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Francis Francia - The Jacobite Jew

Marcus Lipton

<plain_text><page sequence="1">190 francis fran cia?the jacobite jew. Francis Francia?the Jacobite Jew. By Marcus Lipton, M.A. Paper read before the Jewish Historical Society of England, April 27, 1925. One hour before midnight on January 22, 1717, twelve good men and true made their way into the jury box at the Sessions House of the Old Bailey and declared Francis Francia not guilty of a treasonable attempt to subvert the government of the Kingdom by supporting the claims of the so-called James III., more commonly known as the Old Pretender. Nearly a century and a quarter before, the only other Jew in English history to be charged with treason, Dr. Roderigo Lopez, Queen Elizabeth's physician, had met with a less fortunate fate. The verdict in the Francia case, according to a contemporary unofficial report, came " to the great surprise of the generality present at this remarkable trial." 1 In this report Francia was described as being " of Jewish extraction, descended from the tribe that hold themselves to be that of Benjamin, and was-born about 45 years since in the city of Bourdeaux in France, a place eminent for its produce and vent of most excellent wine and brandies, by trading in which with the English and other nations his father got great wealth." Except that Francia was about 42 years of age at the time of the trial, this description is not inaccurate. The account goes on to say that Francia had become a Christian, was therefore not employed by Jews, and so began to execute commissions for English gentlemen. It is indeed probable that, in accordance with the general custom of the Jews at Bordeaux which was in vogue until at least 1686, Francia was baptised.2 He may thus have nominally been a Christian, but it is interesting to note from the evidence given 1 The Case of Francis Francia, the reputed Jew, etc. Printed for John Gouldins near Lincoln's Inn, 1716 (old style). 2 It was in this year, according to Malvezin (Histoire des Juifs d Bordeaux, p. 150), that the outward practice of Catholic rites was abandoned.</page><page sequence="2">FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. 191 at the trial, that Francia refused on a certain occasion to take an oath upon the New Testament but produced instead a Jewish prayer book from his pocket. The Francia family, which is mentioned in a prefect's report at Bordeaux as late as 1806,3 and the English representatives of which were of considerable commercial standing in the city of London for many years, is dealt with in the Postscript to this paper kindly furnished by Mr. Lucien Wolf. It therefore does not at this point call for extended treatment. The trial in which Francis Francia was the principal figure does not represent his first experience of the working of English law in political cases. He had already shown proof of his pro-Stuart sym? pathies fourteen years previously as a witness for the prosecution in the case of one Wolstenholme, who had seditiously expressed his regret that the daughter of James II. had become Queen of England.4 Before the actual commencement of his own trial, Francia, naturally enough, tried to make as certain as possible of a favourable jury, and for this purpose challenged 34 names before the jurymen were finally selected and approved. In the early days of the Hanoverian succession it was probably not a very difficult matter to get together a City of London jury which should be predominantly Tory. In accordance with the recently granted privilege conferred by the Act of 1695, Francia was represented by counsel, two called Hungerford and Ward being briefed. As was the fashion in those days, the indict? ment was a lengthy document, but briefly it accused Francia of corre? sponding with France, soliciting arms, conspiring to raise rebellion and supporting the claims of the Old Pretender.5 Sir John Jekyl, in opening the case for the Crown, stated that about 1713 Francia had begun a correspondence with Abbot Butler of Cambrai, one of whose kinsmen was involved in a law suit entrusted to Francia's 3 Malvezin, Histoire des Juifs ? Bordeaux, pp. 287, 306. 4 Cal. S.P. Domestic Series, Anne, vol. i. pp. 59, 66. 5 The official report of the proceedings is contained in " The Tryal of Francis Francia for High Treason at the Sessions House in the Old Bailey, on Tuesday, Jan. 22, 1716. Perused by the Right Honourable the Lord Chief-Baron Bury, and also by the Council of His Majesty, and for the Prisoner. London : Printed for D. Midwinter, at the Three Crowns in St. Paul's Church Yard, MDCCXVII."</page><page sequence="3">192 FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. care. One Harvey of Combe made use of this correspondence to send letters to the Due d'Aumont, formerly French Ambassador at London, and d'Aulmay, a relative of the Duke of Ormonde, a well-known Jacobite. Francia, it was alleged, became acquainted with the subject of this correspondence, and letters directed to Francia from this source, as well as a copy-book of letters sent by him, were discovered when Francia's papers were seized. Harvey of Combe was an associate of Sir William Wyndham and Bolingbroke, both noted Jacobites, and, when Francia was arrested, had attempted to commit suicide. Both Harvey and Wyndham were also indicted for treason. According to Jekyl, the examination of Francia before Townshend, Secretary of State, elicited the admission that d'Aulmay's letters related to the Pretender's proposed invasion of England. The Attorney-General, who followed, mentioned that Francia lived in Plow Yard, Fetter Lane, and " goes for a Jew." Townshend, as the result of private information, on September 16,1715, intercepted letters from France addressed to Francia, for whose arrest a warrant was issued three days later. On September 22 Francia had been examined before Townshend and had admitted ownership of the copy? book of his letters and those sent from d'Aulmay. It appeared, however, that Francia was concealing a great part of what he knew and he was thereupon committed to Newgate. The delay in bringing him to trial was accounted for by the fact that proceedings had to be postponed four times. On the first occasion, by a clerical error the letter " i " was substituted for " a " in the indictment and Francia successfully pleaded he had not been given a true copy of the indictment. On the second occasion, Francia challenged so many jurors that there were not sufficient left to make a jury. The two further postponements were caused by the absence abroad on government service of an important witness for the prosecution. The first of Francia's letters to be produced in court was one to d'Aulmay, dated March 3/4, 1714/15 inquiring whether the Pretender was getting married. On April 18 Francia wrote to d'Aulmay: " Great precaution must be used to avoid giving umbrage to those who are in power. When I have anything particular to write to you, I will do it by a strange hand and will sign myself Jacques Chretien.</page><page sequence="4">FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. 193 . . . Take notice of this, and provided you let me know you received this letter, without its having been opened, I shall be easy." This was the last entry in Francia's copy-book and was acknowledged by d'Aulmay six days later. But the letters from d'Aulmay still con? tinued, obviously in answer to communications from Francia. Thus in a letter dated September 6 Francia is requested to use a cipher and not his own hand. Evidence was then given of Francia's examination before Townshend and Stanhope, Secretaries of State, by one Buckley, who had taken down a report at the time. He had read it to Francia and asked him if he was willing to swear to it. Francia said "Yes." "I offered him," Buckley said, in his evidence, " a New Testament to swear on. He said he could not swear on that book, but he took another book out of his pocket and swore on that." The report of the examination was then signed, Buckley affirmed. Francia (cross-examining Buckley): " You say I took an oath ? On what book was it ? " Buckley: " Indeed, I don't know, I believe it was an Hebrew Book. Mr. Secretary Stanhope looked upon it." Francia : "Is that the Book I swore upon ? " (producing a book). Buckley : "I don't know indeed, it was such a sort of book." Attorney-General: "I don't take that to be material, if it were the Alchoran. He had it in his pocket. But it is not his oath, but his confession that is material." Mr. Hungerford (Francia's counsel), taking the book in his hands : " I understand a little Hebrew. This is a book to pray by, not swear by. It is a collection of some Jewish prayers and rituals, I believe, taken out of Maimonides. You had best send it to the learned Montfaucon in Paris, he is compiling some critical observations on the Eastern languages." 6 One is justified in assuming from this little " breeze " in court that Francia was not at the time of the trial a convert to Christianity. Another " breeze " occurred when Francia, in no whit abashed by the position in which he found himself, cross-examined Townshend when he came into the witness-box. 6 Bernard de Montfaucon (1655-1741) was a learned French Benedictine antiquary. VOL. XT. O</page><page sequence="5">194 FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. Francia (to Townshend) : " Did you not offer me some money to sign it (the deposition) ? " Townshend : " I hope you can't say a thing of so much infamy. Ffancia said his wife and family were starving and begged so hard that I put my hand in my pocket and gave him 3, 4, or 5 guineas, I know not which, in charity. ... He said his brother would not look upon him, because he was taken up for high treason." Francia : " I desire to ask you whether you ever bestowed on anybody else the like charity ? Pray, my lord, name the man under your examination you ever gave 5 guineas to before." (At which there being a laugh round the court) Francia said : " I must not be laughed out of my life ; you did not answer me." Stanhope then went into the box to corroborate Townshend's story and stated that, when Harvey of Combe was confronted with a letter written by Francia to his wife while at Newgate, he attempted to stab himself.7 Twenty-one letters, mainly to Francia, were then put in as evidence for the prosecution, after a legal argument whether they should have been mentioned in the indictment as overt acts of treason. Francia sent such news to d'Aulmay as the riots in London on the anniversary of Charles II.'s restoration, when the cry could everywhere be heard "Long live James III. and the Duke of Ormonde!" D'Aulmay's desire for information was tempered with caution and in another letter he is to be found advising Francia to use a cipher for the names mentioned in future correspondence. Witnesses were then called for the defence, the first being Simon Francia, the prisoner's brother. He said he was four years older than Francis, who had been in England twice, on the first occasion about twenty years ago, and again six or seven years ago. From Simon's evidence, it would appear that his brother had been absent from this country from about 1704 to 1708. Jacques Gonsales then stepped into the witness-box. He was the prisoner's uncle, his sister Mary having married George, the father of Francis Francia, whose birth, he testified, had taken place at Bordeaux 7 The letter was found beside Francia's bed in Newgate. It said that he had done nothing to hurt Harvey and that he himself laughed at anything the government could do, for if all the Pretender's friends in this country were punished, over three-quarters of the nation would suffer.</page><page sequence="6">FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. 195 on March 26, 1675. Gonsales, who spoke English imperfectly, made use of an interpreter and was sworn on the Books of Moses. Though Jews had been allowed to swear on the Old Testament since 1667, this special mention in the report of the Francia trial shows that this form of oath was still regarded as exceptional and that Simon Francia had probably been sworn in the ordinary way.8 Ernes Lamira then deposed that he was living at Bordeaux when Francis Francia was born, and a Mrs. Cecilia Ceres claimed to have been a school-companion of Francia's at Bordeaux. An attempt was made by prisoner's counsel to show that the persons of 60,000 crowns a year, referred to in a letter of Francis's, meant a nephew, George Francia, who was concerned in the revenues in France. Simon Francia stated that this George had lost all his possessions but had been worth about 8 or 9 thousand pounds. He then proceeded to deny Townshend's account of what happened at the examination of his brother, saying that Francis was promised more than the five guineas given if he gave evidence against Harvey, When Townshend went into the witness-box again, the prisoner said to him, " You told me I should be hanged, drawn and quartered ; and your Lordship told me many a time, Damn you, you dog, now I have got Mr. Harvey in my clutches and you will let him go from me, If there was no particular animosity against me, why should I be distinguished, for none were put in irons for Treasonable Practices, but me." Several witnesses were then called to show that the handwriting in the copy-book of letters was not that of the prisoner. One said it looked like the writing of Francis's son, George. Another witness to character deposed that he had assisted the prisoner when bankrupt, that he took him to be a Frenchman, and that he used to reprove the prisoner for his Francophile sympathies. Lord Chief Baron Bury, in the course of a very fair recapitulation of the evidence, observed that the letters produced in court constituted the overt acts of treason mentioned in the indictment and concluded with this remark: " Now if you believe those letters were wrote to him and by him, and that they contain correspondence of a treasonable 8 Vide Henriques, Jews and English Law, p. 179 et seq.</page><page sequence="7">196 FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. nature, inciting or encouraging any persons to levy war against the King, or anything which shows he was privy and assenting to it, then he is guilty of High Treason. If you don't believe those letters were his, or that they don't amount to such a correspondence, then you must acquit him." Within half an hour, Sir Daniel Wray, foreman of the jury, re? turned a verdict of Not Guilty. A contemporary account says : "It must frankly be owned that some of the best lawyers were of opinion that there was not sufficient legal proof of Francia's having written the treasonable letters found in his copy-book and upon which the accusation was chiefly grounded." 9 Francis Francia left the dock of the Old Bailey a free man, after proceedings which were quite fairly conducted and which brought to light evidence sufficient to justify the charge of treason having been made. Perhaps a hint was dropped to the jury that if Francia was acquitted he would become a Government spy, a suggestion which in the light of the subsequent material dealt with later may have some foundation. Unfortunately for his reputation, but fortunately for historical truth, the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV., secured possession from Italy in 1804 and later of a very large collection of letters and papers belonging to the Old Pretender and his sons. They have been published in part by the Historical MSS. Commission as the Calendar of Stuart Papers belonging to his Majesty the King, pre? served at Windsor Castle, and the seven volumes already published contain letters written until 1718. An examination of these papers leaves no doubt that Francia was directly implicated in various Jacobite intrigues. A letter sent from London on June 11, 1716, informs one of the Old Pretender's confidantes that the trial of Harvey of Combe had been postponed until " they try what they can do with Fantio the Jew to force him to bear evidence against him since he has been proof against a bait of ?500 a year to him and his heirs for ever." 10 The Duke of Mar, a well-known Jacobite who raised the Stuart standard at Braemar and Sheriffmuir, was apparently kept in touch with what 9 " Political State of Great Britain," Jan. 1717. Quoted by Gollancz, " Anglo-Judaica," J.H.S. Trans, vol. vi. p. 69. 10 Cal. Stuart Papers, vol. ii. p. 227.</page><page sequence="8">FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. 197 was happening in London and was told that H. Walpole was going to be a witness against Francia and, later, that Francia had been acquitted.11 In July 1717 the Duke of Mar wrote to the Old Pretender that " the affair of Frisk " was beginning to take place effectually.12 " The affair of Frisk " was a promise of money made by Francia to the Old Pretender. Several days later Mar again wrote : "I know not who are the people concerned in Mr. Frisk's (Francia's) mantle (money) affairs which you mention." 13 On August 3, 1717, Lt.-Oeneral Dillon wrote to Mar: " Francia assures by a letter of 28 July that the ?60,000 is already lodged and gives hopes that the remaining part will be furnished in case of need and when required. This piece of news is not uncomfortable. Francia intends to settle his family at Calais and says his noble society intends to send one of their trustees to compliment Peter (James) and assure him of their fidelity, zeal and efficacious assistance." 14 Two days afterwards Mar wrote to the Duke of Ormonde regarding money supplies and assumes that he is already aware " of what the Jew says upon this head." 15 Mar also told the Old Pretender of " the agreeable account he (Dillon) had lately from the Jew of ?60,000 being sure." 16 On August 14, 1717, Dillon wrote to the Old Pretender: " I own the latter's (the Jew's) performance surpasses the hopes I had of him, which is a convincing proof that proposals must neither be despised or neglected, though they should appear groundless." 17 From this it would appear that Francia had scarcely made a favourable impression upon the leading Jacobites with whom he had come into contact, and even this grudging appreciation was soon to be dissipated when Francia's financial promises were seen to have no foundation in actual cash. In September 1717 Mar was informed " that the great offers made by 11 Jerningham to Mar, Nov. 6, 1716 (Cal. Stuart Papers, vol. iii. p. 87) and Feb. 12, 1717 (ibid., p. 525). 12 Ibid., vol. iv. p. 428. Francia evidently was not remiss in resuming his Jacobite activities as soon as he was acquitted. 13 Cal. Stuart Papers, vol. iv. p. 454. 14 Ibid., vol. iv. p. 490. 15 Ibid., vol. iv. p. 496. 16 Ibid., vol. iv. p. 499. For further occasional references to Francia, vide pp. 503, 510, 516. 17 Ibid., vol. iv. p. 519.</page><page sequence="9">198 FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. Francia and some other private friends who would not be named, begin now to have no good aspect. When they made their first pro? posal they said they were to ask no questions, nor desired to know anything of the King's affairs. Only they insisted that Queen Mary should promise that what they gave should be applied to the restoration's use and no other. They now want to put the money in Mary's hands and they ask so many questions as to give the impression that they are employed by King George." Doubt was thrown upon Francia's sincerity and it was proposed to test his fidelity.18 Mar replied that he was heartily concerned at this news which he transmitted to Ormonde with the observation that "now when Queen Mary begins to ask Frisk or Francia for the money which he said from his people was lodged on this side for the use of a restoration, they began to ask such questions that would put too much in their power should they be answered." 19 Mar was informed by another correspondent that Francia had taken a house in Calais and " desires earnestly that Flint 20 and his wife be allowed something monthly to subsist on, that he may not be longer burdened with them." The same informant wrote later "I have a suspicion, but I am not certain, that the Jew has orders from d'Aulmay to advance him money. What I am sure of is, that the Jew complains our managers have sent him orders to pay 500 livres to somebody here, though he has never had a farthing of their, or rather the King's money, and that he would be glad to have them told not to bid him lay out any more without letting him know how to get it in again, because he says he is not able to do it any longer." 21 From this it would appear that Francia was acting as a sort of paymaster for the Old Pretender. At this time a treaty between England and the Regent Orleans was being negotiated, as a result of which the Pretender was expelled from France where, under Louis XIV., he had enjoyed a certain con? sideration. This was a great blow to the Jacobite cause. Mar was told on October 3,1717, that the French Court had ordered all strangers 18 Cat. Stuart Papers, vol. v. p. 13. 19 Ibid., vol. v. pp. 38, 45. 20 Flint was a fellow-prisoner of Francia's in Newgate who appeared at the trial. 21 Gal. Stuart Papers, vol. v. pp. 71, 84.</page><page sequence="10">FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. 199 out of Calais, among whom there was a risk of Francia being included unless he were powerfully recommended.22 Francia was evidently still considered a person of sufficient import? ance in favour of whom special representations ought to be made, though the Duke of Ormonde had already expressed his regret at the disappointing trend of the Francia affair.23 Though Francia had to use the credit of Father Graeme, one of the Old Pretender's confidantes, to pay out the 500 livres already referred to, he seemed to have rehabilitated himself in Graeme's esteem, for the latter wrote to Mar on October 20, 1717, that " the Jew is really a very honest fellow and a man of mettle. Therefore I beg you'll allow him to address himself immediately to you in the future when he has anything material to present to you, or at least that he may communicate to me anything he has to say to you, for I am persuaded he is both able and willing to serve you."24 But Inese, another colleague, writing to Mar from St. Germains on November 15, was still suspicious. The English court in his view was not averse from being supplied with details of a Jacobite plot which would serve as a pretext for maintaining a large army and raising funds. " I can think of but three people," Inese wrote, " who can furnish them with materials for one, or make such a noise as may supply that want by amusing the people. Bolingbroke, Peterborough and Francia are persons of very different character, yet they perhaps may all three be made use of for the ends of the present government. ... As to Francia, his offer of so great a quantity of money looked suspicious from the beginning, but his declaring at the same time that he would ask no questions and that he and his friends desired to know nothing of the King's concerns seemed to make it safe to deal with him. Yet of late he has in his letters asked many leading questions about the King's affairs so that, had his expectations been granted, he had known the most essential part of them. This way of working gave jealousy with reason. It was therefore resolved to make a trial of his sincerity by asking the actual delivery to Queen Mary of some part of the money. Francia had himself before declared that the whole money was ready on call and that one or two of his friends were ready 22 Cat. Stuart Papers, vol. v. p. 96. 23 Ibid., vol. v. p. 95. 24 Ibid., vol. v. p. 148.</page><page sequence="11">200 FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. on a day's warning to part from London and to deliver to any person sufficiently empowered by Queen Mary such a quantity as she should require. Accordingly a person was empowered by Queen Mary to receive a small quantity in comparison of the whole. Francia was desired to get his friend to come and deliver as he promised. He answered it should be done immediately: now Queen Mary's trustee has waited above two months, and Francia puts off with visible defaits, pretending that some odd accident or other still hinders his friend from coming. At the same time he still writes news, sometimes that the King of Sweden and the Czar are certainly made up, other times of the great dispositions in England to send for the King and such stuff, which seems intended to draw on Dillon to say in his answer what he thinks there is of truth in these reports. This way of working seems to me at least very suspicious. I have told my thoughts freely to Dillon, who is, and I hope always will be, on his guard, so that if ever Francia's offers were intended for a plot, which is at least possible, I hope they will have got no materials from this side." 25 The subsequent correspondence shows that the intrigues within the Jacobite camp proceeded from complication to complication; Dillon informed Mar that Francia was complaining of Graeme's curiosity and that he had been asked by Francia whether Graeme could be trusted. He was expecting any day a messenger from Francia regarding the financial support promised, till when it would be impos? sible to say how the matter would end.26 Francia wrote to Dillon (December 11, 1717): " I shall on my side exert myself to the utmost of my slender powers, and let you know by next, which will soon follow, how things now stand and the issue of the late insurrection." 27 He said further that his friend, instead of paying a part of the sum promised to Queen Mary direct, intended first to see the King. " All this," Inese told Mar, " looks on a piece with their shuffling all along. If he really goes to the King, I fear it is on no other account but to try to find out the King's designs and the state of his affairs." 28 Mar himself was dissatisfied that his letters to Graeme had been shown to Francia without his consent and contrary to his own instructions. 25 Gal. Stuart Papers, vol. v. p. 209 et seq. 26 Ibid., vol. v. p. 229. 27 Ibid., vol. v. p. 271. 28 Ibid., vol. v. p. 287.</page><page sequence="12">FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. 201 Francia's failure to redeem his promise would in his opinion entail fatal consequences to the Jacobite cause.29 Ormonde wrote to the Old Pretender in March 1718, that the Jew was not to be depended upon.30 In Mar's opinion Francia was a strange, light-headed fellow.31 Further, Graeme's opinion of Francia had by this time begun to change. He told Mar that the Jew was a very dangerous fellow, " besides that he spreads about the town every word of news he gets from the other side, and tells a thousand lies to boot. I saw a letter he had from Lord Sunderland inviting him to go over to England and assuring him his fortune should be made, provided he performed what he had promised." 32 Francia had also begun to appropriate money given to him to be disbursed among certain Jacobite pensioners, including Flint.33 Ormonde finally told the Old Pretender at the end of March 1718, " that the Jew's message is come to nothing." 34 This coincided with Graeme's complaint of Francia's behaviour at Calais, comprehensible only if he was a spy employed by the English court.35 The Old Pretender himself gave up all hope of any materialisation of Francia's promises and asked for further personal details in order to be the better on his guard.36 The last mention of Francia in the Stuart Papers as yet printed in is a letter of Graeme's dated Nov. 15, 1718, in which he mentions that an order expelling all foreigners from Calais was being applied to his own person, mainly to gratify " that rascal of a merchant, Francia, the Jew," who was ill-disposed because he suspected that certain commissions which he claimed rightly belonged to him had passed through Graeme's hands. If, as is quite likely, Francia was lining his own pocket with moneys intended for others, he was naturally interested in securing that as much business as possible should pass through his hands. Mention is made in the Stuart Papers of a letter sent by Francia which cost ten guineas 37 and which indicates that Francia's services must have entailed a not inconsiderable expense. 29 Cat. Stuart Papers, vol. v. pp. 313, 414, 494. 30 Ibid., vol. vi. p. 77. 31 Ibid., vol. vi. p. 128. 32 Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 143, 211. 33 Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 478-80, 552 ; vol. vii. pp. 12, 102. 34 Ibid., vol. vii. p. 225. 35 Ibid., vol. vii. p. 289. 36 Ibid., vol. vii. pp. 348, 382. 37 Ibid., vol. vii. pp. 394-5.</page><page sequence="13">202 francis francia?the jacobite jew. It is highly probable that, when future volumes of the Stuart Papers are issued, further unfavourable references on the part of his Jacobite colleagues will be made to Francia's activities presumedly in their behalf. His surprising acquittal of the charge of high treason, his inquisitive questionings into Jacobite affairs which were not his im? mediate concern, his failure to redeem the promise of funds, all point in one direction, that he acted as a kind of agent-provocateur for the English court. With such doubtful adherents as Francis Francia, it is no wonder that the Old Pretender flitted unimpressively around the courts of Europe, awaiting in vain the day when there would ring in his ears the plaudits of the London crowd and the cry of " Long live James III." POSTSCRIPT. By Lucien Wolf. Francis Francia's Relations. In the discussion which followed the reading of Mr. Lipton's Paper some doubt was expressed as to whether Francis Francia belonged to the Francia family of London. I stated that he was a grandson of Domingo Francia, who in the latter half of the seventeenth century was a merchant of Leadenhall Street, and I promised to supply a postscript to Mr. Lipton's Paper giving details of the relationship. Hence this Note. The Francias were a Marrano family of Villareal in Portugal.38 Some? where about 1625 the brothers Jorge, Domingo and Simon Francia migrated to Spain, where they settled in Malaga. The activity of the Granada Holy Office in Malaga towards the middle of the century drove them to seek refuge in Bordeaux, whence in 1655, with their wives and children, they betook themselves to London.39 As has already been said, it was from the second of the three brothers, Domingo, that Francis was descended. Domingo was the most active of the partners in the great firm of Jorge and Domingo Francia, Spanish and East India merchants and shipowners of Leadenhall Street. He was a member of the Marrano community which existed in London before the coming of Menasseh ben Israel, and he gave evidence in the Robles Case of 1656, which first revealed the existence of this community.40 Before leaving Malaga he was arrested by the Inquisition on 38 Boletim Acad. Seien, de Lisboa, vol. ix. p. 463. 39 Wolf, Jews in the Canaries, pp. 199, 200, 207, 211-12. 40 Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc., vol. i. p. 79.</page><page sequence="14">FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. 203 the denunciation of a Mulatto woman, but he managed to escape. In London he and his brother Jorge were circumcised, in 1655.41 The Francia firm acquired great wealth, and when the new Jewish congregation in London was organised they figured first in the finta list, with the highest assessment.42 Domingo remained an active member of the Synagogue to his death. He was one of the four Elders who, in 1674, petitioned the Crown for the con? firmation of the right of public worship for Jews, and obtained it.43 He was a Warden of the Congregation in 1677 and signed the Asccmoth of that year.44 He was endenizened in June 1675 and died in 1688.45 Domingo had three sons, George, Francis and Simon. The two younger accompanied him to London, where they became partners in the Leadenhall firm and died unmarried. The eldest, George, remained in Bordeaux. Here he married Mary Gonsales, the daughter of Caspar Gonsales of Bidache, who had been a member of the London Marrano community in 1655 and had signed Menasseh ben Israel's famous Petition to Oliver Cromwell in that year in the name of Abraham Coen Gonsales.46 George, who became a burgess of Bordeaux in 1670,47 had a family of seven sons and three daughters. As will be seen by the appended skeleton pedigree,48 Francis, the alleged Jacobite spy, was the fourth of these sons. The proof that Francis Lewis, grandson of Domingo of London, was the Jacobite who was indicted for high treason in 1716 is to be found in the evidence given at the trial, when it was stated that the prisoner was a son of George and Mary Francia of Bordeaux.49 The only other Francis among the immediate posterity of George of Bordeaux was his grandson Francis Moses, but he was a son of Gaspar. It is interesting to note that although George Francia, the father of 41 Wolf, op. cit., pp. 210-11. 42 Gaster, Hist, of Ancient Syn., London, p. 17. 43 [Webb] The Question whether a Jew, &amp;c. (Lond. 1753), pp. 38-9. 44 Gaster, op. cit., p. 13. 45 Pat. Rolls, 27 Car. II. Part 6, No. 20. Beth Holim Burial Register, 4th Carrera. 46 Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc, vol. i. p. 67. 47 Cirot, Les Juifs de Bordeaux, pp. 35-6. 48 This pedigree only gives sufficient information for the purpose of this Note. It does not give the names of wives, nor of any of the descendants of Jorge and Simon Francia, senior, beyond their children. In the case of George Francia, son of Domingo and father of Francis Lewis, the descendants are limited to two generations. The pedigree is based on the Francia Wills in the London Register, the Beth Holim Burial Register, and Cirot, op. cit., and also his Recherches sur les Juifs Espagnols et Portugais ? Bordeaux, passim. 49 The Tryal of Francis Francia (Lond. 1717), p. 46.</page><page sequence="15">204 FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. i -2 00 ~ ? ?? o o ^ 3 ? o 3 o io '?? ?2 Iis fr 32 ? O Ii M" s * -O PP -rO U ? c6 O i 0) cs -eS Z O g ^3 ? =-S ? ^ -9 'S gq qq Pm &lt;3 ^ S 2 . o 2 &lt;s a Erg o o ? eS &lt;1 I?I ?-3 - . . "3 ? . Z eS c? kG'g c8 _ c? o8 ^ * 02 oq &lt;\ PS p3 zg o 33s 02 &lt;U c? CO_ &amp; ? oh fr -ei *r C5 c? . o __aiqpqfr</page><page sequence="16">FRANCIS FRANCIA?THE JACOBITE JEW. 205 Francis, predeceased his father and his uncles, and thus the family partner? ship in the great Leadenhall firm fell to his brother Francis, the whole business eventually came into the hands of one of his grandsons, Abraham Francia, the son of Elizabeth, who married Moses Francia, the youngest son of Jorge Francia, the founder of the firm.50 This was due to the domestic and financial disasters that came to the other sons of Jorge senior and also to the single blessedness of his nephews, Francis and Simon. The latter predeceased Francis, who thereupon left the house in Leadenhall Street and the residue of his property to his niece Elizabeth.51 From her it devolved on her son Abraham. He died unmarried in 1749 and left the whole of his property to his " dear, good and beloved friend Mrs. Mary Whiter, widow." 52 In this way the London House of Francia came to an end, though in Bordeaux the descendants of George and Mary Francia continued to flourish for several generations. 50 Lond. Reg. Will, 235 Young. 51 Ibid. 52 Lond. Reg. Will, 1142 Lisle.</page></plain_text>

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