol. ii. pp. 141 seq.; S. Singer ("Jews and Coronations") in Transactions, vol. v. p. 79. 34 This Ode is translated by Mrs. R. N. Salaman (above, p. 92). An earlier version may be found in Moses Margoliouth's History of the Jews in Great Britain (London, 1851), vol. ii. pp. 116-7. 35 England in the Eighteenth Century, vol. ii. p. 452.</page><page sequence="18">120 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. A tentative list of extant Forms of Service used in the synagogues on such occasions is given below.36 This list explains itself, and it is only necessary here to comment on a few curiosities.37 In 1776, Moses Cohen D'Azevedo's sermon opens with these words : The excellent doctrine of our Rabby, which explains the meaning of the Holy Prophet in his exhortation, of presenting to our Creator, with sincerity, our hearts with our hands, will furnish us with a proper subject for this solemn Day, on which we are assembled here, by command of His Majesty our Gracious King, to humble ourselves with abstinence and fasting in the presence of the Almighty God, to implore his Divine Assistance on behalf of His Majesty's Arms, that he may obtain victory and success over those American Provinces, that have withdrawn their Allegiance and raised a Rebellion against their lawful Prince and the Constitution of this Kingdom, and also that he may vouchsafe, in his Divine Mercy, to incline the mind of those deluded fellow-subjects, that they may return to the obedience of their offended Monarch, that these Kingdoms may again enjoy the return of peace, quietness, and tranquillity. D'Azevedo, in a Note, remarks on a feature of Hebrew style which has often troubled translators. " One of the many beauties peculiar to the Hebrew language," he says, " is the many synony? mous phrases it has to express an idea, which, when rendered into English, appears a useless duplication, but in the Original it is esteemed sublime eloquence ; so the translation unavoidably appears heavy." This is not the only cause of a certain quaintness in the English of many of these liturgies. Sometimes, no doubt, lack of familiarity with literary English is the source of stiltedness and error ; at others, certain ..results are produced by the undoubted fact that while the Hebrew was composed by competent and careful hands, the English was left to less incompetent and careless collaborators. Sometimes, no doubt, the carelessness was due less to incompetence than thoughtlessness, otherwise we should hardly have found Hurwitz using in a synagogue hymn the Pauline phrase "All in all" as an epithet of Deity. The use of " Jehovah " in the Thanksgiving Service on George III.'s recovery in 1788 is another case in point. The Hebrew on that occasion is also not without its interest. It opens with 36 Appendix II. No doubt there were others of which no copies are extant. 37 The list includes the reign of William IV.</page><page sequence="19">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 121 a citation of 2 Sam. xxii. 51, with the substitution of George for David ! 38 One can imagine the swing with which this verse was sung in the Great Synagogue, Leadenhall Street. The Rev. Moses Myers could claim a precedent for his application of the verse to George III. When in 1762 the University of Cambridge congratulated George III. on the birth of his son (afterwards George IV.), William Disney in his Hebrew verses applies the same verse to the King.39 The synagogue form to which we are now referring is not without originality of fancy: It is thou 0 Lord who hast given strength to the House of Brunswick, in the person of our King, a descendant of the illustrious Hanoverian stem. . . . From the fountain of his heart does flow the River of Goodness, dividing it into four heads, namely, Grace, Mercy, Protection and Liberty of which Rivers, our brerthren 40 have benefited. Awake, awake, Britannia ! . . . Let Israel rejoice in his Maker, and let the Children of Britain be joyful in their King. There was a genuine affection for George III. and Queen Charlotte. Hence the following (from the same source) is a perfectly sincere expression of feeling : The Sceptre shall not depart from our King. He shall not die, but live and declare the works of the Lord, wiiose blessings shall be encreased on him, and her Gracious Majesty Queen Charlotte, the Mother of Britain, the crown and glory of our land. Blessed among women is our Queen, whose wisdom re-echoes through the world; happy the subjects over whom she reigns. He that giveth salvation unto Kings, shall command his holy Angels to protect them. Earlier in the same year (Saturday, Nov. 15, 1788), during the King's illness, prayers for his recovery were offered up " after the ordinary service " in the Great Synagogue. The Psalms 41 were chanted in alternate verses " with the utmost solemnity by the High Priest" (R. David Schiff) "and the Congregation." The same service, with 38 D^iy iintbi 2rrtf? irwD1? non new idSd nii;i?? bim 39 Disney, however, uses the variant found in Ps. xviii. 51. 40 Several of the liturgists suffer from the misprints with which their compositions were disfigured. The misprints are retained here and in the quotations that follow. 41 Including the Y^'d verses of Ps. cxix.</page><page sequence="20">122 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. some variations, was used on the following day (Sunday, Nov. 16) at the synagogue in Denmark-Court, Strand.42 The prayer is long and florid, and shows the influence of Wessely, though, as recorded above, the actual composition of Wessely was not used. The Great * Synagogue prayer includes these sentences : Heal our Sovereign Lord King George the Third, who lieth on the bed of sickness ; for he is wounded for our transgressions ; he is bruised for our iniquities. . . . Behold for nine-and-twenty years hath he reigned over us, during which it may be truly said, every man dwelt under his own vine and under his own fig-tree. It would occupy too much space to quote from others of these liturgical homages. A word or two, however, must be said about the Nelson series. Only two of these will be referred to.43 The first is of date 1803 ; the author Joseph Crool.44 Crool gives us a sort of litany, of which the following (p. 19) is a specimen: Priest. Bless the wooden walls of Old England : command the waves of the sea to be their friends. People. Amen I A curious example of Jewish loyalty to England occurred in 1804. In that year a British expedition, under Major-General Sir Charles Green and Commodore Samuel Hood, captured Surinam in Dutch Guiana. In his despatch describing the victory, Sir Charles Green wrote : " The inhabitants seemed greatly to rejoice at the event which had taken place, restoring to them the powerful protection of the British Govern? ment, and the solid advantages arising therefrom." 45 Sir Charles' impression is confirmed by the evidence of the special form of thanks? giving service held by the Jews in their synagogue, The Abode of Peace, on Thursday, October 4, 1804.46 42 Both forms appear on a single sheet. At foot is : " N.B. Both these Forms of Prayer are ordained to be read during the King's indisposition, and are published by Authority of the Great Synagogue." 43 Appendix II, p. 127 below. 44 On Crool, who thanks God that in free England " we are permitted to be followers of our legislator Moses," see H. P. Stokes, Studies in Anglo-Jewish History, pp. 231, 236 45 Annual Register, 1804, pp. 138-9. 46 See Appendix II, p. 128 below.</page><page sequence="21">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 123 A year later Trafalgar gave cause for much national Thanksgiving, tempered by sorrow at Nelson's death. Perhaps the most interesting point about these 1805 celebrations is the fact that Sephardim and Ashkenazim combined in the use of an identical form. A similar instance of practical identity, as the Rev. M. Rosenbaum points out to me, was designed in 1793. With which signal illustrations of unity we may bring this survey to a close. April 25, 1917. APPENDICES. APPENDIX I. Bibliography?A cademic. LIST OF WRITERS OF HEBREW VERSES IN THE LOYAL ADDRESSES OF THE UNIVERSITIES OF OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE. 1714. Death of Queen Anne, Accession of George I. Oxford. J. Gagnier; T. Troughear; G. Wilkinson ; J. Stephens. Cambridge. P. Bouquet (Prof, of Hebrew); J. Imber; Alured Clarke; Luke Imber: J. Wake (Carmen Aethiopicum in Hebrew type). 1727. Death of George I. and Accession of George II. Oxford. R. Landavensis (Prof, of Hebrew); J. Pettingal. Cambridge. P. Bouquet (Prof, of Hebrew); L. Chappelow; E. Hubbard. 1733-4. Marriage of Anne, eldest daughter of George II. Oxford. Robert, Bishop of Peterboro ; Richard Brown. Cambridge. P. Bouquet ; Arabic in Hebrew letters, L. Chappelow T. Ferraud. 1736. Marriage of Frederick Prince of Wales. Oxford. R. Brown. Cambridge. P. Bouquet (Prof, of Hebrew); L. Chappelow; W. Weston ; W. Felton ; Eugenius Brereton ; G. Sharpe; Is. Johnson. 1738. Death of Princess Wilhelmina Caroline. Oxford. R. Brown ; John Free. Cambridge. P. Bouquet; Cox ; T. Sanderson ; W. Felton ; Israel Lyons (L. S. Informator); J. Gage. 1748. Peace. Cambridge. T. Harrison (Prof, of Hebrew); R. Hankinson ; T. Edwards.</page><page sequence="22">124 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 1751. Death of Frederick Prince of Wales. Oxford. Thomas Hunt (Prof, of Hebrew and Arabic); R. Browne (Prof. of Arabic); R. Lowth (Poeticse Prselector) ? J. Betts; J. Shillingfleet; J. Hemming. Cambridge. T. Harrison (Prof, of Hebrew); Fleetwood Churchill; R. Hankinson ; R. Sutton ; T. Evans. 1760-1. Death of George II., Accession of George III. Oxford. T. Hunt (Prof, of Hebrew); Benjamin Kennioott; B. Wheeler; J. Sparrow ; J. Stubb. Cambridge. William Disney (Prof, of Hebrew); Samuel Hallifax; Ja. Sheeles. 1761. Marriage of George III. and Charlotte of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz. Oxford. Thos. Hunt; B. Kennicott; B. Wheeler. Cambridge. W. Disney ; H. Flitcroft. 1762. Birth of Prince of Wales. Oxford. T. Hunt; John Moore ; H. Rigby ; B. Kennicott. Cambridge. W.Disney; J. Cowper; Henry Flitcroft J.Eaton. 1763. Peace. Cambridge. W. Disney ; Thomas Bennett. APPENDIX II. Bibliography?Liturgical. 1756. Sermon Moral Predicado Enel Solemne Dia de Ayuno y Penetencia, que por mandado de su Magestad el Rey Nuestro Senor, se celebro 5 de Adar 5516, 6 de Febrero 1756. Por El. H. H. Isaac Netto. Printed by Richard Reily. London, 1756. Same in English (tr. by Author). (Price One Shilling.) London, 1756. Printed by Richard Reily, for the Author, and sold by H. Whitridge at the Royal Exchange. [See M. Gaster, History of the Ancient Synagogues of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, p. 137. London, 1901.] 1757. A Form of Prayer (n^SDn nD13) to be used in the Jews Synagogues, in London, on Friday the 21st of Sebatt, in the year 5517 of the Creation of the World. Being the 11th February 1757. In Pursuance of His Majesty's Proclamation for a General Fast and Humiliation. London, 1757. Pp. 10. Hebrew and English. 8?.</page><page sequence="23">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 125 1758-9. Sermon Moral Predicado en el Solemne Dia de Ayuno, Que por Orden de su Magestad el Rey Nuestro Senor, Se Celebro En 9 Adar primero 5518, que corresponde a 17 Febrero 1758. Por Ishae Mendes Belisario. ... En Londres, 1759. Pp. iv + 17. 4?. 1759. A Sermon Preached In The Portuguese Jews Synagogue on Friday, the 16th of February, 1759, Being the Day appointed by Authority for a General Fast: By R. Moses Cohen De Azevedo. London, m.dcc.lix. Pp. iv + 23. 8?. 1760. A Sermon Occasioned by the Death of His late Majesty, Preached on Saturday the 29th of November, 1760, In The Synagogue of the Portuguese Jews In London. By Isaac Mendes Belisario, one of the Teachers of their Chief School. London, m.dcc.lxi. [See M. Gaster, op. cit., p. 150.] 1761. Sermon de Congratulacion, Sobre la Felix y Pacifica Accession de sa Magestad el Rey George III. A el Trono destos Reynos, Predicado en 6 Tebet 5521, y 13 Deziembre 1760. Por R. Moseh Cohen de Azevedo. Printed by Gilbert. London, 1761. 1776. Form of Prayer and Dedication by Moses Cohen D'Azevedo, Minister of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation, London 1776. Hebrew and English. Pp. xxxi -f* 25. 8?. Also in Hebrew and Spanish. Pp. xxii + 26. 4?. Orden de la Oracion . . . con el Sermon predicado en esse dia por el H.H.R. Moseh Cohen D'Azevedo, Rab del K.K. de Sahar-Assamaim. London. 1776. On the Revolt of the American Colonies. [See M. Gaster, op. ext., p. 140.] 1788. Prayers ... for the Restoration of the Health of our most Gracious King ... On Saturday, 15th November 1788 . . . at the Great Jews' Synagogue, ... St. James's, Duke's Place, And on Sunday the 16th November 1788 ... at the Synagogue, Denmark-Court in the Strand. London, 1788. Single sheet, 4?. See p. 121 above.</page><page sequence="24">126 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 1789. A Thanksgiving Prayer, which was Read in the Great Synagogue, in Leadenhall-Street, by the Rev. Moses Myers, on the joyful occasion of his Majesty's Recovery, of which the following is an exact Translation. Hebrew and English. London, 1789. fol. See p. 121 above. 1790. A Song and Praise to be performed at the Dedication of the Great Jews' Synagogue, St. James's, Duke's Place, London, on Friday, March 26, 1790. Composed in Hebrew by the Rev. David Solomon Schiff, High Priest of the Said Synagogue, and Translated into English by D. Levi. [Contains a Hebrew Poem by Schiff which eulogises George III., Queen Charlotte, and George, Prince of Wales.] London [1790]. 4?. 1793. A Form of Prayer and Supplication for the . . . Repentance of our Sins, And the Success of the British Arms . . . Portuguese Synagogue, in Bevis Marks, London, On Friday the 19th of April 1793, Being the 7th Day of the Jewish Month Iyyar, Anno Mundi 5553. Composed in Hebrew by the Rabbins of the said Synagogue; and Translated into English by Order of the Wardens by David Levi. Pp. 27. London. Printed by D. Levi, No. 26 Baker's Row, Whitechapel Rd. 1793. 8?. [A practically identical form, Hebrew only (rtfnfil rb?T) YlD), was issued for both Sephardim and Ashkenazim, though apparently used by the Ashkenazim only. Printed by S. Suessmans. Pp. 8. 8?. (No date.)] 1795. A Form of Prayer ... to God For His . . . Preservation of the King's Majesty . . . From the . . . Attempts Against his Person, as he Passed to the Parliament House, On Thursday, the Twenty-Ninth Day of October, i.e. The Seventeenth Day of the Jewish Month Cheshvon* . . . Composed in Hebrew, By The Rev. Moses Myers and Translated Into English, By D. Levi. . . . Printed by D. Levi. . . . Anno Mundi 5556. Pp. 8. 4?. [London. 1795.] 1797. p p im imhk ik&gt;n Service (Bevis Marks) for the General Thanksgiving (December 19, 1797) for the Naval Victories of Jervis and Duncan. Hebrew only. Arranged by the Beth Din and printed by David ben Mordecai ha-Levi. (See description by Mr. H. Loewe in Jewish Guardian, Dec. 23, 1921, p. 5.)</page><page sequence="25">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 127 1798. A Form of Prayer, Praise, Thanksgiving, and Laud ; To be chanted in the German Jews Synagogue in London ... On Thursday the 29th day of November 1798, Being the 21st day of Kislav, Anno Mundi, 5559. Being the day that His Majesty our gracious Sovereign, hath commanded to give thanks and praise to the Almighty God . . . for the great success of Admiral Nelson. . . . Composed in Hebrew, By the Rev. Moses Myers; And Trans? lated into English . . . By David Levi. London: Printed by David Levi. Pp. 20. 8?. Also a Hebrew title page. 1801. Devota y Humilde Suplicacion; Dirigida al Grande, y Omnipotente A. Dios de Israel, por la Congrega delos Hebreos de Londres, en la qual implora la assistencia, y auxilio de Cielo alas deliberaciones dela Magestad del inuicto Rey Guillelme III su Senor, de su Alto Consejo, y de ambas Camoras de su Augusto Parlamento ... en 29 Quislev 5462, que corresponde a jjj Deziembre 1801. London [1801]. 8?. 1802. W1 mm!? HDtD W? mm W. Hebrew only. Command Thanks? giving by George III. Tuesday, New Moon of Sivan, 562 (1802). For the Great, Hambro, and New Synagogues, London. With the authority of R. Moses, Rabbi of the New Synagogue. (By) Seligman Leb fcTW?. Printed by S. Saesman, Adams-Court, Mitre Court, Aldgate. Pp. 4. London. 8?. 1803. t mn dit i?m wans niSM n^nn nv*? whnn nioto Wednesday, 3rd of Marcheshvan (Oct. 19). German Synagogue, London. [1803.] 8?. 1803. The Service Performed in the Synagogue of the Jews, Manchester, On the Nineteenth of October, 1803; Being the Day appointed for a general Fast: consisting of Prayers, A Sermon, and Psalms, and Hymns. Delivered in Hebrew, By Rabbi Joseph Crool; and Translated, by him, into English* Manchester, Price Sixpence. 8?. njnm n!?an TIP. (Wednesday, 21 Adar.) For all the London Synagogues. London, 1803. 8?.</page><page sequence="26">128 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 1804. Plechtigheeden, vreugde gezangen en gebeeden, verricht in de Hoog duitsche Joodsche Synagoge Neve Salom te Suriname, ter gelegenheid . . . der inhuidigung van ... Sir Charles Green ... op Donderdag den 4 October des Jaars 1804. Pp. 7. [Paramaribo, 1804.] 1805. Hebrew Thanksgiving [for the Victory at Trafalgar] (n&amp;nim r\2W YID), to be said on the 14th of Kislev, 5566 (= 1805), in all the London Synagogues . . . under the authority of the Rabbis of the Sephardim and Ashkenazim. London, Printed by E. Justins, 34 Brick Lane, Spitalfields. Hebrew only. 8?. See p. 123 above. 1805. A Sermon Preached . . . Success Of His Majesty's Fleet Under Lord Nelson, Off Trafalgar; By the Rev. Solomon Herschel. . . . London. 1805. Pp. 16. 4?. 1809-1810. Prayer And Ode. . . . Fiftieth Anniversary of the Accession . . , George III. . . . On the 15th Day of Heshvan 5570. [London 1809-10.] 8?. A Prayer and Thanksgiving (rD3r6 fll/l H^DH) to Almighty God for the protection afforded to our Most Gracious Sovereign, King George the Third, during a long and an arduous Reign. To be read in the Portuguese Synagogue the first Established in London, on Wednesday, the 25th of October, 1809. Held on a Jubilee, being the Day on which His Majesty began his happy Reign. Made by the Rev. Raphael Meldola, Chief Rabbi of the Congrega? tion, London. L. Alexander, Printer, 40 Whitechapel Rd. Pp. 4. 8?. 1815-1825. The Form of Service (H^l b)p) in commemoration of the dedication of the Portuguese Jew Synagogue in Bevis Marks : Composed by R. Meldola. London, 1815. Similar form London, 1825, composed by R. Meldola, Translated by H. V. Bolaffey. 8?. 1817. A Sermon on the Death of Princess Charlotte?Preached at the Synagogue, Denmark Court, Strand. On . . . Wednesday, November 19, A.M. 5578. By Tobias Goodman. London . . . 1817. Pp. 32. 8?. Prayer and Psalms for the Day of Grief, consecrated by the Congregation of German Jews in London and throughout England, to pour out their Com? plaint before the Lord, on the day of burial of Her Royal Highness the Princess</page><page sequence="27">HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. 129 Charlotte, 10th day of Kislav A.M. 5578. London. H. Barnett, Printer and Hebrew Bookseller, 2 St. James' Place, Duke St., near Aldgate. [1817.] Pol. Hebrew and English. Funeral Sermon ... On the Day of Burial Of . . . Princess Charlotte . . . By . . . Raphael Meldola ... Kislev 10th 5578. Pp.14. London. 4&lt;&gt;. A Hebrew Dirge ffHE^ nrp), Chaunted in the Great Synagogue, St. James's Place, Aldgate, on the [19th Nov. 1817] Day of the Funeral of Her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte. By Hyman Hurwitz. For full title-page and text of poem, see p. 109 above. 1820. Hanover. German. On Death of George III. A Sermon Occasioned By the Demise Of . . . George The Third, And On The Accession Of . &gt; . George The Fourth, Delivered At The Synagogue, Denmark Court, Strand, On Wednesday February 16, A.M. 5580. By Rabbi Tobias Goodman. . . . London [1820]. Pp. 20. 8?. Prayer and Psalms (Mttnni H^Sfl) for the Day of Assembly de? voted to mourning by the Congregations of German Jews in London and throughout England, being the Day of Burial of His late Most Gracious Majesty King George III., 1st day of Adar A.M. 5580. Second Edition. London. Fol. Also Sk first edition, same date (1820), Hebrew only. The Tears of a Grateful People, a Hebrew Dirge and Hymn chaunted in Great Synagogue, St. James's Place, Aldgate, on day of the Funeral of George III. London, 1820. 8?. The Knell, an Elegy on George the Third, who died at Windsor on January 29, 1820, and entombed, February 16, after. From the Hebrew of Hyman Hurwitz, Master of the Hebrew Academy, Highgate, by the Rev. William Smith, A.M., Minister of Bower. Inscripti nomina regum nascuntur flores. Thurso. Printed and published for the Translator, by William Todd. 1827. Price in English 6d., with the Hebrew 2s. 8?. The Hebrew is transliterated into English characters. Cf. p. Ill above. 1825. Order of Service at the Consecration of the Western Synagogue (late held in Denmark Court, Strand, but now removed to) St. Alban's Place, St. James's, on the 7th September A.M. 5586 (= 1825). The Ode composed VOL. IX. K</page><page sequence="28">130 HEBREW LOYALTY UNDER THE FIRST FOUR GEORGES. in Hebrew, and the Metrical Translation of God Save the King, by Hyman Hurwitz, Esq., the Music composed, selected, and conducted, by Mr. M. Moss, and the Whole arranged and directed by Mr. Myer Solomon. [Corrected in MS. to 21st September.] See p. 113 above. London, 1825 (6?). 8?. 1830. A Funeral Sermon On The Death of His late Majesty George IV. Delivered On 15th July A.M. 5590?1830. By Myer Solomon At the Synagogue, St. Alban's Place, St. James's. . . . 1830. Pp. 34. 8?. 1831. A Discourse delivered at a Jewish Meeting held at Mr. D. Cohen's Westgate St., on the 8th September, being the Coronation Day of our most gracious Sovereign King William the fourth, to whom the Supreme King of the Universe has imparted a portion of his glory, And commencing our New Year 5592 since the Creation of the World by Martain Valintine from Polend. Reader of the Meeting, H. Harris. Newcastle on Tyne. Printed by Mackenzie and Dent, 181 Pilgrim Street. 1832. Form of Prayer (nJiim H^DJlj to be used in the Spanish and Portu? guese Synagogue on Wednesday, 21st of March 5592 ( = 1832) A.M. Being the day appointed by His Majesty's Special Command as a General Fast. Pp. 8.* London, 5592 (1832). 8?. Hebrew and English. 1833. A Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving (n&amp;nim rQB&gt; T7D) ... to be used ... on the 14th April 5593 [1833]. By D. Meldola. Pp. 4. London, 1833. 1837. Order of Service and Form of Prayer (H^nni used in the (ancient) Synagogue of the Spanish and Jews' Congregation, London, on the day devoted to Mourning, on the Occasion of the Burial of his Most Gracious Majesty, King William the Fourth. 6 Tamuz 5597 [1837]. Hebrew and English. Pp. 4. London, 1837. 8?. Order of Service and Prayer for the Day of Assembly devoted to Mourning, Being the Day of Burial of his late Majesty King William IV. . . . 5th of Tamuz, 5597. London [1837]. Fol.</page></plain_text>