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England expects …: British Jews under the white ensign from HMS Victory to the loss of HMS Hood in 1941

Geoffrey Green

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Jewish Historical Studies, volume 41, 2007 England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign from HMS Victory to the loss of HMS Hood in 1941* GEOFFREY GREEN The fact that Jews have served and still serve in the Royal Navy frequently occasions surprise, and it is true that the phenomenon is somewhat rare. The relatively small number of Anglo-Jewish Royal Navy Seamen and Royal Marines is itself worth studying within the wider history of the Royal Navy. Early evidence of the consequences of being Jewish in the Royal Navy can be found in the partial obscurity of the supernumerary section of HMS Victory^ muster roll. One entry states that Landsman Moses Benjamin, 'being a Jew, was to be discharged from the service on the order of Lord Nelson, agreeable to orders from the Lord commissioners of the Admiralty. Dated 20 August 1805.1 This annotation needs clarification. Moses Benjamin, a pedlar, was pressed while in the Minories, close to the London Docks, a favourite haunt of Press Gangs, and sent to HMS Victory, then refitting at Chatham on 11 May 1803. A week later Nelson's flag was run up in the Victory for the first time and she sailed for the Mediterranean. Representations were later made on behalf of Moses Benjamin for his release on the grounds that by enactment, only men used to the sea could be pressed, and that foreigners were not allowed to be pressed on land. The Admiralty agreed as Jews were not considered seafarers and were looked on as foreigners. However, as the Victory was in commission and due to sail, Moses Benjamin could not be put ashore, which is why he was transferred from the main muster roll to the supernumerary one, and why a British Jew was aboard Lord Nelson's flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805. As there was no standing navy, the Admiralty relied on volunteers with the incentive of bounty and prize money. Seamen moved between the mercantile marine and navy. During the Napoleonic Wars, owing to an * Paper presented to the Society on 22 September 2005. 1 National Archives. Muster Books HMS Victory ADM36-15899 to 15901. 63</page><page sequence="2">Geoffrey Green overall shortage of seamen, a quota of men was found in proportion to the male population of each county, the unpopular Press Gang attempting to complete the manning of the fleet. Foreigners and non-Protestants were officially not accepted, but a man's religion was not asked for. In fact, of Victory's 820 compliment, 71 were foreigners, the Admiralty bending its manning regulations to suit necessity. Yet Jews, knowing their disabilities, still volunteered for the Royal Navy. At the Battle of Trafalgar on HMS Britannia were Ordinary Seaman Joseph Manuel, Landsmen Nathan Manuel, Henry Levi and Benjamin Solomon, all from London, who would have known each since they volunteered on the same day and were able to choose the ship aboard they wished to serve. Others present were Landsman Philip Emanuel, HMS Colossus, John Benjamin, the oldest, at thirty-four years of age, HMS Royal Sovereign, Landsman James Brandon, killed in action, and Thomas Brandon, both of HMS Revenge.1 The combined French and Spanish Fleet of thirty-three sailing warships outnumbered the British Fleet of twenty-seven, but Nelson's tactical genius and qualities of leadership won him a resounding victory. This success was the culmination of a long process which brought the British navy to a superior state of combat readiness. The essential ingredients of trying to preserve the health and morale of the sailors, together with the prospect of prize money, resulted in the best-disciplined crews afloat. British ships might be cleared for action within ten minutes, manned by well-drilled gun crews achieving a high rate-of-fire. With the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 the Royal Navy was run down both in ships and men. Many seamen returned to the merchant marine and were forgotten by the public. It was not until 1847 that the serv? ices of seamen were recognized, by which time many were no longer alive. Three Jews received the new Naval General Service Medal with the clasp 'Trafalgar'. The Royal Navy was changing from sail to steam, with new technologies. Continuous Service was instigated in 1853 for Boys and Men entering the Royal Navy. Gradually, Britain was to have a volunteer professional standing 2 National Archives. Muster Books HMS Britannia ADM36-15994 and 15996, HMS Colossus ADM36-15825, HMS Temeraire ADM36-15851, HMS Royal Sovereign ADM36-15754 and 15755i HMS Revenge ADM36-16546. G. L.Green, The Royal Navy and Anglo-Jewry 1740-1820 (London 1989). Godfrey Simmons had confirmed in correspondence with the author that his great-grandfather, Barnett Abraham Simmons, did not lose a finger at the Battle of Trafalgar. It has been asserted that John Edwards (1795-1893), Portsmouth town councillor and warden of the synagogue, was the youngest to serve in the Royal Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar, but letters to The Times between October and December 2002 show this to be unfounded. As John Edwards was a Licensed Navy Agent between 1837 and 1865 he quite possibly knew some of the survivors from the Battle of Trafalgar, which may have given rise to the belief that he was present at the battle. 64</page><page sequence="3">England expects . : British Jews under the white ensign navy, with conditions of service, training and pensions improved. Foreigners were not to be entered. Religious scruples were to be respected and dispar? agement of religion forbidden. The first lower deck Uniform Regulations in 1859 improved pride in the service, developing into the uniform we have come to know The Crimean War initiated changes in British attitudes, which came to view the army more sympathetically. Social, political and religious trends resulted by the end of the 1860s in a more militaristic country. But most of the British public never attempted to understand naval men, whom they looked on as leading mysterious lives, the country accepting the Royal Navy as invincible defender of the island empire. In 1892 Reverend Francis Cohen had urged the United Synagogue to consider the welfare of Jewish soldiers in his home town of Aldershot. He was also concerned at the growing view that Jews were not patriotic, brought on in part by the influx of immigrants from Eastern Europe who had an understandable abhorrence of uniforms and no desire to see their sons in one. The established Jewish community encouraged a process of anglicisation of which Reverend Francis Cohen's work was just part. In December 1893, as Jewish Officiating Chaplain, he instigated the annual Chanukah Military and Naval Services held in one of London's main syna? gogues. The Regular Army in 1903 numbered 267,000 and the Royal Navy 122,000. Those avowing the Jewish faith in the Regular Army then numbered about 185. The Army accepted native-born Jews whether their parents were British or not, while the Royal Navy's candidates had to be British born to British parents on both sides. It is no wonder, with the Royal Navy's requirements being less than half those of the Army, and less demanding in terms of nationality, that attendances at the annual Chanukah Services by serving Royal Navy personnel were very few. From about 1855, however, it was in many ways easier to join the Royal Navy as a Naval Cadet with the intention of becoming a Commissioned Officer. Religion was not asked, a Certificate of Baptism not required, and one needed just a birth certificate. Even nationality rules did not seem to apply. However, the Cadets had to be nominated from a favoured back? ground, often as the sons of naval and army officers, which means that a small number of the older-established and more wealthy Jewish families, although favouring the army, did enter the navy, often becoming assimi? lated. In August 1855, during the Crimean War, Thomas de Wahl, as a Midshipman aboard HMS Duke of Wellington, commanded a rocket boat at the bombardment of Sweaborg, and was awarded the Baltic Medal. In 1862 he was promoted to Commander for his active, zealous and gallant conduct as Lieutenant aboard HMS Lyra in the suppression of the slave trade, on one occasion receiving two sword cuts. Commander William A. L. Q. 65</page><page sequence="4"></page><page sequence="5">England expects. : British Jews under the white ensign Henriques similarly served off the East African slave coast as Sub Lieutenant of HMS Thetis in 1874, attacking Arab slave dealers and helping to liberate more than 600 slaves at Pangany, Tanganyika. Henry Daguilar, brother of the eminent author Grace, spent most of his Royal Naval service in the Pacific from 1859 until retiring as a Staff Commander in 1872. During the South African War about 2000 Jews from throughout the Empire served predominately as volunteers with the Army, of whom 114 were killed. The Royal Navy supported the army by landing naval brigades. Lieutenant-General Sir George White, defender of Ladysmith, had requested the Navy to send detachments of bluejackets with naval guns to fire heavy projectiles at long range. Guns were landed at Durban from the cruisers Powerful and Terrible, taken by train up to Ladysmith, and manhandled by seamen over extremely rugged terrain to their firing posi? tions. Ladysmith was relieved on 28 February 1900. Enteric fever claimed the life of Able Seaman Benjamin Blumson of HMS Powerful, but a Jewish shipmate, Able Seaman George Jacobs, survived. Both were awarded the Queen's South African Medal with 'Ladysmith' bar. The guns of HMS Terrible were later used again in the relief of Peking during the Boxer Rebellion. Aboard Terrible were Ship's Cook Elias Stanberg, who served as 'Stanbury', and Able Seamen Aaron Myers, who served as 'Robert Harvey', having entered the Royal Navy from Norwood Orphanage in 1898. Both were awarded the Queen's South African and China War ! Plate 2 HMS Terrible First Class Cruiser 14,200 tons. Sister ship of HMS Powerful 67</page><page sequence="6">Geoffrey Green Medals. On returning home, Myers was discharged sick to Haslar Royal Naval Hospital in December 1903.3 By the centenary of the Battle of Trafalgar in 1905 Germany had started to expand her navy to compete with the Royal Navy. Admiral Sir John Fisher, appointed First Lord of the Admiralty in 1904, laid the foundations of reform and made it clear that complacency would not be tolerated. By 1914 some improvements had been made in ships and armaments, all manned by volunteers. There had been 127,000 men in 1904, but there were now 146,000, backed by a reserve. The German navy was manned by efficient and well-trained conscripts for periods of three years, but these lacked the spirit or character of British seamen who were familiar with the sea and with life aboard ship and backed by a long tradition and prestige. Boys and young men joined the Royal Navy straight from training ships or orphanages, and were in search of adventure or of escape from unhappy homes. Numbers of Jews entering the Royal Navy were slowly increasing, encouraged by the Reverend Michael Adler, who was chaplain from 1905. At the outbreak of War about 100 Jews had been serving in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, most of whom had volunteered on twelve-year engage? ments before 1914. By the end of the War there were possibly 1500. Numbers had been low because persons born in Britain of foreign parent? age were ineligible for entry into the Naval Service, whether their parents were naturalized British subjects or not. During the War, British Jews served in virtually every class of warship and took part in major naval actions. The British Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, based in the remote and barren Scapa Flow in the Orkneys, faced the German High Seas Fleet across the North Sea under Admiral Scheer at Kiel. Stoker Sydney Braham from Whitechapel, who had joined the Royal Navy in 1912 and was drafted to the light cruiser Falmouth in 1913, was soon in action at the Battle of Heligoland, at which four German ships were sunk, but an opportunity was missed to inflict far greater damage on the enemy. The light cruiser Pathfinder, the first British warship to be sunk by a submarine, was torpedoed off the Firth of Forth on 5 September 1914, going down in just four minutes with few survivors. Stoker William Stern, from Bishopsgate, East London, who had joined the Royal Navy in 1909, was killed.4 3 Jewish Chronicle 9 March, 11 May and 9 November 1900, 18 October 1901. National Archives - Seamen's Services: Blumson ADM 188-238, Jacobs ADM188-289, Stanberg ADM188-514, Myers ADMi88-337. The Naval Brigade's exploit at Ladysmith was commemorated every year at the Royal Tournament until 1999 by the Royal Naval Field Gun Competition between the three Port Divisions of Portsmouth, Devonport and Chatham, with the Fleet Air Arm added after the Second World War. 4 National Archives - Seamen's Services Braham ADM188-901, Stern ADM188-1877. 68</page><page sequence="7">Plate 3 Representative Jewish Royal Navy Officers and Ratings who served during the First World War. i) First-class Stoker J. Pressman, HMS Majestic 2) Stoker Isaac De Friend, HMS Curacoa 3) Leading Stoker B. Jacobs, HMS Lord Nelson 4) First-class Stoker H. Silverstone, HMS Implacable 5) First-class Stoker J. Keesing, HMS Illustrious 6) Philip Cohen RNAS 7) P. Terry RNAS 8) Lieutenant-Commander R. Saunders DSO 9) Captain S. C. Joseph DFC and Bar 10) Stoker J. Simmons, HMS Triumph 11) Able Seaman S. Cornblatt, HMS Colossus 12) Chief Petty Officer Louis Weinberg, HMS Patrol. From Michael Adler (ed.) British Jewry Book of Honour (London 1922) 302. 69</page><page sequence="8">Geoffrey Green Plate 4 Stoker William Stern and the Light Cruiser HMS Pathfinder of 3000 tons. Note the sennet hat worn by seamen in the summer, abolished in 1921. Stoker Alexander Weston of the light cruiser Glasgow, from Mile End, wrote home with descriptions of his experiences at the battles of Coronel and the Falkland Islands, after which the small cruiser had sunk the Dresden. At Coronel the British suffered defeat at sea for the first time in a hundred years, HM Ships Good Hope and Monmouth sinking with all hands, including Able Seaman Harold Abrams of Portsea. This was revenged at the Falklands, enabling the Royal Navy to concentrate warships on bringing the outnumbered German High Seas Fleet to a major action in the North Sea. In January 1915 the Dogger Bank action was a missed opportunity for Admiral Beatty and his battle-cruisers, and there followed a period during which both sides sought to trap the other. Morale in the Grand Fleet was high. Private Jack Wolfe Bandall, Royal Marines, aboard HMS Princess Royal, wrote to the Reverend Michael Adler on 31 March 1915: 'Rev. Sir, ^4 Gutten Yomtiff. Stoker Simmons and I tried to get leave without success. This constant watching and waiting on the part of every single ship puts leave out of the question. So instead the first seder night was spent 8 p.m. to midnight around one of the guns. The Grand Fleet were moving on one of their scouting expeditions, I was think? ing they were clearing more Chometz with no reason for quoting Ma Nishtano for many nights have been like this. Second seder night was more cheerful as we were back in harbour seeing a film. From a gramophone for background, suddenly came grinding out a cello solo of Kol Nidre. To you and Rev Lipson and the other assistant Chaplains, may you all live long to enjoy many a many Pesach to come.' This letter might be viewed as merely irreverent, yet it illustrates an atti? tude, observable in many Jews serving in the Royal Navy, of maintaining 70</page><page sequence="9">England expects . : British Jews under the white ensign Plate 5 HMS Princess RoyalBzttlz Cruiser 27,000 tons, with eight 13.5-inch and sixteen 4-inch guns. their heritage even in the most trying circumstances, in this case by relying on a sense of humour in the face of danger.5 The Battle of Jutland, the last sea battle between two large armoured fleets, began on 31 May 1916, a misty day with poor visibility compounded by smoke from the coal-burning warships. It was a confused and compli? cated battle involving 250 ships and 100,000 men. Three British battle cruisers and a heavy cruiser blew up without survivors, the result of flash fires to the magazines. Among those killed were Able Seaman Isaac Goldstein, HMS Defence, and Officer's Steward Henry Magnus Spanier, HMS Queen Mary. HMS Princess Royal did not suffer the same fate as her sister ships, but Jack Bandal had to spend time in a hospital after sustaining burns. Lieutenant-Commander Jack Mocatta, who had joined as a Naval Cadet in 1903, was in command of the destroyer Nie at or, part of the thirteenth Flotilla ordered to attack the German battle-cruisers in the early phase. Acting independently, Mocatta managed to follow his leader, Commander 5 Jewish Chronicle 23 April 1915. Bandal, using his mother's maiden name, was an alias for Jack Wolfe Cohen, born 6 April 1881 in Birmingham, one of eight brothers, who worked as a tailor's presser. Joined Royal Marine Light Infantry 5 September 1899, awarded the Messina Earthquake Commemorative Medal in 1908, wounded at the Battle of Jutland, discharged in 1923, emigrated to America and died 26 October 1966 (National Archives ADMi 59-77 and Parkes Library Southampton University Rev Michael Adler Papers). Official Jewish Chaplain's have been appointed to the Royal Navy since 1906, but due to low numbers and ship move? ments, keep in touch with Naval Personnel by correspondence. 7i</page><page sequence="10">Geoffrey Green Plate 7 HMS Nicator Destroyer of iooo tons, with three 4-inch guns. Capable of 35 knots, (from a photograph) Barry Bingham in Nestor, at full speed, both ships getting within 3500 yards to release just three torpedoes. Another jammed and hung over the side of Nicator until cast off. Both destroyers turned away smothered in a rain of shells, and Nestor was hit in the boiler room and ground to a halt. Nicator slowed to pick up survivors, but was waved on by Bingham who was shortly saved by the enemy. Nicator got away. Although no hits were obtained on the German battle-cruisers, they were forced to alter course, so protecting Beatty's own battle-cruisers. For this gallant and courageous action Commander Bingham was awarded the Victoria Cross and Lieutenant Commander Jack Mocatta the Distinguished Service Order. The Royal Navy was substantially superior in numbers and fire power and were in a favourable position, but Jutland was not the decisive victory 72</page><page sequence="11">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign that it might have been. Jellicoe turned away in the face of a torpedo threat, and as nightfall approached it was too late. In the ensuing darkness the enemy escaped across the wake of the Grand Fleet, and the Germans were superior in night fighting. In the confusion the small destroyer HMS Turbulent was rammed by a German Battleship and lost most of her crew of ioo, including Ordinary Seaman Emanuel Valenca from Mile End.6 Germany might even have rightly claimed a victory by inflicting heavier losses on the Royal Navy. But the strategic position had not altered. The High Seas Fleet had been mauled, being unable seriously to challenge the Grand Fleet again. Stoker Sydney Braham survived the battle aboard HMS Falmouth, flag? ship of the Third Light Cruiser Squadron. In action again the following August against Zeppelins, two torpedoes struck Falmouth from U-66 and took on a heavy list. Taken in tow, U-63 struck with two further torpedoes close to Immingham. Falmouth remained afloat for eight hours before sink? ing five miles from home. Stoker Braham had been rescued with the rest of the crew. All fondly remembered a ship that had been their home for three years. Braham went on to serve in submarines, leaving the Royal Navy in March 1922. Telegraphist Joy (probably Jay) Goldstein joined the Boys' Training Ship HMS Ganges in 1916 and served as a submariner for nine years. When in port, small Jf class submarines would tie up alongside each other and the crews would visit each other for recreation. One submariner recounted how 'On submarine^ I had an unusual pal, a Jewish telegraphist, whose name was Goldstein, and he was a good chap. We used to go into his boat at night and give each other orders such as "vent flood pump" or "blow" this, that or the other, main ballast tanks, or operate the trimming tanks. All these things we did in imagination, so that we were throughly at home in any compartment, and eventually knew the inside of our boats as well as, or nearly as well as, the Chief Stoker. Afterwards we put on boxing gloves and had a good bash at each other.' A small number of British submarines successfully penetrated the Dardanelles and launched an offensive in the Sea of Mamara, overcoming navigational hazards, mining and nets, with crews perpetually wet, dirty and prone to sickness, tiredness and frustration. Frank Levey from Hackney, who had joined HMS Ganges in 1913, served in submarine E6 as an ordinary signalman in February 1915, transferring to the Ey in June. Passing Cape Helles on 13 June, after negotiating the defences, Ej worked inshore, boarding and setting fire to several craft, sinking a steamer of 3000 6 National Archives - Seamen's Services Goldstein ADM 188-1099, Spanier ADM 188-999, ValencaADMi88-75o. 73</page><page sequence="12">Geoffrey Green tons and seventeen large sailing vessels. They also attacked trains close to the shoreline, disrupting Turkish supply lines. The patrol lasted twenty four days, but not without sickness among the crew. On arrival at Malta, Ordinary Signalman Frank Levey was sent ashore dangerously ill to the Royal Naval Hospital where he died of dysentery on 12 August 1915.7 Chief Stoker Louis Franks, who had joined the Royal Navy in 1893 and was married at the Great Synagogue, Dukes Place, in December 1910, was drafted in March 1914 to the battleship Vanguard and experienced action at Jutland. On 9 July 1917 Vanguard suddenly blew up from an internal explo? sion while at anchor in Scapa Flow, killing about 1000 men, but Franks was one of ninety-three out of the ship at the time. The probable cause was the deterioration of cordite and its spontaneous combustion in the magazine. A similar explosion had previously destroyed the battleship Bulwark at Sheerness on 26 November 1914, killing early 750 men, including Boy Seaman Michael Lewis aged 18 of Aldgate.8 Lieutenant Maurice Bright, who had joined the Royal Navy as a Boy Seaman aged 15 in 1905 and was the first Jew to gain a commission from the lower deck, similarly married at the Great Synagogue, Dukes Place, in February 1917. During the War he served as a Warrant Officer in the cruiser Minerva at the bombardment of Akaba and at Gallipoli.9 HMS Hood, which was laid down just three months after the Battle of Jutland and joined the fleet in 1920, was the largest ship in the world at 42,000 tons, a fast battle-cruiser capable of 30 knots with eight 15-inch guns. She was the pride of the nation, but unknown to the public she had insufficient protective armour and was liable to flood at the stern when steaming at high speed. In the interwar years the British fleet was trained to obviate the failings exposed by Jutland, but had to contend with financial restrictions and with Naval Treaties which favoured the dictatorships. Few of the warships planned from 1937 had joined the fleet by the time war broke out, and 7 Royal Navy Submarine Museum Archives Gosport. M. Wilson, Destination Dardanelles: The Story of HMS Ej (London 1988). National Archives Seamen's Services Levey ADM188-921.1 am indebted to George Malcolmson, Archivist at the Royal Naval Submarine Museum, Gosport, for his assistance in researching this matter. 8 National Archives - Seamen's Services Lewis ADM188-997, Franks ADM 188-288.^22?^ World 30 December 1910 and 11 November 1914. 9 Correspondence between the author and the family of Maurice Bright, promoted to Lieut Commander (retired) in 1920, who recalled in November 1939 serving in minesweepers, saw 40 years service in the Royal Navy, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross in July 1941. He was deeply disappointed that illness prevented him from acting as aide to Admiral Lord Fraser of North Cape, the Reviewing Officer at the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women at the Cenotaph in 1965. They had served together aboard HMS Minerva when Lord Fraser was a Lieutenant. 74</page><page sequence="13">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign Plate 8 HMS Minerva Protected Cruiser of 5600 tons, with eleven 6-inch guns. Sank Turkish torpedo-boat Demir-Hissar off Chios 17 April 1915. existing ships were manned by regulars backed by reservists and by Hostilities Only conscripts, reaching about 300,000 by the end of 1939 with further expansion planned. Up to the outbreak of War candidates had to be British-born sons of British-born parents on both sides. Some exceptions were made in favour of sons of naturalized parents where the father had served in the armed forces during the First World War. But after 1939 British-born sons were admitted of foreign-born parents, provided the parents were naturalized at the time of the candidates birth.10 The Admiralty bent their own regulations still further to suit manning require? ments when German Jewish refugees were later found to be useful, espe? cially as what was known as 'headache' ratings, those listening to and translating enemy signals at sea. An example was when Special Writer William Howard, formerly H. A. Hertzberg, on first joining the cruiser Bellona, was ordered to see Captain Norris at the double. 'Where did you learn a thorough command of German?' 'At school, Sir. Hindenburg Obberealschule in Berlin, Sir.' 'But you are British.' 'No, Sir.' T hope the Admiralty knows what they are doing', remarked the Captain.11 10 National Archives - Lower Deck Entrants into Royal Navy and Royal Marines: Nationality Rules. ADM1-10418: Only men and boys who are the sons of British-born subjects are to be entered or re-entered into any branch of the Naval Service. King's Regulations and Admiralty Regulations Article 1938,385. 11 Conversation with William Howard, who later convinced Captain Norris of his loyalty to both 75</page><page sequence="14">Geoffrey Green Since the Royal Navy's prestige was high, men's welfare was cared for, comradeship was valued and there was less drilling than in the army, it is unsurprising that many opted for this service. Jews, even those captivated by the sea and ships, were in many cases discouraged from joining, however, by parents who feared their sons being subjected to anti-Semitism, even though Admiralty Regulations strictly discouraged the disparagement of religion.12 There was indeed some anti-Semitism, but the majority of Jews did not experience any during their service, perhaps because few Jews were involved, or because seamen travelled the world and were more educated than often given credit for. In addition, seamen came into contact with Jews who supplied them with made-to-measure uniforms as naval outfitters in Portsmouth, Plymouth and Chatham. But above all, in relating to ship? mates, religion was not an issue. On joining a warship for the first time one entered a strange steel world that was hard to find one's way around, in which one ate often cold food cramped in crowded mess decks and in which there was no privacy. You slung your hammock over the mess table if you were lucky or slept on top of lockers, and used a bucket to wash yourself and your clothes in the few restricted washrooms. You were introduced to the ways of your ship by older, dependable, humorous and seemingly fearless regulars. Despite a wide variety of backgrounds, the mess became home, and a strong sense of camaraderie was based on discomforts shared. The Norwegian Operations of 1940 saw the first serious losses of ships and men, mainly from air attacks in confined waters. In the night of 2-3 May the destroyer Afridi went alongside at Namsos to evacuate troops, then rescued survivors from the French destroyer Bison. The Afridi was bombed and sunk the same day, with the destroyer Griffin taking off forty survivors, despite the strength of the swell. The Medical Officer of the Afridi, Surgeon Lieutenant Teviot Eimerl RNVR, from Chester, was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for courage, resource, zeal and devotion to duty. The small destroyers suffered considerably during the operations, with their Medical Officers refusing to submit to the limitations they faced in tending the wounded. Some of their later reports influenced medical organization afloat. ship and country. HMS Bellona saw service on the hazardous Arctic Convoys. A new rating of 'Special Writer' was created for security purposes. I am indebted to Edgar Samuel for inform? ing me that 'Listening to enemy radio traffic was also called the Y Service. According to the late Professor Julius Carlebach, who was interned on the Isle of Man, but later allowed to volunteer for the Pioneer Corps and then as a Petty Officer and Sub-Lieutenant in the RNVR, every British Destroyer in the Channel had a Y service radio operator on the Bridge listening to German E boat conversation, most of whom were German Jewish refugees. On D day and thereafter they enabled the RN destroyers to destroy the E boat fleet.' 12 King's Regulations and Admiralty Regulations 1941. Article 7. 76</page><page sequence="15">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign Plate 9 HMS Afridi, lead ship of the notable Tribal Class of Destroyers. Completed May 1938 of 2500 tons, with eight 4.7-inch guns four 21-inch torpedoes. Speed up to 36 knots. The cinematograph was a powerful recruiting agent, particularly the film Tn Which We Serve', depicting the career of HMS Kelly captained by Lord Louis Mountabatten. Among the crew of 218 officers and ratings of this destroyer, which joined the Fleet virtually as war broke out, were Ordinary Seaman Harry Abrahams from East London and Ordinary Seamen Ellis Cohen from Manchester, nicknamed 'Lofty' and Tzzy'. Natural comedians, Lord Mountbatten promised to obtain Harry Abrahams a job in variety, after the war. In the defence of Crete the Royal Navy sustained heavy losses from air attacks, against which Kelly and her sister ships had little defence. An attack by twenty-four Stuka dive bombers early on the morning of 23 May 1941 resulting in HMS Kashmir sinking in two minutes. Kelly was steaming at 30 knots under full starboard rudder when hit by a large bomb. The ship listed, turned turtle, floated upside down for half an hour and sank. The Stukas returned to machine-gun the survivors struggling in the water. High over Chatham, the Naval War Memorial to men who have no other grave but the sea bears the names of 130 men from HMS Kelly, including Ordinary Seamen H.Abrahams and E.Cohen. The following day HMS Hood and the new battleship Prince of Wales were patrolling south of Iceland when the cruiser Suffolk sighted the battle? ship Bismarck and cruiser Prinz Eugen. Contrary to plans, at 6 am on 24 77</page><page sequence="16">Geoffrey Green Plate io HMS Hood, whose sinking might be regarded as a symbolic portent of the demise of the British Empire. May 1941 Hood mistakenly opened fire on the Prinz Eugen, while the Prince of Wales correctly shelled the Bismarck. The German ships replied accu? rately, the third salvo straddling Hood and causing a fire on the upper deck. A fifth salvo, at a range of 16,500 yards, was fatal. A huge explosion shot a sheet of flame up near the mainmast, followed by a cloud of smoke that enveloped the ship. The Hood broke in two and disappeared in three minutes. Only three three men survived. The crew of 1422 included Able Seaman Leonard Goulstine, who served as Benton, Ordinary Seaman Albert Levy, Able Seaman Benjamin Sterne, and Marines Benjamin Green and Henry Rosenthall. News of the loss of HMS Hood was heard with shocked disbelief throughout the country. The Prince of Wales had also sustained damage, and since most of her new main armament had jammed with teething troubles, she broke off the action. The flag ship King George Fifth, with other units of the Home Fleet including the aircraft carrier Victorious, set a southerly course. The slow but manoeuvrable Swordfish aircraft managed, under difficult flying condi? tions, to launch a torpedo on the Bismarck, which, with earlier damage, caused an oil seepage that slowed Bismarck down, although she was still able to make for Brest on the occupied French coast. The aircraft carrier Ark Royal, battle cruiser Renown and cruiser Sheffield were approaching at full speed from Gibraltar and found the Bismarck. But as their fuel was running low, everything depended on a torpedo attack from Ark RoyaFs Swordfish. Leading Telegraphist/Air Gunner Alfred Pitzer climbed into his Swordfish on Ark Royal with pilot and navigator to take part in the first 78</page><page sequence="17">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign Plate 11 Alfred Pitzer, aged 18, under training in September 1939 at Easdeigh. (author's collection) strike of fifteen aircraft of 820 Squadron. The ship was pitching and tossing in atrocious weather and the aircraft disappeared from sight as they left the ship, dropping towards the sea before slowly climbing like flies. They thought they had sighted the Bismarck, so dropped their torpedoes and managed to get back aboard before they realized they had attacked their own cruiser Sheffield. Fortunately no damage was done, since the settings of the torpedoes were incorrect and contact pistols not fitted. The second wave of fifteen Swordfish aircraft made no mistake. One torpedo hit Bismarck's rudder and she turned a complete circle, helpless, as the Home Fleet closed in. Only no men survived out of a complement of just over 2000. Alfred Pitzer and four other Jews met at the back of the hangar during ship company's prayers aboard Ark Royal. 79</page><page sequence="18">Geoffrey Green Plate 12 HMS Legion going alongside HMS Ark Royal, shortly before the loss of this first aircraft carrier to be purpose-built for the Royal Navy accommodating 72 aircraft. On the 13 November 1941, within 30 miles of Gibraltar, U-41 struck the Ark Royal with a single torpedo. The ship took on an immediate list to star? board and, although taken in tow, the crew had eventually to abandon ship. One of the most published photographs of the war at sea shows the small destroyer HMS Legion going alongside Ark Royal and taking off 1540 of her crew. The captain of the Legion was Commander Richard Jessel, an engag? ing and unassuming man who was second son of Albert Jessel KC, Vice President of the United Synagogue. Richard Jessel's DSO, OBE, DSC and bar made him the most highly decorated Jewish naval officer. Also on board the Legion was Able Seaman Lou Levy, who had been born at the Queen's Head Public House in Commercial Street, East London. A month earlier, in October 1941, the National Savings Committee began holding a series of'Warship Weeks' over a period of six months, with the cooperation of the Admiralty. The scheme, which invited investment in National Savings from the public, included the adoption of one of HM Ships by the Civic Authority. By tradition, warship names are carried down, and moves were soon afoot to replace the Ark Royal. Early in 1942 Leeds adopted a new Ark Royal, raising nearly ?9 million, with the help of a magnificent response from the Jewish community, including Sir Montague Burton.13 13 Jewish Chronicle 6 and 13 February 1942. 8o</page><page sequence="19">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign Plate 13 Commander Richard Jessel at Plate 14 Able Seaman Lou Levy with his home with the ship's bell of his mother in 1943. Two other sons HMS Legion were in the Army and Royal Air Force (author's collection, 1979). (author's collection). The name of HMS Hood, derived from a family of distinguished naval officers, has not yet been repeated. The seventh named Victory, with battle honours going back to the Armada, was in the forefront of the bicentennial celebrations of the Battle of Trafalgar. The small Anglo-Jewish community rightly joined the nation in taking pride in the achievements of the Royal Navy 81</page><page sequence="20">ROLL OF HONOUR Abbreviations ADM Admiralty Files in National Archives, Kew JC Jewish Chronicle JW Jewish World NA National Archives, Kew PROB Probate File at National Archives, Kew Trans JHSE Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR, 21 OCTOBER 1805 BRANDON, Landsman James. HMS Revenge. Born London. 20 years old. Joined ship 27 May 1805. ADM 36-16546. NINETEENTH CENTURY ADOLPHUS, Acting Boatswain Isaac. HMS Martin. Foundered in February 1826 in the East Indies with all hands. NA. ADM 37-7149. PROB 11/1729. Arthur Arnold, 'Anglo-Jewish Wills and Letters of Administration', Anglo-Jewish Notabilities (London 1949) 137, Heber 464. AMERING, Stoker (Arthur) Aaron Van Ameringen. Born 20 September 1879. 61 Brunswick Buildings, Aldgate, London E. Portsmouth changed to Chatham. CS 289724.1 Pupil at Jews' Free School. Joined 9 August 1898. Awarded Queens South Africa Medal for services aboard. HMS Thetis 6 June 1899 - 8 June 1901. Killed 2 December 1901 when HMS Salmon was in collision with steamer Cambridge off Harwich. Plashet Jewish Cemetery. ADM 1-7607, ADM 12-1366 and ADM 188-466. JC 6 Dec. 1901. BLUMSON, Able Seaman Benjamin. Bethnal Green Road, London. Born 16 May 1876. Previously a Van Guard. CS 161843. Height 5' 7". Boy Second Class HMS Impregnable July 1891; Boy First Class HM Ships Neptune and Vivid; Ordinary Seaman HMS Mercury March 1893 - March 1896 (14 days cells); Able Seaman HMS Powerful8 June 1897 (5 days cells). Died of enteric fever at relief of Ladysmith with Naval Brigade 22 December 1899. Awarded posthumously the Queen's South Africa Medal with Bar Ladysmith. ADM 188-238. CHAPMAN, Benjamin. Third Class Boy. Aged 18 years. HMS Captain 10 June 1806. Fell down a hatchway by accident. ADM 37-59, ADM 51-1556 1 The Continuous Service Number was introduced in 1853, with the start of an all-volunteer Royal Navy, offering career prospects and a pension. 82</page><page sequence="21">England expects : British Jews under the white ensign and ADM 4624-137. DE COSTA, Landsman Isaac. Born Whitechapel, London. Drowned aged 20 after falling from the rigging of HMS Resolution 22 May 1806. ADM 51-1603. DE WAHL, Captain Thomas Alexis. Died at sea 14 November 1867. ADM 196-36. JACOBS, Able Seaman James Sheerness. 1820. Height 5' 7". Fresh complexion. Grey Eyes. Single. Joined HMS Hastings 18 February 1838 as a Boy First Class, volunteering at Sheerness. Good Conduct. Joined HMS Cleopatra 25 April 1842 as an Able Seaman. Killed 23 March 1844 by 'Natives' in St Augustine's Bay, Mozambique. ADM 37-9196 and ADM 38-7801. Lt Frederick Lamport Barnard, A Three Year Cruise in the Mozambique Channel for the Suppression of the Slave Trade (London 1848). References and abbreviations Adler 1922 Rev. Michael Adler DSO (ed.) British Jewry Book of Honour (London 1922) ROYAL NAVY ABRAMS, Able Seaman Harold James. Born 21 June 1887 Portsea. Barber. Joined 2 June 1905 for 12 years' engagement. CS 233190. Portsmouth. Selected among seamen and marines for tailoring instruction commencing at RMA Barracks Eastney 1 April 1911. ADM 179-72 Portsmouth General Orders. Discharged by purchase 5 May 1914 by payment of ?12. Placed on Reserve. Recalled to HMS Good Hope 2 August 1914. Killed 1 November 1914 at Battle of Coronel. ADM 188-413. ALLEN, Petty Officer, Engine Room Artificer Ernest. Born 20 June 1891 Bolton, Lancashire. Son of Henry and Rebecca Allen of 154 Chorley New Road, Horwich, Bolton. Fitter and Turner. Hostilities Only 5 January 1916. Chatham M 18490. Killed 17 March 1917 aged 25. HMS Mignonette. Chatham Panel 23. ADM 188-1054. ARON, Sub-Lieutenant E. M. RNVR, 189th Brigade Machine Gun FIRST WORLD WAR RMA RMLI RNAS RND Royal Marine Artillery Royal Marine Light Infantry Royal Naval Air Service Royal Naval Division 83</page><page sequence="22">Geoffrey Green Company, RND. 13 November 1916. Ancre British Cemetery, Beaumont Hamel, France, Plot 8, Row A, Grave 96. BENJAMIN, Lieutenant Nathan Henry. RNVR. Son of David and Rosetta Benjamin of Cazenove Road, London NW. Drake Battalion, RND. 25 April 1917 aged 23. Aubigny Commonwealth Cemetery Extension, France, Plot 6, Row D, Grave 1. BLOK, Stoker First Class Morris. Born 28 January 1884 St Georges in the East, London. Of 1 Coburg Place, London E. French Polisher. Chatham 301844. Joined 20 October 1902. Disrated for incompetence April 1909. HMS Lapwing Heligoland, Dogger Bank and Jutland. HMS Negro from 6 June 1916 until ship lost in collision. Drowned 21 December 1916. Chatham, Panel 17. ADM 188-490. COHEN, Bernard (served as A. J. Clarke). Son of Mary Cohen, Tenter Street South, London E. Fireman. 889327 (Merchant Navy). 9 October 1917 aged 19 on HMS Champagne, Armed Merchant Cruiser ex-Oropesa, sunk by U-62 south of Ireland. Plymouth, Panel 25. COWAN, Petty Officer A. RNVR. Of Pentee, South Wales. Z/L.4167. Anson Battalion, RND. Killed 23 July 1917. GODTSCHALK, Signalman Albert Stanley. Born 22 October 1886 Camberwell, London. Son of Charles and Matilda Godtschalk of Stanley Road, Tottenham, London N. Shopboy. Joined 22 October 1904 on 12 years' engagement. Chatham 229847. Included HMS Caesar. Killed 1 January 1915 on HMS Formidable. Chatham, Panel 10. ADM 188-406. GOLD, D. Steward. Of 9 Philip Street, London E. Killed 26 February i9i6on HMS Dido. GOLDSTEIN, Able Seaman Isaac. Born 25 January 1897 Stepney, London. Of 43 Sheridan Street, London E. Bag Merchant. Joined February 1915. Chatham SS/5374. Killed aged 19 on HMS Defence at Battle of Jutland 31 May 1916. Chatham, Panel 16. ADM 188-1099. HARRIS, Able Seaman Douglas Morris. RNVR. Son of Leo Harris of Wolverhampton. Killed 15 May 1917 aged 19. HM Drifter Floandi. HYMAN, Able Seaman Abraham Leopold. RNVR. R/1533. Husband of Hilda Hyman, Runcorn Road, Birmingham. Nelson Battalion, RND. Killed 31 December 1917 aged 30. Thiepval Memorial, France, Pier and Face ia. ISAAC, Petty Officer Henry. RN 358211. Of 185 Lymington Road, Upton, Torquay, Devon. Killed 30 September 1918 on HMS Seagull. Plymouth, Panel 27. 84</page><page sequence="23">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign JACOBS, Able Seaman Lewis or Louis. Born 29 September 1891 Whitechapel, London. Son of Mr and Mrs B. Jacobs, 66c Stepney Green Buildings, London E. Kitchen Porter. Joined 29 September 1909 as a Boy. Chatham J4081. Joined HMS Lord Nelson July 1913. Landing at Gallipoli. Killed 25 April 1915 aged 23. Mentioned in Dispatches. Chatham, Panel 9. ADM 188-655. JACOBS, Sub-Lieutenant Trevor. RNVR. Of 32 Goldhurst Terrace, London NW. Hood Battalion, RND. Killed 4 February 1917 aged 31. Queens Cemetery, Bucquoy, France, Plot 1, Row J, Grave 14. KARLISH, Able Seaman H. RNVR. Of Hanbury Street, London E. 63rd Machine Gun Battalion, RND R/2424. Killed 10 October 1918. Delsant Farm Cemetery, Beaugny, France, Plot 1, Row C, Grave 12. KOSSICK, Able Seaman Lewis. RNVR. Of Ashfield Terrace, Newcastle. Hood Battalion, RND Z/8316. Killed 13 November 1916. Ancre British Cemetery, Beaumont-Hamel, France, Plot 3, Row A, Grave 38. LAN-DAVIS, Flight Lieutenant Cyril Frederick. RNAS. Son of Israel and Jane Davis of Pembridge Crescent, London W. HMS Ark Royal. Went missing on flight to Malta, 14 October 1915 aged 28.. Chatham, Panel 12. War Memorial, New West End Synagogue, London. LEVENE, Seaman M. 136744. Of 17 Havelock Road, Southampton. HMS Salt a. Killed 10 April 1917. LEVEY, Ordinary Signalman Frank Albert. Born n February 1897 Hackney, London E. Office Boy. Joined 16 September 1913 for 12 years after Boy's time. J27223. Served submarines E6 and Ey from 9 February 1915 to 12 August 1915. Died of dysentery in Royal Naval Hospital, Malta. ADM 188-921. LEVY, Able Seaman Reginald Moss. RNVR. Of London. Anson Battalion, RND R/595. Killed 30 December 1917 aged 19. Fifteen Ravine British Cemetery, Villiers-Plouich, France, Plot 1, Row B, Grave 16. LEWIS, Boy Second Class Michael Charles. Born 30 June 1896. Of 52 High Street, Aldgate, London. Assistant Bioscope Operator. Joined 9 November 1913. Chatham L4929. Killed 26 November 1914 on HMS Bulwark. Chatham, Panel 5. ADM 188-997. LIGHTSTONE, Second Aircraftsman Simon. RNAS. Born 27 November 1897. Of 27 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields, London. Warehouseman. Joined 6 June 1916 Hostilities Only. F15791. Killed 20 July 1917 aged 19 falling 1000 feet out of an aircraft while landing on an airstrip at Cranwell. Plashet 85</page><page sequence="24">Geoffrey Green Jewish Cemetery, Section L, Row 8, Grave 6. Coffin draped with Union Jack and carried on a gun-carriage, attended by naval detachments from Crystal Palace and Rochester. Last Post played. ADM 188-591. 27 July 1917. MYERS, Able Seaman M. Of 35 Bushberry Road, London E. Killed 1916 (possibly at the Battle of Jutland). PHILLIPS, Stoker First Class Harry. Born 28 February 1889. Spitalfields, London. SS/105529. Joined on 7 years' engagement from 10 August 1907. Served HM Ships Andromeda and Gloucester. HMS Amphitrite 2 August 1914 to 21 June 1915, HMS Liverpool 4 September 1915 to 13 February 1917. February 1918 diagnosed with pneumonia aboard HMS Carnarvon. Removed to Devonport Royal Naval Hospital (HMS Vivid). Died 29 April 1918 aged 29. Plymouth Cemetery, northwest corner, Jewish section. ADM188-1111. ROGERCOFFSKY (served as Stander), Able Seaman Louis. Of 4 Chicksand Street, London E. 811844. HMS Queen Mary. British Jewry Book of Honour states killed 1917, but HMS Queen Mary lost at Battle of Jutland 31 May 1916. Journal of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain (September 2004) 15 states: 'Able Seaman Louis Rogercoffsky served under the name of Louis Stander incorrectly spelt as Osseroffski in the British Jewry Book of Honour? SALAMAN, Able Seaman Lewis H. RNVR. Of 47 Frederick Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. Hawke Battalion, RND 1180. Killed 18 June 1915. Helles Memorial, Gallipoli, Panels 8 to 15. SANDERS, Stoker First Class Herbert Israel. Of Englefield Road, Dalston, London N. SS 10203Y. HMS Donegal. Killed 20 November 1917 aged 31. Abney Park Cemetery, Stoke Newington, London, Section K4 RN. 18788. SANDERS, Stoker H. Of 50 Richmond Road, Shepherds Bush, London W12. SS 102037. HMS Dreadnought. Killed 20 November 1917. SCHREIBER, Midshipman Vivian George Edward. RN. HMS Monmouth. Killed 1 November 1914. Plymouth, Panel 1. SHADBRISKY (served as Kelly), Able Seaman Isaac Jacob. J/41061. HMS Sir John Moore. Killed 6 January 1919 aged 25. Jewish Cemetery, Marlow Road, East Ham. SILVER, Stoker First Class Samuel. Born 23 September 1892 Aldgate, London. Son of Jack and Leah Silver. Husband of Jennie Silver of 5 86</page><page sequence="25">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign Shorter Street, Cable Street, London E. Greengrocer's Assistant. Joined September 1911. Chatham K2578. HMS Inflexible from May 1914. Killed 18 March 1915 aged 23 at the Dardanelles. Chatham Memorial. ADM 188-892. SOLOMON, Telegraphist Maurice. RNVR. Son of Lewis and Hannah Solomon of Colberg Place, Stamford Hill, London N. Z/6184. HMS Egmont. Killed 4 October 1918 aged 22. Malta (Capuccini) Naval Cemetery, Plot 392. SPANIER, Officer's Steward Henry Magnus. Born 5 September 1896 Lambeth, London. Son of Michael Spanier of Letch worth Street, Tooting, London SW. Grocer's Assistant. Joined 6 October 1914. Chatham L5689. HMS Queen Mary. Killed Battle of Jutland 31 May 1916 aged 21. Chatham, Panel 18. ADM 188-999. STERN, Stoker First Class William. Born 3 July 1891 Bishopsgate, London E. Son of Jacob and Esther Stern of Bell Lane, London E. Messenger. Joined 20 December 1909 on 12 years' engagement. Gave date of birth to Admiralty as one year older. Chatham K5331. HMS Achilles 1910-12. HMS Pathfinder. Killed 5 September 1914. Chatham, Panel 5. ADM 188-877 and ADM 116-1356. VELENCA, Ordinary Seaman Emanuel. Born 31 January 1897 Mile End, London E. Son of Emanuel Velenca, Adelina Grove, Mile End. Cigar Maker. Joined March 1916. Chatham J51620. HMS Turbulent. Killed Battle of Jutland 31 May 1916 aged 19. Chatham, Panel 16. ADM 188-750. Photograph 14 June 1916. WEIL, Flight Lieutenant Louis Marcus Basil. RNAS attached RAF. Son of Benjamin and Ethel Weil of Abercorn Place, St John's Wood, London NW. Killed 6 April 1917 aged 18. Sauchy-Lestree Communal Cemetery, France, Grave 4. ROYAL MARINES LIGHT INFANTRY ABELSON, Lieutenant Edward Gordon. Second Battalion attached 190th Machine Gun Corps. Son of Milton Abelson of Kidderpore Gardens, London NW. Killed 1 December 1916 aged 19. Ste Marie Cemetery, Le Havre, France, Division 3, Row A, Grave 19. BENJAMIN, Private Jack (served as Davis Nathan). Son of Leah Benjamin of 17 Newman's Buildings, Pelham Street, Brick Lane, London E. Killed 12 July 1915. 87</page><page sequence="26">Geoffrey Green KEMP, Private Samuel. Chatham 7823. HMS Natal Killed 30 December 1915. Chatham, Panel 13. (Not confirmed as Jewish.) LANDEY, Private Samuel. Son of Isaac Landey of Leeds. Portsmouth Battalion, RND. PO/894 (S). Killed 16 October 1915 aged 28. Lancashire Landing Cemetery, Gallipoli, Row K, Grave 42. LION, Lieutenant Neville Isidore. Of Elgin Avenue, London W. First Battalion, RND. Killed 28 April 1917. Arras Memorial, France, Bay 1. SCHIFF, Sergeant Frederick Gerald. Son of Abraham and Caroline Schiff. First Battalion, RND. Chatham 15143. Killed 16 March 1918 aged 29 on the Rocquigny-Equancourt Road. British Cemetery, Monacourt, France, Plot 10, Row C, Grave 29. SECOND WORLD WAR, 1939-1945 References and abbreviations AMB Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women Memorial Book CO Chaplain's Office Records, United Synagogue CWGC Commonwealth War Graves Commission H. Morris, We Shall Remember Them (London 1989, Addendum 1994) Registers of the Naval Memorials at Chatham, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Lee on-Solent, Liverpool and Lowestoft commemorating those who have no other grave but the sea ROYAL NAVY ABRAHAMS, Ordinary Seaman Harry. Son of Maurice and Fanny Abrahams of Clapton, London. C/JX 209764. HMS Kelly. Shipmate of E. Cohen. Killed 23 May 1941. Chatham, Panel 44, Column l.JC 15 August 1941. ABRAHAMS, Lieutenant A. N. Killed on active service. JfC 25 July 1941. ALTMAN, Ship's Cook Henry. Son of Henry and Elizabeth Altman of Glasgow. Naval Auxiliary Personnel. 586078. HMS Voltaire (Armed Merchant Cruiser). Killed 9 April 1941 aged 56. Liverpool, Panel 23, Column 2. ASHER, Able Seaman Leslie Arthur. Son of Arthur and Martha Asher of Wandsworth, London. P/JX 223915. HMS President III. Lost in MV Stork 23 August 1941 aged 24. Portsmouth, Panel 47, Column 1. BERNEY, Supply Assistant Geoffrey David. Youngest son of Maurice and Lily Berney of Fareham, Hampshire. Attended Aria College and 88</page><page sequence="27">England expects . : British Jews under the white ensign Portsmouth Grammar School. P/DX 86 (V) RNVR. HMS Barham. Killed 25 November 1941 aged 20. Portsmouth, Panel 61, Column 1. All 32 windows in the Portsmouth and Southsea Synagogue are dedicated to his memory. BINDERMAN, Surgeon Lieutenant Sidney Lewis. Son of Dr Nahum T. and Bessie Binderman of New York City. RNVR. Joined HMS Vortigern 10 March 1942. Killed 15 March 1942 aged 27. Portsmouth, Panel 71, Column 2. BLACK, Signalman Sydney Norman. Son of Hyman and Anne Black of Margate, Kent. D/JX 173752. HMS Odyssey. Lost in SS Fort Pelly 20 July 1943 aged 23. Plymouth, Panel 80, Column 3. BLONDEL, Leading Signalman Leonard Maurice. Son of Osmond and Doris Amelia Blondel. Husband of Edith May Blondel of Walthamstow, Essex. P/JX 137444. HM Submarine Triad. Killed 20 October 1940 aged 24. Portsmouth, Panel 33, Column 1. BLOOM, Stoker Sidney. See AMB. BRODIE, Sub-Lieutenant (A) Norris Francis. Son of Jacob and Annie Brodie. RNVR. Served on HMS Landrail. 810 Squadron from 28 October 1942. Killed 17 November 1943 aged 22 flying off HMS Illustrious as an Observer in a Barracuda Torpedo Bomber. Confirmed by Bernard Collier who served aboard the Illustrious. Lee-on-Solent, Bay 4, Panel 6. AMB. BROWN, Wireman Phillip. Son of Henry and Hannah Brown of Birmingham. P/MX 71973. HMS Fiji. Killed 23 May 1941 aged 20. Portsmouth, Panel 57, Column 1. CARLTON, Air Mechanic Morris. Son of Mrs A. Carlton of Warwick Street, Glasgow. Fleet Air Arm. Killed by an explosion while on duty 26 July 1944. Emel Cemetery, Glasgow.^C 18 August 1944. COE, Able Seaman Kenneth Benjamin. Son of Rebecca Coe of St Pancras, London. C/JX 157990. HMS Asphodel. Killed 9 March 1944 aged 21. Chatham, Panel 75, Column 1. COHEN, Stoker First Class Albert. Son of William and Fanny Cohen. D/KX 90411. HMS Glorious. Shipmate of Stoker First Class Bertram Hyman. Killed 9 June 1940 aged 23. Plymouth, Panel 41, Column 1. COHEN, Ordinary Seaman David. Son of Reuben and Bertha Cohen of Manchester. JX/416551. HMS Raleigh. Died on active service 29 March 1943 aged 18. Blackley Jewish Cemetery, Manchester. JfC 9 April 1943. CWGC. 89</page><page sequence="28">Geoffrey Green COHEN, Ordinary Seaman Ellis. C/JX 196806. HMS Kelly. Shipmate of H. Abrahams. Killed 23 May 1941. Chatham, Panel 44, Column 2.^C 15 August 1941. COHEN, Sub-Lieutenant (A.) Isaac Jack. Son of Jack and Louise Cohen. Husband of Winifred Cohen of Watford. RNVR. HMS Merlin (Royal Naval Air Station Donibristle). Killed 21 March 1945 aged 22. Willesden Cemetery, London, Jewish Section. CWGC. COHEN, Steward Maurice Myer. C/LX 24134. HMS Veteran. Killed 26 September 1942. Chatham, Panel 64, Column 3. COLEMAN, Sub-Lieutenant Irving. RNVR. HMS Lusitania. Killed 17 March 1945. Portsmouth, Panel 90, Column 2. COLMAN, Ordinary Signalman Aaron. Son of Max and Leah Colman of Cheetham, Manchester. P/JX 539276. HM Motor Torpedo Boat 791. Killed 14 February 1945 aged 19. New Communal Cemetery, Ostende, Belgium. CWGC. CORNBLEAT, Telegraphist Solomon. Son of Hyman and Leah Cornbleet of Walworth, London. P/JX 331054. HMS Quorn. Killed 3 August 1944 aged 20. Portsmouth, Panel 84, Column 3. CO. COWAN, Canteen Manager David. C/NX 2245. HMS Dasher. Killed 27 March 1943 aged 31. Chatham, Panel 74, Column 1. CRYSTALL, Ordinary Signalman Leonard Sydney. Son of David and Elizabeth Crystall of Bierton, Buckinghamshire. P/JX 453036. HMS Birmingham. Killed 28 November 1943 aged 18. War Memorial Cemetery, Alexandria, Egypt. CWGC. DAVIS, Ordinary Seaman Harold. D/JX 190479. HMS Stanley. Killed 19 December 1941. Plymouth, Panel 49, Column 1. DAWOOD, Lieutenant Albert. RNVR. HMIS Hooghly (Sea Transport Establishment). Killed 1 November 1945 aged 29. Jewish Cemetery, Yangon (U Ohn Khine Road), Burma. The RNVR [Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve] Roll of Honour, igjg-ig^ (Wave Heritage Trust: London 2001). EDELMAN, Acting Leading Airman Cyril Laurence. FX/90881. HMS Daedalus. Killed 14 November 1942 aged 20. Jewish Cemetery, Willesden, London. CWGC. FREEDMAN, Paymaster Lieutenant Basil Kenneth. RN. Served Midshipman January 1933 HMS Norfolk; Sub-Lieutenant August 1934 HMS Diomede; Lieutenant August 1936 HMS Arethusa; September 1939 90</page><page sequence="29">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign HMS Pembroke; August 1940 HMS Drake; 21 January 1941 joined HMS Welshman. Killed 1 February 1943 aged 28. El Alamein War Cemetery, Egypt. AMB. FREEMAN, Sub-Lieutenant Frank. Son of Emanuel and Jean Freeman of Nottingham. RNVR. HM Landing Craft Tank 427. Killed 7 June 1944 aged 20. Portsmouth, Panel 88, Column 1. FRIEDLANDER, Able Seaman Cecil Arnold. Son of Alfred and Margaret Friedlander of Cape Town, South Africa. 114703 (V) South African Naval Forces. HMSAS Southern Floe. Killed 11 February 1941 aged 31. Plymouth, Panel 58, Column 3. GEFFEN, Stoker First Class Sender. Son of David and Etra Geffen of Durban South Africa. 68035 (V) South African Naval Forces. Shipmate of Stoker First Class Harry Sevel. HMS Dorsetshire. Killed 5 April 1942 aged 27. Plymouth, Panel 74, Column 2. jfC 24 July 1942. GOLDMAN, Leading Steward Harry. LT/LX 30087. RN Patrol Service. HM Trawler Lord Wake field. Killed 27 July 1944. Lowestoft, Panel 16, Column 1. GOULSTINE (served as Benton), Able Seaman Leonard. Son of Simon and Jeanette Goulstine of Brighton. P/JX 172598. HMS Hood. Shipmate of Ordinary Seaman Albert Levy, Able Seaman Benjamin Sterne, Marine Benjamin Green and Marine Henry Rosenthal. Killed 24 May 1941 aged 24. Portsmouth, Panel 48, Column 1. HARRIS, Moss Leslie. Son of Henry and Rita Harris. Writer. D/MX 88063. HMS Dunedin. Shipmate of L. Kossick. Killed 26 November 1941 aged 39. Plymouth, Panel 35, Column 1. HART, Leading Sick Berth Attendant David. Son of Joseph and Esther Hart of Broadstairs, Kent. C/MX 55841. HMS Ibis. Killed 10 November 1942. Chatham, Panel 63, Column 3. HEFFERMAN, Able Seaman Joseph Nelson. South African Naval Forces (V) HMS Encounter. Died 11 February 1945 Japanese prisoner of war camp. Ambon War Cemetery, Indonesia. CO. Wave Heritage Trust. HOL WAY, Sub-Lieutenant Louis. RNVR. Motor Launch 1163. Killed 23 January 1945. Belgrade War Cemetery, Serbia. AMB. Wave Heritage Trust. HYMAN, Stoker First Class Bertram. Son of Mr and Mrs Henry Hyman of Cardiff. HMS Glorious. Shipmate of Stoker First Class Albert Cohen. Killed 9 June 1940 aged 30. Plymouth, Panel 41, Column 1. 9i</page><page sequence="30">Geoffrey Green JACKSON, Able Seaman David. Son of Benjamin and Rachel Jackson of Glasgow, Scotland. P/JX 321076. HMS Convolvulus. Killed 20 February 1944 aged 23. Gibraltar (North Front) Jewish Cemetery. CWGC. JACOBS, Leading Aircraftman John George. Son of Henry and Emma Jacobs of South Woodford, Essex. 521000 RAF. HMS Courageous. Killed 17 September 1939 aged 24. Runnymede, Panel 2. JC 29 September 1939.CWGC. JOEL, Lieutenant Dudley Jack Barnato. Son of Lieutenant-Colonel Solomon and Mrs Ellen Joel. Member of Parliament for Dudley. RNVR. HMS Registan. Killed 28 May 1941 aged 37. Jewish Cemetery (Joel Plot), Willesden, London. JC 27 June 1941. CWGC. Memorial, New West End Synagogue, London. JOSEPH, Steward Coleman. Son of Abraham and Millie Joseph of Willesden Green, Middlesex. Husband of Rose Joseph. LT/LX 27768. RN Patrol Service. HM Trawler William Stephen. Killed 25 October 1943 age 23. Lowestoft, Panel 13, Column 2. JOSEPH, Stoker First Class Jack. Son of Benjamin and Kate Joseph of Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, originally of Stepney, London. C/KX 142822. HMS Boadicea. Killed 13 June 1944 aged 20. Chatham, Panel 78, Column 1. KOESTER (served as Keester) Gunner Lewis Charles. Husband of E. M. Koester of Farnborough, Kent. Born 17 June 1901. Seniority as Gunner 1 January 1926. Passed the Advanced Course for Instructional and Control Duties. Served HMS Repulse from 8 July 1926; HMS Royal Sovereign from 7 March 1928; HMS Achilles from 10 October 1933; HMS Woolwich from 13 August 1935; still aboard February 1938; seniority as Commissioned Gunner 1 January 1936. On a course November 1938. Joined HMS Southampton 27 April 1939. Shipmate of Midshipman John Mocatta RN. Chatham, Panel 41, Column 2. AMB. KOSSICK, Ordinary Seaman Louis. Son of Saul and Laura Florence Kossick of Linthorpe, Middlesborough, Yorkshire. P/SSX 35501. HMS Dunedin. Shipmate of M. Harris. Killed 24 November 1941 aged 27. Portsmouth, Panel 50, Column 3. AMB. LAZARUS, Able Seaman James. Son of Lewis and Emily Lazarus of Romford, Essex. C/JX 231667. HMS Achates. Killed 31 December 1942 aged 26. Chatham, Panel 55, Column 1. AMB. LAZARUS, Leading Radio Mechanic Leonard. Born Stepney, London. Son of Charles and Kitty Lazarus. Husband of Majorie Lazarus of Stepney, 92</page><page sequence="31">England expects ...: British Jews under the white ensign London. P/MX 89463. HMS Curacoa. Killed 2 October 1942 aged 21. Portsmouth, Panel 69, Column 2. LEVI, Coder Joseph Benjamin. Son of Percy and Rose Ann Levi of Barnsley, Yorkshire. P/JX 356920. HMS Vervain. Killed 20 February 1945 aged 20. Portsmouth, Panel 89, Column 2. AMB. LEVINE, Officers' Cook Frederick Dennis. D/MX 106062. HMS Lapwing. Killed 20 March 1945. Plymouth, Panel 95, Column 1. LEVINE, Ordinary Seaman Reginald Leo. Son of Harry and Leah Levine of Blackpool, Lancashire. D/JX 187873. HMCS Frazer. Killed 25 June 1940 aged 18. Plymouth, Panel 49, Column 2. LEVY, Ordinary Seaman Albert Edward. D/JX 254102. HMS Galatea. Killed 15 December 1941. Plymouth, Panel 49, Column 2. LEVY, Ordinary Seaman Albert Phineas. Son of Henry and Lula Levy of Par, Cornwall. P/JX 227193. HMS Hood. Shipmate of Able Seaman Leonard Goulstine, Able Seaman Benjamin Strene, Marine Benjamin Green and Marine Henry Rosenthal. Killed 24 May 1941. Portsmouth, Panel 51, Column 1. LEVY, Ordinary Telegraphist John Edward. Joined Training Ship HMS Caledonia 1937 as a Boy. P/JX 157447. HMS Afridi. Killed 3 May 1940. Portsmouth, Panel 40, Column 3. LEVY, Sub-Lieutenant Keith. RANR, HMAS Australia. Son of Captain Theodore Harold Levy, MBE, and Doris Mary Levy of Malvern, Victoria, Australia. Killed 5 January 1945 aged 19. Plymouth, Panel 95, Column 2. LEWIS, Lieutenant Commander Sir George James Ernest Lewis Bart (A)OBE, RNVR. Son of Sir George James Lewis, Bart, and Lady Lewis. HMS Daedalus. Killed 2 January 1945 aged 34. St Germain-en-Laye New Communal Cemetery, France. CWGC. LOBELL, Able Seaman Laurence. Son of Maurice and Miriam Lobell of Salford, Lancashire. P/JX 161063. HM Motor Torpedo Boat 636. Killed 15 October 1943 aged 20. Portsmouth, Panel 75, Column 1. MANN, Leading Seaman Sidney. C/JX 240210. HMS Roseneath. Killed 18 November 1945. Edmonton Jewish Cemetery, London. MASSIL, Lieutenant Lewis. Son of Hyman and Leah Massil of Golders Green, London. HMS Diligence. Killed 21 June 1945 aged 29. Willesden Jewish Cemetery, London. CWGC. MOCATTA, Midshipman John Mitchell. Son of Commander Jack 93</page><page sequence="32">Geoffrey Green Mocatta DSO, RN, and Hilda Michell Mocatta. HMS Southampton. Shipmate of Commissioned Gunner Lewis Koester. Killed 11 January 1941 aged 17. Chatham, Panel 41, Column 1. MYERS, Stoker First Class Isaac. D/K 17900. HMS Courageous. Killed 17 September 1939 aged 46. Plymouth, Panel 34, Column 3.^729 September 1939 NELSON, Leading Seaman Louis Cyril. Husband of Renee Nelson of Hornsey, London. D/JX 238458. HM Submarine Traveller. Killed 12 December 1942 aged 25. Plymouth, Panel 64, Column 1. NEWMAN, Able Seaman Cyril. Son of David and Rebecca Newman of Cardiff, Wales. HM Tug C308. Killed 11 May 1942 aged 22. Portsmouth, Panel 64, Column 2. PENNICK, Sub-Lieutenant Joseph Robert Albert. RNVR HMS Bath. Killed 19 August 1941 aged 21. Chatham, Panel 50, Column 1. PROBER, Lieutenant Nathan. Husband of Lily Prober of Haifa, Palestine. (E) RNVR HMS Stag. Killed 2 February 1945 aged 33. War Memorial Cemetery, Port Said, Egypt. CWGC. RAKUSEN, Acting Leading Seaman Montague. Husband of Marie Rakusen of Leeds. C/JX 278486. HM Motor Launch 268. Killed at St Nazaire 28 March 1942 aged 32. Chatham, Panel 52, Column 2. ROSEN, Able Seaman Philip. C/JX 223529. HMS President III. Lost in MV Muncaster Castle 30 March 1942 aged 35. Chatham, Panel 56, Column 1. ROSENTHALL, Seaman Daniel. Son of William Baird and Agnes Rosenthall of Maryhill, Glasgow. LT/JX 384506. RN Patrol Service. HM Trawler Ellesmere. Killed 24 February 1945. Lowestoft, Panel 17, Column 1. ROTHWELL, Stoker Petty Officer Edward. Son of Noah and Emma Rothwell. Husband of Elsie May Rothwell (nee Hart) of Stonehurst, Plymouth. D/KX 80573. HMS Dragonfly. Killed 14 February 1942 aged 40. Plymouth, Panel 69, Column 2. RUSSELL (originally Landsberg; German refugee), Leading Writer Ernest Kingsley. C/MX 677683. HMS Quorn. Shipmate of Ordinary Seaman Wilbor Sullivan. Killed 3 August 1944. Chatham, Panel 78, Column 3. SALTER, Ordinary Seaman Henry. Husband of Eileen Salter of Epsom, 94</page><page sequence="33">England expects . : British Jews under the white ensign Surrey. P/JX 276570. HMS Jaguar. Killed 26 March 1942 aged 36. Portsmouth, Panel 66, Column 1. SEVEL, Stoker First Class Harry. Son of Simon and Rose Sevel of Durban, Natal, South Africa. 68100 (V) South African Naval Forces. HMS Dorsetshire. Shipmate of Stoker First Class Sender Geffen. Killed 5 April 1942 aged 33. Plymouth, Panel 74, Column 2. SHAPIRO (served as Shipley), Ordinary Seaman. HMS Hartland. Killed 8 November 1942 aged 40. Le Petit Lac Cemetery, Oran, Algeria. AMB. SPIRO, Ordinary Seaman Henry William. Son of Simon and Sara Spiro of Notting Hill Gate, London. C/JX 391415. HMS Firedrake. Killed 17 December 1942 aged 30. Chatham, Panel 58, Column 1. Memorial, New West End Synagogue, London. STATMAN, Sub-Lieutenant Montague. Son of Max Statman of Leeds. (A) RNVR. HMS Saker. Killed 27 October 1944 aged 19. St Augustine National Cemetry, Florida, USA. JfCzj October 1944. CWGC. STEINBERG, Able Seaman Jacob Eli. Son of Joseph Steinberg of Bristol, Somerset. D/JX 136775. HMS President III. Lost in SS Empire Cloud 15 September 1941 aged 34. Plymouth, Panel 48, Column 2. STERNE, Able Seaman Benjamin Seivill. Son of Rudolph and Mabel Sterne of Grimsby, Lincolnshire. P/JX 158144. HMS Hood. Shipmate of Able Seaman Leonard Goulstine, Ordinary Seaman Albert Levy, Marine Benjamin Green and Marine Henry Rosenthal. Killed 24 May 1941 aged 18. Portsmouth, Panel 49, Column 3. SULLIVAN, Ordinary Seaman Wilbor. P/JX 632459. HMS Quorn. Shipmate of Leading Writer Ernest Russell. Killed 3 August 1944. Romville War Cemetery, France. TEFF, Lieutenant Leonard Asher. Son of Solomon and Lily Teff of City of London and Guildford, Surrey. (A) RNVR. HMS Indefatigable. Killed 1 April 1945 aged 23. Lee-on-Solent, Bay 6, Panel 3. TEMPLE, Sub-Lieutenant Anthony Angel. Son of John and Rae Temple of Neasden, London. (A) RNVR. HMS Landrail. Killed 11 April 1944 aged 21. Willesden Jewish Cemetery, London. CWGC. TORRES, Sub-Lieutenant David Joseph. Son of Joseph David and Marie Madeleine Torres of Manchester. (A) RNVR. HMS Owl. Killed 18 January 1944 aged 22. Lee-on-Solent, Bay 5, Panel 6. VAN CLEEF, Lieutenant Alexander. RNVR. HMS President. Combined 95</page><page sequence="34">Geoffrey Green Operations Division. Killed 10 July 1945. Hoop Lane, Golders Green, London. AMB. ROYAL MARINES BAILEY, Corporal Jack. Son of Barnett and Rebecca Bailey of Leeds. PO/X 103464. Number 46 Commando. Died of wounds 20 June 1944 aged 29. Hermanville War Cemetery, France. COHEN, Corporal Isaac. Son of David and Mary Cohen. Husband of Mary Cohen of Bow, London. PO/X 103246. Number 45 Commando. Died as prisoner of war in Germany 15 July 1944 aged 23. Portsmouth, Panel 87, Column 2. GREEN, Marine Benjamin Leonard. PO/X 3394. HMS Hood. Shipmate of Marine Henry Rosenthal, Able Seaman Benjamin Sterne, Able Seaman Leonard Goulstine, and Ordinary Seaman Albert Levy. Killed 24 May 1941. Portsmouth, Panel 59, Column 1. JOSEPH, Marine Morris. PO/X 112840. HMS Cormorant. Died on shore 17 January 1943 aged 20. Portsmouth, Panel 93. MORRIS, Marine Maurice. Son of Meshach and Bertha Morris of Lowton, Lancashire. PLY/X 1808. HMS Stronghold. Killed 2 March 1942 aged 24. Plymouth, Panel 74, Column 3. NATHAN, Marine Samuel Montague. CH/X 106559. Marine Naval Base Defence Organization 2. HQ_and 2 Group. Killed 22 July 1943 aged 20. Catania War Cemetery, Sicily. ROSENTHAL, Marine Henry Clifford. Son of Henry and Florence Rothenthal of Easton, Bristol. PO/X 4273. HMS Hood. Shipmate of Marine Benjamin Green, Able Seaman Leonard Goulstine, Able Seaman Benjamin Sterne and Ordinary Seaman Albert Levy. Killed 24 May 1941 aged 18. Portsmouth, Panel 49, Column 2. WOMEN'S ROYAL NAVAL SERVICE BENJAMIN, Chief Wren Cecilly Monica. Daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Benjamin of Pinner, Middlesex. 6965. HMS President II. Killed 19 August 1941 aged 20. Plymouth, Panel 62, Col 1. VALENTINE, Leading Wren Helen. 21962. HMS Tana. Killed 12 February 1944. Portsmouth, Panel 88, Column 2. 96</page><page sequence="35">England expects . : British Jews under the white ensign POST-SECOND WORLD WAR BROOKNER, Wireman Henry. HMS Drake. Died 16 September 1947. East Ham Jewish Cemetery, London. AMB. ROSEN, Surgeon Lieutenant Leon Alexander. Dentist at HMS Mercury. Drowned at sea 2 June 1952: fell overboard from the yacht Meon Maid in the Channel; two destroyers sent from Portland failed to save him. Memorial Service Portsmouth and Southsea Synagogue 6 June 1952. 97</page></plain_text>