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Early Anglo-Jewish Artists

Alfred Rubens

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Early Anglo-Jewish Artists By Alfred Rubens Paper read before the Jewish Historical Society of England, April 13, 1937. It is not my intention in the course of this paper to embark on any ephemeral discussion on Jewish art, a subject upon which much has already been written, but I propose to confine my remarks to those Jewish artists who were working in this country prior to 1837, the year of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne, and to place before you such facts about them, biographical and otherwise, as I have been able to assemble. The term artist is a wide one, particularly when dealing with a period when little distinction existed between artists and crafts? men, and, for the purpose of this paper, I have included not only painters and engravers but medallists and seal-cutters, and, to a certain extent, architects, goldsmiths, silversmiths and glassworkers. Some of these crafts are closely allied and it is not unusual to find a person practising several at the same time or drifting from one to another. A certain amount has been written on the subject of continental Jewish artists, but the English field has so far scarcely been explored. The Jewish Encyclopaedia, for instance, can only cite three Anglo Jewish engravers prior to the nineteenth century, and states incor? rectly that none is mentioned before the second half of the eigh? teenth century.1 The existence of Jewish artists at all in times when Jews were 1 v. p. 175. 9i</page><page sequence="2">92 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS excluded from most crafts by the trade guilds calls for some explana? tion. In certain spheres it was due, perhaps, to the special inherited skill which they possessed. Seal-cutting, for instance, was practised by Jews throughout the ages, signet rings having been used by Jews to seal contracts and other documents from Biblical times,2 and we find Jews holding court appointments on the Continent as seal-cutters and medallists in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Then again, for every Jewish community there were certain essential requi? sites?the Scrolls of the Law, the ritual appurtenances in gold and silver, the communal seals, and even the tombstones?all of which called for the services of skilled craftsmen. Hebrew manuscripts and marriage contracts are found skilfully illuminated, and it may be assumed that most of these are by Jewish hands, while it has been asserted3 that other ritual objects were entrusted chiefly to Jews; certainly they would always have been given preference, thus encour? aging among them the pursuit of certain crafts. In England during the eighteenth century the restrictions imposed upon Jews in regard to retail trade confined them to dealing in second-hand goods and were responsible for their prominence in the precious metal and jewellery trades. These trades called for the services of skilled metal workers and engravers and no doubt stimu? lated the demand for Jewish craftsmen. Thus, in Sir C. J. Jackson's English Goldsmiths and their Mar\s, the names of about fifty Jewish goldsmiths are recorded prior to 1837 (Appendix I), while about a hundred Jews are to be found in F. J. Britten's list of old clock and watch makers (Appendix II). Nevertheless, the Anglo-Jewish artists of the eighteenth century who are known to us by name are found to have been chiefly engaged on minute detailed work such as seals and ex-libris for which Jews appear to have inherited a particular talent, and, when they turned to painting, they confined themselves almost exclusively to miniatures. Such work was rarely signed, and 2 Ibid. See Loewe, Starrs and Jewish Charters in the British Museum, vol. ii. " Signed and Sealed." 3 Albert Wolf, Etwas ?ber j?dische Kunst und ?ltere j?dische K?nstler, in vol. ix. Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft fur j?dische Vol\s\unde (Hamburg, 1902.)</page><page sequence="3">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS 93 the artists whose names are known are evidence of a much larger number engaged upon the same type of work. It may be noted that they were almost exclusively of German or Polish origin. The first person to claim our attention is one Marlibrun (Meir le Brun), a Jew of Billingsgate, London. All that we know about him is contained in a book by Richard Newcourt published in 1708. Deal? ing with the history of the Church of All Hallows, Barking, close to the Tower of London, Newcourt relates the story of " a fair chapel founded by King Richard I confirmed and augmented by Edward I " which formerly stood on the north side of the church.4 His informa? tion is based upon a record he found among the archives of the Bishop of London (Lib. Gilbert f. 194) which is printed in the appen? dix to his book.5 It is headed, " An Indulgence of 40 days Pardon to such as shall pay their Devotions to the Image of our Lady of Barking ", and relates that when King Edward I was disturbed in his mind as to how he might be avenged against the Welsh, " the most beautiful Virgin, the glorious Mother of God " appeared to him in a nocturnal vision bidding him " go to-morrow early to a certain Jew, by name Marlibrunus, the most skilful painter in the whole world, living in Billingsgate, London, and compel him to make for thee an image in the form in which I now appear to thee; and he by divine inspiration shall make two faces for the same image, one very similar to my son Jesus, the other like myself in every respect, so that no deformity can truly be described by any-one. Send this image thus completed as quickly as possible to the Chapel situated in the cemetery of Berking-Chirch near the Tower of London and adorn the Chapel with it on the north, and know in truth that from that place the greatest marvels shall be shown thee. For as soon as the aforesaid Marlibrunus shall have looked earnestly upon the coun? tenance of the two faces in this Chapel, he shall be turned towards the love of God, so that he shall be converted to the Catholic Faith, together with his wife Juda, and shall afterwards reveal to thee 4 Newcourt, Repertoriam Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Londinense . . . (London, 1708), vol. i. p. 240. 3 Ibid., p. 765.</page><page sequence="4">94 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS many secrets of the Jews, for which they are to be punished. And thou, Edward, when thou beholdest this miracle, vow a vow to Omnipotent God that, while thou art alive and art in England, thou wilt visit the aforesaid image five times every year for the honour of the mother of Christ, and wilt repair the same Chapel whenever it shall be necessary, and wilt maintain it. For thou wilt find this spot greatly to be praised, who, having made this vow on thy knees, shalt be most victorious and invincible, and after the death of thy father thou shalt be King of England, subjugator of Wales, and of the whole of Scotland." The document continues that Edward, having testified on oath that everything revealed to him in the dream had come true, it was decreed that in order that the Chapel should be celebrated with suit? able honours, a remission of forty days' penance would be granted to all who came to the Chapel" and who shall stretch out their hands in aid of the lights, repairs and ornaments ", and to those who offered prayers for the soul of King Richard whose heart lay buried under the high altar of the Chapel. The document is given under seal at Northampton on 20th May, 1291, that is, the year after Edward had banished the Jews from the country. According to the generally accepted story, King Richard's heart was buried at Rouen, and in Newcourt's words, " What credit there? fore may be given to the said passage, or indeed to the whole Instru? ment, I leave to the Reader's judgement ". The fact remains, never? theless, that a remarkable image of the Virgin Mary did stand in this place. " This image of Our Lady of Barking ", says Newcourt, " was of great repute; for great concourse of people came hither to her in pilgrimage till it was suppress'd ". For a long time "the smiling picture ", as it was called, was regarded as one of the sights of London, and Sir Thomas More wrote of it, " Our citizens' wives of London imagine that Our Lady's picture near the Tower doth smile upon them as they pray before it."6 The image disappeared when the Chapel was suppressed in 1548.7 6 M. D. Davis in Jewish Chronicle, May 31, 1901, p. 18. 7 W. Jenkinson, London Churches Before the Great Fire (London, 1917), p. 85.</page><page sequence="5">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS 95 A more authentic and somewhat earlier character than Marlibrun was Leo the Jew, King John's goldsmith, who is mentioned in a charter dated 1199.8 But to turn from medieval to more modern history, reference should be made to the visit paid to this country after the Re-settle? ment, about 1675, by a Dutch Rabbi, Jacob Jehuda Arjeh Leon, sur named Templo. He came to London in order to exhibit his famous model of Solomon's Temple to Queen Catherine. Leon was a skilled draughtsman and a student of heraldry, the arms used by the Grand Lodge of English Freemasons, which consist entirely of Jewish sym? bols, being based on his design.9 One of the witnesses who gave evidence against the Papists on ist November, 1680, at the Bar of the House of Commons in connec? tion with the Titus Oates affair, was a certain Francisco de Faria, " born in America, son of John de Faria, a Jew of St. Giles-in-the Fields, gentleman." He described himself as " a limner in Antwerp in Flanders in the year 1675." 10 The earliest authentic Anglo-Jewish artist was a woman, Catherine da Costa. She was born about 1678, and was the daughter of Fer? nando Mendez, physician to Charles II and to Queen Catherine, after whom she must have been named. A portrait of her father painted by her and dated 7th August, 1721, was in the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition, 1887,11 and is now in the possession of the Be vis Marks Synagogue. Catherine married in 1698 Moses, alias Anthony da Costa. Her cousin, Jacob Mendes da Costa, was the plaintiff in the breach of promise case, Da Costa v. Villareal, and a letter from Catherine to Jacob's mother, Joanna, written from Bath and dated 21st June, 1731, is printed in the report of the action.12 Specimens of Catherine's work are scarce. A correspondent to Notes and Queries in 1895 stated that he had a miniature by her of St. 8 Jacobs, The Jews of Angevin England (London, 1893), p. 206. 9 Trans., ii, p. 156. 10 The Information of Francisco de Varia (London, 1680). I am indebted to Mr. Wilfred S. Samuel for this reference. 11 Catalogue No. 953 (London, 1888). 12 The Proceedings at Large, etc., p. 176. Cp. Trans., xiii. 271 sq. Kitty Villareal.</page><page sequence="6">96 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS Catherine, dated 1714, painted in " opaque water colours."13 Foster, who (following Dr. Williamson) states incorrectly that she was a daughter of Emanuel Mendes da Costa, mentions a miniature by her of Lady Harley and her child, shown at the Brussels Exhibition of 1912 and " a copy of the spurious portrait of Mary Stuart" at Ham House in the collection of the Earl of Dysart.14 Long states that he has seen a large miniature rather poorly painted of a male and a female figure in a landscape signed " Catharina da Costa May ye 8th 1722 ". He also mentions a miniature signed " De Costa " which he dates about 1827.16 Catherine died in 1756 and by her will left all her pictures to her son, Abraham.17 In 1720, Daniel Lopez Laguna's Spanish translation of the Psalms was published in London with a frontispiece and plate engraved by Abraham Lopes de Oliveira.18 He is probably identical with the Abraham de Oliveyra who was registered as a goldsmith at Gold? smiths' Hall, London, in 1725 and 1739.19 Bevis Marks, Hambro' and New Synagogues, possess silver appurtenances made by him dated 1730 and 1738. Another engraver about whom we have little information is Aaron Mendoza, who engraved six plates to his book, Dinim de Sehita y Bedica (Laws of Slaughter and Examination of Animals), published in London in 1733.20 A few years later, in 1749, the remarkable caricature dealing with the Beth Holim entitled The Jerusalem Infirmary, was published which must certainly be by Jewish hands and is well engraved.21 13 Notes and Queries, S. 7, vol. vii. p. 387. 14 J. J. Foster, A Dictionary of Painters of Miniatures, 1525 -/850(London, 1926). G. C. Williamson, The History of Portrait Miniatures (London, 1904), Plate 4, Fig. 5. Dr. Williamson says: " It is on a deep blue background and very carefully painted." 16 Basil S. Long, British Miniaturists (London, 1929), p. 94. 17 Glazier, 329. I am indebted to Sir Thomas Colyer-Fergusson, Bart., for this information. 18 Trans., xii. 92. 19 See Appendix I. 20 Albert Wolf, op. cit., p. 62. (I have been unable to refer to a copy of this book.) 21 Alfred Rubens, An%lo-]ewish Portraits (A.J.P.), (London, 1935), p. 119.</page><page sequence="7">EARLY AXCLO-JEWISIT ARTISTS 97 David Estevens is known to us only by the portrait of Haham David Nieto which was engraved by James McArdell.22 If the por? trait was painted from life, as appears likely, then it would date from the early part of the eighteenth centurv, although the engraving is much later.23 Samuel da Silva painted the portrait of Haham Moses Gomes de Mesquita, which was engraved by J. Faber in 1752.24 No other example of the work of this artist is known. Emanuel Mendes da Costa (1717-91), the conchologist, who was librarian of the Royal Society, is shown to be a skilful draughtsman by a collection of his drawings of shells which is now in the Jewish Museum, London. B. Jacobs, who may not have been a Jew, was a London die sinker who worked for E. Skidmore, the manufacturer of tokens, and his signature appears on numerous tradesmen's tokens towards the latter part of the eighteenth century.25 Joseph Cohen of Bielefeld (Westphalia), Charleston, South Caro? lina and London, appears to have been working as an engraver at about the same period. A seal with a Hebrew inscription believed to have been cut by him was exhibited at the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition.26 Abraham Osorio (1751-1827), a son of Jacob Osorio, is said to have been elected a member of the Society of Arts in 1800, and to have been appointed one of the Chairmen of Accounts in 1807. He resided at Theobalds Road, London. He was buried at St. Andrews, Holborn, and appears to have died in poverty.27 We find a " Miss Isaacs " exhibiting at the Free Society of Artists in 1771, her description being " At Mr. Isaacs' opposite Marquois 22 Ibid., p. 88. Trans., xii. 62. 23 A request for information about this artist (Notes and Queries, S. 10, vol. ix. p. 409) failed to produce any reply. A.].P., p. 83. 25 L. Forrer, Biographical Dictionary of Medallists (London, 1907). 26 Catalogue No. 22S6. 27 Notes and Queries, S. 9, vol. ix. pp. 307 414, 453. I am indebted to Sir Thomas Colyer-Fergusson for this information. H</page><page sequence="8">98 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS Court, Drury Lane, Pupil of Mr. Burgess." Her teacher must have been Thomas Burgess who conducted an Art School at Maiden Lane, and who evidently had other contacts with Jews, for, in 1770, he exhibited at the Free Society of Artists " A portrait of the present High Priest of the Jews in London ", and in 1771, " A drawing in Chalks of the High Priest of the Great Synagogue in London "28 These would have been portraits of Rabbi David Tevele Schiff, and are perhaps the two portraits of the Rabbi which are known, one of which is in the possession of the Great Synagogue. Miss Isaacs exhibited again at the Free Society in 1773 when her address had become 7 Bell Savage Inn, and in 1774, when her address had changed to 2 Hind Court, Fleet Street. Her work consisted of portraits and miniatures, and altogether she exhibited twelve pictures.29 She next appears in the following passage from William Hickey's Memoirs: " During the period that Mr. Cleveland and I lived together (i.e. in 1778), a young Jewess of the name of Isaacs arrived in Calcutta to exercise the profession of miniature painting. Cleveland having known her family in England, interested himself to promote her success. He therefore observed to me that as he had heard me say that I meant to send my picture to a favourite sister, he should be obliged if I would sit to his friend. I accordingly did so. At the first sitting he was present, when he surprised me not a little by saying ' It has always been a matter of wonder to me how ugly fellows can ever bring themselves to sit for their pictures', to which I replied, ' Upon my word, the remark comes with an ill grace from you who are the cause of my being in the situation that excites your wonder upon the present occasion '. Miss Isaacs thereupon with much naivete observed, ' It was not kind in my friend to make such a speech, but,' continued she, ' were none but the handsome men of Calcutta to apply to me in my profession, I should have very little occupation indeed '. This lady, two years afterwards, married Mr. 28 Algernon Graves, Dictionary of Artists. (" The Society of Artists of Great Britain, 1760-1791. The Free Society of Artists, 1761?1783.'*) (London, 1907.) 29 Ibid.</page><page sequence="9">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS 99 Higginson, a gentleman high in the Company's Civil Service, and of large fortune." 30 It would appear from the foregoing that Hickey had not met Miss Isaacs before she came to India, and she cannot therefore be the Miss Isaacs who, some years before with Mr. Isaacs (both Irish), joined Hickey's party at Westminster Abbey to witness the coronation of George III.31 Sir William Foster, in an article on British Artists in India con? tributed to the Walpole Society,32 states that the marriage referred to was celebrated on 5th July, 1779, the bridegroom being Alexander Higginson of the Board of Trade, and that four days earlier, the bride was baptised and received the name of Martha. Among the miniatures she is known to have painted in India (besides that of Hickey) was a copy of one of Mrs. Richard Barwell. Writing on the 15th February, 1779, to his mother-in-law, Mrs. Sanderson, Bar well said: "As the most acceptable gift I can offer, I have desired Miss Isaacs to make a copy of the miniature Mrs. Barwell presented me with some little time before her fatal illness." Hickey informs us that when he got to Calcutta in 1783, Higginson had embarked for London; presumably Martha accompanied him. Their son, General George Powell Higginson (d. 1866) was the father of the distinguished British General, Sir George Wentworth Alexander Higginson, G.C.B. (1826-1915).33 We know of three more female artists: Mrs. de Castro of Ayliffe Street, Goodmans Fields, who exhibited paintings of flowers at the Royal Academy in 1777 and 1778;34 Miss A. Cohen who exhibited a miniature at the Society of British Artists in 1833;35 an&lt;^ Miss Kate Salaman. The latter, who was also a miniaturist, was a daughter 30 Memoirs of William Hic\ey, ed. by Alfred Spencer (London, 1913-1935), vol. ii. p. 157. 31 Ibid., vol. i. p. 31. 32 Sir William Foster, British Artists in India, in 19th vol. of the Walpole Society, P 33 Who Was Who, 1897-1916 (London, 1920). 34 Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts (London, 1905). 35 Graves, Dictionary of Artists.</page><page sequence="10">100 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS of Simeon Kensington Salaman. She exhibited between 1834 and 1856 at the Royal Academy, the Society of British Artists, and the British Institute, her address being 36 Baker Street, London.36 Long says that she painted well, and that Mr. Ernest Salaman had two miniatures by her.37 One of the exhibitors at the Royal Academy in 1815 is described by Graves as " Jacobson, Gem Engraver. (Engraver in stone and Medaller to his Danish Majesty, member of the Royal Academies of Art in Copenhagen and Stockholm) "?the exhibit consisting of a frame containing impressions from engravings in stone.38 The exhi? bitor can have been none other than David Aaron Jacobson (1753 1835), member of a family which has produced several distinguished engravers, and son of Aaron Jacobson who held the royal appoint? ment before him.39 The fact that he exhibited at the Royal Academy suggests that he may have worked in this country for a time. One of the earliest members of the Jewish community at Liver? pool and its ecclesiastical head was Rabbi Benjamin ben Eliakim Getz. He was born at Strelitz in Mecklenburg, and, according to tradition, came to this country in the train of Queen Charlotte. He worked at first as an itinerant seal engraver, but in 1762 he settled in Liverpool where his name became anglicized to Benjamin Yates, and he filled the offices of Mohel, Shochet, Chazan, secretary and collec? tor to the congregation, while at the same time carrying on his calling of engraver and working jeweller. He died in September, 1798.40 Samuel Yates, the ancestor of the present Samuel family, was a son of Benjamin, according to a manuscript note in the Mocatta Library copy of Lucien Wolf's history of the family. (Wolf states, page 21, that he was a brother.) He was born in Strelitz on 7th September, 1757, and we assume that he accompanied his father to England. His career is probably typical of that of many of the 36 Ibid. 37 Long, op. cit. 38 Graves, Royal Academy. 39 Jewish Encyclopaedia. 40 Lucien Wolf, History and Genealogy of the Jewish Families yf Yates and Samuel of Liverpool (London, 1901).</page><page sequence="11">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS 101 provincial engravers. He started in business as a pedlar in Dorset? shire, and eventually settled in Liverpool in 1798. Possibly he went there to manage the family business after his father's death. In Gore's Liverpool Directory for 1800 he is described as " engraver and jeweller "; after 1805 he is described as " stone seal engraver ". No less than thirty-one ex-libris signed by Yates are recorded while there are two more signed " Yates and Hess Liverpool " executed after he had taken his son-in-law, Israel Hess, into partnership in about 1820.41 Most of these plates are armorial, for Yates was what was known as '' an heraldic huckster ", that is to say, with the aid of an heraldic handbook, he provided coats of arms to order, to persons who were unable or unwilling to acquire them from the College of Arms. Wolf quotes the following letter which explains the system adopted : " It appears, with regard to the crest now used by the Samuel and Yates families, that one of their ancestors was an engraver, going about the country providing coats of arms and crests to ' persons of newly acquired wealth and estate.' The modus oper? andi was to use the arms and crests of such persons entitled to them whose names most nearly approached the names of the huckster's patrons. I find that in this manner, he assigned the crest of the Samwell family of Cornwall to the Samuel family, and particularly the crest of Samwell Watson of Upton Hall, Northampton, viz. : On the stump of a tree couped or, and sprout? ing on each side vert, a squirrel sejant gules, cracking a nut of the first, stacked and leaved of the second: the difference with Samwell of Cornwall being that the squirrel is sejant on a ducal coronet in the crest of the latter. " With regard to the Yates family, he assigned to them the crest of the Yate family of Wiltshire, viz.: A demi-goat rampant per pale sable and argent, attired counterchanged, holding between its legs a gate or. For obvious reasons he changed the motto for 41 H. W. Fincham, Artists and Engravers of British and American Boof^ Plates (London, 1897).</page><page sequence="12">102 EARLY ANGLO-JE WISH ARTISTS the Samuel's family, as the motto of the Samwell crest is: Christus sit regula vitae. This he changed to Perseverantia vincit belonging to the family of Burness in Scotland." Yates had a shop at 26 Lord Street, Liverpool, and resided at 19 St. Thomas' Buildings. Subsequently he moved his shop to No. 9 and then to No. 11 Lord Street, and, after being joined by Hess, he added the business of watchmaker to that of jeweller and engraver. He died on 2nd October, 1825, and was survived by a widow, seven daughters and a son.42 Benjamin Levi worked at Portsmouth as an engraver in the first half of the eighteenth century, and Fincham records ten ex-libris signed by him, of which that of Isaac Mendes dated 1746, may be particularly noticed. His plates are signed " Levi ", " B. Levi ", or " Benj. Levi ". His trade card reads : " Engraving on Seals, Stamps, Plate, Copper Plate and Pewter by B. Levi at the corner of Union Row, in Queen Street, on Portsmouth Common." He died in 1784.43 Two of his sons, Elias and Isaac, also practised as engravers. Elias Levi was a skilled engraver, and is described in Pinl(s Pic? torial (published at Portsmouth, 1909, page 12) as " the celebrated Portsmouth engraver, copies of whose engravings may be seen in the High Street Museum and are much sought after." Of the two seals of the Portsmouth Hebrew Congregation still in existence, one dating from 1747, is by him.44 His brother, Isaac Levi, is known to have engraved four ex-libris, two signed " M. Mordecai and I. Levy ", one signed " M. Moses &amp; I. Levy ", and another " Moses and Levy ".4r&gt; He died in 1785.46 He is perhaps identical with the I. Levi who worked at Portsea in the second half of the eighteenth century, and of 42 Luden Wolf, op. tit. 4,1 Trans., xii. 45; xiii. 161, 171, 172. I have been unable to trace the present whereabouts of Israel Solomons' collection of Trade Cards. It does not appear to be in the collections either of the Jewish Thco'ogical Seminary, New York, or the Hebrew Union College, Cincinatti. 44 Jewish Chronicle, July 22, 1910, p. 18. Trans., xiii. 161, 162. 45 Fincham, op. cit., records him as J. Levy and gives some of the signatures incorrectly. 46 Trans., xiii. 161.</page><page sequence="13">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS IO3 whom Fincham records five ex-libris signed " Levi Portsea " or "I. Levi Moses Mordecai has no less than twenty ex-libris to his credit besides the two in which I. Levi collaborated. He worked about the middle of the eighteenth century, and for part of the time at least, he was in London. His trade card, a charming little plate which calls special attention to his skill as an heraldic engraver, reads: 44 Engrav? ing/ in Seals, Stamps,/ Plate, Copper Plates/ and Pewter/ by M. Mordecai/ No. 55/ Houndsditch near/ Bishopsgate Street/ Arms neatly painted on Vellum."47 Mordecai also worked as a goldsmith in Exeter and entered his mark at the Exeter Assay Office in 1788.48 He is recorded in the Exeter Directory of 1792 as one of the 44 Prin? cipal Traders " of the Devonshire city,48a his jeweller's shop being in Fore Street. In 1807, acting on behalf of the small local com? munity, he took up the lease of the Jewish cemetery in Magdalen Street.4813 A family pedigree dated 1799, illustrated with signs of the Zodiac written and painted by him, was in the Anglo-Jewish His? torical Exhibition.49 M. Moses worked as an engraver at Portsmouth about the middle of the eighteenth century. Fincham records five ex-libris by him in addition to the two in which I. Levi collaborated. He is probably the Mordecai Moses of K?nigsberg who assisted in the foundation of the Portsmouth Synagogue in 1749.50 A painter named Richard Solomons may have been a Jew. The only information we have about him is that he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1823, a picture of a boat signed 44 Solomons, Liver? pool ".51 47 Illustrations of Jews (Mocatta Library), vol. vii. p. 75. 48 See Appendix I. Cp. Jackson, English Goldsmiths and their Marias, 1921, 2nd Edition, p. 344; and Rev. J. F. Chanter, The Exeter Goldsmith's Guild, pp. 33, 43. 48a Together with Abraham Ezekiel and his son Ezekiel, and Samuel Jonas. 48b See Report of Charity Commissioners on the Endowed Charities of Exeter, 1904, p. 250. 49 Catalogue No. 761. 50 Trans., xiii. 162, 169, 174. 51 Graves, Dictionary of Artists.</page><page sequence="14">104 EARLY ANGLO JEWISH ARTISTS Solomon of Brighton, an engraver, is known only by an exlibris signed " Solomon Sc. Brighton ", the date of which is about 1820. Abraham Ezekiel, a goldsmith and silversmith, was one of the founders of the Exeter Synagogue in 1763," and died in Portsmouth in 1799, after having lived in Exeter fifty years.32'1 Sarah, his wife, died in June 1806, at the age of seventy."2b Their children were Rosy (Nathan of Portsmouth), Anna (Jonas of Plymouth), Henry (d. 1836), Catherine (d. 1837), Amelia (d. 1839), and Ezekiel Abraham. The last-named was born in Exeter in 1757 and became one of the most prominent men of the City.'"! Ezekiel Abraham Ezekiel was a versa? tile artist, and not only engraved portraits and ex-libris but was a successful miniature painter, while at the same time he carried on all branches of trade engraving in addition to the business of silver? smith and scientific optician.34 Britten records a watch by him dated 1794.53 While apprenticed to a jeweller, he produced, self-taught, an etching " View of Bide ford " from a drawing by Jewell.36 The British Museum has four examples of his work?a portrait of Micaijah Towgood (1700-92), dissenting minister at Exeter, engraved in line after Opie, and pub? lished in 1787; a stipple engraving of the same portrait published in 1794; a portrait of John Patch, surgeon at Exeter, engraved in line and stipple after Opie, and published in 1789, and a stipple engraving oi the portrait of General Stringer Lawrence (1697-1775) by Sir 52 Jewish Chronicle, March it, 1842. 52;i Hampshire Repository, vol. ii. November 20, 1790. .12b Trewman's Exeter Flying Post June 17, 1806: " On Friday evening last died after a long and painful illness which she bore with the greatest resignation Mrs. Sarah Ezekiel aged 70 widow of the late Mr. Abraham Ezekiel of this city gold? smith. Her family lament in her the loss of a most tender and affectionate parent and her acquaintance a pattern of rectitude, benevolence, meekness and unaffected piety. We contemplate in virtues such as these, the universal path leading to eternal happiness." (I am indebted to Mr. Wilfred S. Samuel for this and for many other references regarding the Ezekiel family.) 53 Long, op. cit., p. 145. His will is in the Archdeaconry Court of Exeter. r,/i G. Pycroft, Art In Devonshire (Exeter, 1883), p. 45. 55 Sec Appendix II, p. 126. ob Notes and Queries, Serie;. 11, vol. viii. p. 494.</page><page sequence="15">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS IO5 Joshua Reynolds, published in 1795.37 The Exeter City Library pos? sesses copies of his engravings of a portrait of Thomas Glass, physician at Exeter, published 1788; a portrait of William Holwell and another of Rev. John Marshall, schoolmaster at Exeter, after Kcenan, pub? lished in 1798 on which he is described as " engraver, optician and goldsmith." Another engraving by him is entitled " The Breast? plate of the 3rd Exeter Volunteer Corps embodied in 1800 " Fin cham records fourteen ex-libris signed by Ezekiel. A miniature painting attributed to Ezekiel by the late Basil Long is in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter. Ezekiel died of dropsy after a long illness on the 13th December, 1806, and Trewman's Exeter Flying Post for 18th December, 1806, printed the following obituary notice : " In the profession of an engraver he possessed a correct taste and happy facility in making designs, . . . and as a workman he was certainly unequalled out of London : his portraits of several dis? tinguished characters in this city and neighbourhood will always be admired for their faithful execution. ... In a word, there are few men whose loss will be more felt not only by his immediate friends and connections but by the public at large. A discourse was delivered at the grave by the chief priest of the Synagogue." o7a Ezekiel was regarded as a respectable scholar and linguist, and the high esteem in which he was held locally is demonstrated by the inclusion of his name in the Exeter Journal as late as 1830 among "A List of Persons of Eminence, Genius and Public Notoriety, Natives of Exeter." A miniature portrait of him was in the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition, 1887.58 The business was continued at 179 Fore Street, Exeter, by Eze 57 Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits in the British Museum. (C.E.B.P.) 57a This was the Rev. M. H. Levi, for forty-two years in office, died 1834. (I am indebted to the Rev. Michael Adler for this reference and for other information with regard to the Ezekiel family and Moses Mordecai.) 58 Catalogue No. 995a. Enquiries among members of the Mosley family have failed to elicit the present whereabouts of this portrait.</page><page sequence="16">io6 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS kieTs two sisters, Catherine and Amelia, who are recorded in the local Directories until 1830 as " C. &amp; A. Ezekiel, Engravers and Opti? cians." Ezekiel's son, Solomon, who settled at Penzance, is, like his father, mentioned in the Dictionary of National Biography. One of the founders of the Jewish community at Bristol was Eliezer, the son of Jacob, who built a Synagogue there in 1786. Laz? arus Jacobs, as he was known, was working in 1775 as a glasscutter and engraver at 108 Temple Street.59 He and his son Isaac are in the front rank of the Bristol glassmakers, and specimens of their work are much sought after. They made flint and coloured glass and also the special milk-white Bristol glass.60 Lazarus Jacobs had a flint glasshouse in Temple Street between 1785 and 1787, and later moved to Great Gardens, where he died in 1796. The Bristol Gazette (21st April, 1796), announces " Died Thursday in the Great Gardens, after a short illness, Mr. Lazarus Jacobs, a Jew, and an eminent glass maker ".61 The business was continued with equal success by his son, Isaac Jacobs, who was appointed Glassmaker to George III,62 and on 20th May, 1812, was granted a coat of arms. A blue glass finger-bowl signed on the base, /. Jacobs, Bristol, was sold at Sotheby's on 23rd July, 1936 (Lot 23), and there is a blue glass plate matching it, simi? larly signed, in the Bristol Museum. Mention may also be made of another Jewish glassmaker, J. Lazarus, who worked at Avon Street, Bristol, between 1785 and 1787. The statement that John Zoffany (1735-1810) was of Jewish parentage, appears in the leading work on Zoffany by Lady Victoria Manners and Dr. G. C. Williamson. There it is said that his father was a Bohemian Jew, a cabinet maker and decorator at Prague, who migrated to Ratisbon and entered the service of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis, eventually being appointed Court Architect. Dr. Wil 59 W. S. Samuel, Sources of Anglo-Jewish Genealogy (London, 1933). Francis Buckley, The Early Glasshouses of Bristol in vol. ix. of Trans, of the Society of Glass Technology, p. 43. 60 H. J. Powell, Glassmatyngin England (Cambridge, 1923), p. 99. 61 Buckley, op. cit., p. 43. 62 Powell, op. cit., p. 99.</page><page sequence="17">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS IO7 liamson informs me that his authority for this statement was a Bohemian correspondent who is now dead. John Zoffany, or Johann Zauffely, as his name appears to have been originally, was born at Frankfurt-on-Main in 1735. He ran away from home and found his way to Rome, where he stayed for ten or twelve years, living for part of the time at a convent. Between 1750 and 1758 he married a German woman, the niece of a priest at Coblenz. So far, there is no confirmation of the theory that he had Jewish blood in his veins, but, when he came to London (c. 1761), he lodged with a Jew, as we learn from the following passage from The Authentic History of the Royal Academicians, by Anthony Pasquin (John Williams) : " He lodged in the attic tenement of a Mr. Lyons, a kind Hebrew, who resided in Shire Lane near Temple Bar; his fortunes were then so low that his cates were more scarce than rare. The harp of his fathers was hung on a willow in the desert and there was no musick in his soul: his thought induced misery and misery desperation. At this eventful epoch, the heavy clouds which darkened his existence began to pass away; he saw the promised Canaan in a vision and his nerves were restrung by fortitude. By the beneficent offices of his Levitical inmate, he was introduced to Mr. B. Wilson, a portrait painter in oils, who instantly engaged Mr. Zoffanii to paint his draperies." In England, Zoffany married again, his second wife being Mary Thomas, by whom he had four daughters. He died on the nth November, 1810, and was buried in Kew Churchyard.63 We know of one or two Jewish portraits painted by Zoffany in this country; that of Jacob Cervetto the 'cellist, the engraving of which by M. A. Picot was published in 1771,64 and the portraits of Daniel de Castro, East India merchant, and his wife and niece, Sarah Judith de Castro (d. 1824), which, in 1920, were in the possession of their descendant, Mr. J. Paul de Castro. 63 The whole of this information is based on John Zoffany, R.A. His Life and Times, by Lady Victoria Manners and Dr. G. C. Williamson. (London, 1920.) 64 A.J.P., p. 22.</page><page sequence="18">io8 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS The family of Polack, which is said to have been the first Ash kenazi family to settle at The Hague, has produced several genera? tions of artists. An engraver, Abraham Isak Polack, and a painter, D. P. Polack, were working in Holland during the eighteenth cen? tury, and two other members of the family emigrated to England.65 Of these, A. Polack is known to us only by his trade bill, a copy of which, dated in ink, November 1788, is in the Guildhall Library. It is addressed '' To the Nobility, Gentry &amp; Ladies in Particular ", and calls attention to his " French Stencil Painting Plates. The most simple and curious Method ever Known, for Ladies to Paint on Silk, Sattin, Tiffany, Muslin, &amp;c, in the most elegant and expedi? tious Manner; invented, made and sold by A. Polack Artist from The Hague." He engages " to teach any Lady in less than a Quarter of aq Hour to paint on Silk, Sattin, &amp;c. in a manner that will exceed any Indian Painting; Likewise, Colours and Brushes or Painting compleat." He adds that " Ladies and Gentlemen who please to favour him with their commands, shall be waited on to any part of the Metropolis, by sending a penny-post Letter to his House No. 8, Artillery-Lane, Bishopsgate without." Fincham records seven English ex-libris signed " Polack " or " Polak ", which have been attributed to Solomon Polack, but as one of them is dated 1757, they must have been engraved by A. Polack or another member of the family. Solomon Polack was born at The Hague in 1757.66 He emigrated to Dublin, where he practised successfully as a miniature painter, and in 1784 he was working as an engraver in partnership with one J. Jctz.67 (The latter can no doubt be connected with Benjamin Yatcs mentioned above.) In 1790 we find him living next door to his kins? man, A. Polack, for in that year he appears in the list of exhibitors at the Royal Academy, described as " Miniature Painter, 6, Artillery Lane, Bishopsgate Street." 68 Thereafter, until 1835, he was reprc 65 A. Wolf, op. cit., p. 59. 66 M. Bryan, Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. 67 Walter G. Strickland, A Dictionary of Irish Artists (London, 1913). Irish Directory, 1784. 68 Graves, Royal Academy.</page><page sequence="19">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS IO9 sented at the Royal Academy practically every year, and altogether exhibited fifty-seven pictures, including " Portrait of a Jew Rabbi of Berlin "; self-portraits (1791, 1804, 1813, 1819, 1827 and 1831); " Mr. Cohen", etc. (1804); Mrs. Polack (1809); A. Polack, junr. (1814); " The Rev. Nathan Solomon, Reader in the Great Synagogue " (1815); "Mr. Kauffman " (1816); Master Polack (1819); Miss J. Polack (1821); Mrs. S. Polack (1822). His addresses were 16 Somer? set Street, Goodmans Fields (1791), 146 Strand (1795), 130 Strand (1798), 137 Strand (1799), 130 Strand (1802), 158 Strand (1818 and 1826).69 Polack designed and engraved the title-pages to David Levi's Translation of the Pentateuch (London 1787), and we also have records of three portraits by him which were engraved: that of Wil? liam Brodum, the Jewish quack, engraved by Walker and published in 1795, that of Lord George Gordon as a Jew engraved by G. Wilson, and lastly the portrait of Myer Levy, published 5587 (1827).70 There is also a miniature by Polack of Victor Abraham, a reproduction of which appears in Matthias Levy's Western Synagogue. Specimens of Polack's work are scarce. Long states that he has seen a rather inferior oblong oval miniature of a woman holding a harp, signed " S. Polack Pint. 1796 ", and that there are two miniatures in the Victoria and Albert Museum, one signed " S. P. ft. 1783 " and the other " S. P. 178-", which are attributed to Polack, but Dr. Wil? liamson points out that it is difficult to distinguish Polack's signature from that of Simon Pine.71 Polack died at Chelsea in 1839, an&lt;^ was buried at the Brompton Road cemetery of the Western Synagogue.72 He had several children. One daughter married John Salmon, and was the mother of Alexander Salmon who married Princess Aritaimai of Tahiti. Their daughter, Marau, was the last Queen of Tahiti.73 Joel Solomon Polack, a son of Solomon Polack, was born on the 28th March, 1807, and is no doubt the " J. Polack, Junr. of 158 e9 Ibid. 70 A.J.P., pp. 19, 49, and 65. 71 Long, op. cit., p. 348. Williamson, op. cit., vol. i. p. 192. 72 Trans., vii. 269. 73 7/&gt;/^., and A. M. Curau, Jewish Pioneers in the Pacific, in J.C. T938.</page><page sequence="20">ITO EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS Strand " who exhibited as a miniature painter at the Royal Academy in 1823, when he would have been sixteen.74 He appears to have been of a roving disposition, for we are told that early in life he travelled both in Europe and America and served under the War Office in Africa in the Commissariat and Ordnance departments. In 1830 he emigrated to New Zealand and opened a general store at Kororarika, in the Bay of Islands, which he ran in conjunction with a similar business managed by a brother at Sydney. In May, 1837, Polack returned to London, and the following year he was one of the chief witnesses before the Select Committee of the House of Lords, convened to consider the question of colonisation in New Zealand. The Times appears to have opposed the colonisation scheme, and published the following report of his evidence : 44 . . . One of the most prominent witnesses in favour of the colonisation scheme is a Mr. Joel Samuel Polack, a worthy and wandering offshoot of the seed of Abraham. The said Joel, a retailer of ardent spirits to sailors and fugitives in New Zealand, having sworn that he has not kept a ' grog shop,' covers his loaded stomach with the following unpaid-for depositions: 4 Resided six years in New Zealand, understands the language, but though con? versing " often " with natives, learned from Europeans that coloni? sation would be liked much by the New Zealanders. Bought five pieces of land from them . . There is, however, one thread of truth in honest Joel's web : 4 Ladies,' he says, 4 do not like celibacy in New Zealand.' " Polack immediately brought an action for libel against the news? paper, and produced numerous witnesses to prove that his store was not a 44 grog shop " but an ordinary ship chandler's store. He also called Dr. Robert Martin, author of The History of the British Colonies, who stated that he had proposed Polack as a member of the Colonial Society, but on reading the article in The Times had informed him that he must move his rejection unless the statements were refuted. The jury, after retiring for a few minutes, awarded 74 Graves, Royal Academy.</page><page sequence="21">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS III Polack ?100 damages.75 During his residence in New Zealand, Polack had learnt the Maori language, and had made a thorough study of the country and its inhabitants. The result of these re? searches was published by Richard Bentley in 1838 in a two-volume work, entitled, New Zealand: Being a Narrative of Travels and Adventures during a Residence in that Country between the Years 18j 1 and 183*. This work, which runs to over eight hundred pages, is illustrated with plates engraved from Polack's own draw? ings, and gives a very detailed description of the country and its inhabitants. Polack is here already described as " Member of the Colonial Society of London ", and the following is an extract from the preface written in July 1838 from 87 Piccadilly (where he was staying with his sister, Mrs. John Salmon, whose husband kept a fruit shop there): " However ill qualified for the task, he deserves well of his countrymen for the intention, who will furnish information of the existence of countries, whereby they may obtain for a redundant population, an honourable footing unlike the barbarous system of colonisation in former days, and open a new and unlimited mart for commercial enterprise, adding to the riches of the mother country, affording an opportunity for the enterprise of her indus? trious citizens, rescuing from the darkest barbarism and revolting superstition, the most interesting race of uncivilised man." At the end of the book is a copy of the petition to William IV from British settlers in New Zealand, requesting the British Govern? ment to undertake the administration of the country, the signatories to which include J. S. Polack and another Jew, Jno. J. Montefiore. Another two-volume work by Polack of about six hundred pages, appeared in 1840, entitled, Manners and Customs of the New Zea landers and Remarks to intending Emigrants. This book, to quote the Dictionary of National Biography, " furnishes one of the earliest accounts of the natives of New Zealand, and displays considerable 75 The Times, July 2, 1839.</page><page sequence="22">112 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS erudition and capacity for observation." Polack's personal efforts and his writings must have strongly influenced the decision reluctantly taken by the British Government to annex New Zealand in 1840. Polack continued to live for a time with his sister in Piccadilly, but eventually migrated to the United States, and settled in San Francisco where he married the widow of William Hart, one of his old asso? ciates in New Zealand. He died in San Francisco on the 17th April, 1882.76 Solomon Bennett was born in Poland in 1762. While still living in Poland he designed two different plans of the temple of Ezekiel for the Bible Society. At the age of thirty he decided to travel. " In May, 1792," he tells us, "I undertook to travel abroad, to pursue studies; leaving behind me in White Russsia, my wife, children, parents and relations, together with some property. I departed in pursuit of studies which were known to me merely nominal, but not particularly; to study at my own hazard and expence, though incompatible with my fortune; to visit countries, nations and languages, that I scarce knew by their names; an undertaking seldom practised in our climate, and particularly by those of our persuasion. Yet my natural zeal for study, which at that time surpassed my understanding, fortune, and the natural tendency towards my family, parents and relations, impelled me to prepare for my journey. On the above date, I set off from my abode in Palotzk, in White Russia, for Riga, in Courland; from Riga I embarked for Copenhagen, the metropolis of Denmark; in which city I laid the foundation of my studies; and the Arts became my principal object." 77 Bennett remained for three years at Copenhagen, and it was there that he engraved the portrait of the alchemist, Lorenz Werskoss.78 In 1795 the city was devastated by fire, and Bennett was forced to migrate again; he now decided to settle in Berlin, and he arrived 76 Dictionary of National Biography. 77 The Constancy of Israel (London, 1812), p. 220. 78 S. Kirschstein, J?dische Graphiker (Berlin, 1918).</page><page sequence="23">EARLY ANGLO JEWISH ARTISTS "3 there in July, 1795. He gives an interesting account of Jewish life in Germany at that time, and recites the numerous restrictions to which Jews were subject. They were not permitted to learn any crafts or trade, and although certain wealthy Jews owned textile and leather factories, they were not allowed to employ any Jewish workmen, while in retail trade, Jews were restricted to textiles and jewellery; nevertheless, he met many Jews at the universities and academies, and some young Jewish artists.79 While in Berlin, Bennett engraved several important plates, including portraits of Frederick II and Queen Louise Auguste (dedicated to their Majesties), General von Moelen dorf, Governor of Berlin, and Chodowiecki, the artist,80 and it is evi? dent, from the eminence of these persons, that he enjoyed a very high reputation. He states that he received " a patent of the Royal Aca? demy and private complimentary letters with promises of his and her Majesty"; but he found conditions in Germany intolerable for a Jew, and after a stay of four years, he decided to emigrate to Eng? land. Until this period, that is in Copenhagen and Berlin, he had been signing his plates " B. Salomon ", " Benet Saloman ", " Benet Sal omo ", and " Benoit Salomon ", and he does not appear to have used the surname of Bennett until he came to this country. He arrived in London in November, 1800, and gives the following characteristic account of his co-religionists there : " With regard to my persuasive Brethren inhabiting that king? dom, experience I very little; my short stay in this metropolis, (which is seven years only) and my incapacities, either spiritual or material as to co-operate with them, makes me unable to be related with those noble characters; I then give it up to the judgment of those who are more connected with them. Yet, one observation in general, . . . though their feeling for their antiquity and genealogy, yet they possess very little tendency towards their sacred records, the Hebrew Doctrines in general, or for any branch of literature; nor do they comprehend to make a proper use of the ' beneficial, just, and impartial laws of the government under which they exist! ' "81 7-' The Constancy of Israel. 80 Kirschstein, op. cit. s1 The Constancy of Israel, p. 228. I</page><page sequence="24">ii4 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS Bennett became a member of the Western Synagogue, and it has been suggested that the seal of the congregation was engraved by him.82 Only a few examples of his work in this country are known. The British Museum has a portrait of George IV, engraved in line after W. Beechey, and published by Bennett in 1805, and one of Shakespeare published in 1807.83 Then there is his own portrait engraved from a picture by G. Fraser,84 the two plates of the Temple of Ezekiel, and a portrait of Rabbi Solomon Hirschel, the latter being painted and engraved by Bennett.85 He is, in fact, better known in this country as a Hebraist and controversialist than as an engraver. The explanation may be that his eyesight, which he lost almost com? pletely in 1828, had been gradually failing for some time. Certainly a great falling off in the quality of his work can be noticed if we compare the engravings of his own portrait and that of Solomon Hirschel, with the fine line engravings executed when he was in Berlin. He seems to have practised extensively as a teacher of Hebrew. The Times (24th October, 1840) says of him : " Solomon Bennett was known in his lifetime as one of the most eminent Hebrew scholars of his age; we believe he was the instructor of Dr. Burgess, Bishop of Salisbury." In connection with this profession, he appears to have used his portrait as a kind of trade card, for, attached to the copy in the Mocatta Library is a slip on which is written, apparently in his own writing, " Teacher of the Hebrew Language, 7 Orange Court, Leicester Square." 86 Bennett's first attempt at literature was The Constancy of Israel " by Solomon Bennett, Native of Poland and Professing the Arts in London. Printed for the Author and Sold by him at No. 475 Strand, 1812." His portrait appears as the frontis? piece. The first part of the book is a reply to a letter addressed to the Jews by Lord Crawford; the second part is mainly autobio? graphical. A pamphlet entitled, " A Discourse on Sacrifices " fol? lowed in 1815, published by Bennett from the same address, and 82 Cecil Roth, Records of the Western Synagogue (London, 1932), p. 55. 83 C.E.B.P. 84 A.f.P., p. 8. 8r&gt; Ibid., p. 54. 86 Illustrations of Jews (Mocatta Library), vol. vii. p. T5.</page><page sequence="25">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS dedicated to Morris Solomon of Amsterdam. In this, he announces his intention to publish by subscription a work entitled " The Validity of the Hebrew Text", in three books, the third to contain 44 The Temple of Ezekiel " with two large plates, the drawings of which could be seen at his house. About a year later Bennett published " The Present Reign of the Synagogue in Dukes Place Displayed ", which, with another pamph? let, Tene Bi\kurim: A Basket of First Fruits (" A Collection of Rabbinical Discussions and Criticisms "), published in j?&amp;f, contains IP// violent attacks on the Chief Rabbi, Solomon Hirschel, whom he accuses of hypocrisy, simony, and ignorance. He said that the Rabbi had caused him 44 losses of money of above one hundred pounds and imprisonments on account of his portrait ",87 It is difficult to conjecture what he means by this. Bennett certainly engraved a por? trait of the Rabbi, but although it is a crude piece of work it could hardly have been grounds for an action. The explanation may be that Bennett was responsible for the portrait of Hirschel, which appears in a pamphlet entitled " The Axe laid to the Root of Ignor? ance and Superstition evident in the Character of the Rev. S. Hirs? chel," published in 1808 by Levi Alexander, whose Hebrew alman? acks Hirschel had declared to be inaccurate. The portrait carries the caption,44 Thou shalt not bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself " (Leviticus xix, 18), and would, no doubt, have been held to be extremely libellous.88 Bennett, having already quarrelled with the Rabbi, would have had no scruples in assisting in the production of the pamphlet. Bennett evidently failed to secure the necessary financial backing to publish 44 The Validity of the Hebrew Text " in its entirety, but he succeeded in finding a patron for part of it, and in 1824 there appeared 44 The Temple of Ezekiel, a minute description of the Edi? fice on Scientific principles illustrated by a Ground-Plan and Bird's Eye View, By Solomon Bennett, R.A. of Berlin. Pubd. by the 87 C. Duschinsky, The Rabbinate of the Great Synagogue (London, 1921), pp. 144 sq. 88 A.J.P., p. 57.</page><page sequence="26">Il6 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS Author, 14 Panton St., Haymarket, and M. Solomon, 119 Pall Mall " (the latter was the Chief Warden of the Western Synagogue). The book contains Bennett's portrait printed on large paper, and is dedi? cated to Mrs. Housman of Sidney Place, Bath, who had financed the publication. It would appear that by this time Bennett had, to a certain extent, composed his differences with Hirschel, for the latter's name appears in the List of Subscribers, together with those of Rabbi Raphael Meldola, M. Solomon, and Morris Solomon of Amsterdam. In 1834, Bennett published from Villiers Street, Strand, " Critical Remarks on the Authorised Version of the Old Testament." This was followed in the next year by " A Theological and Critical Treatise on the Primogeniture and Integrity of the Holy Language," pub? lished from 26 Villiers Street, and dedicated to Moses Mocatta. Ben? nett here describes himself as author of " The Molten Sea ", but I have been unable to trace a copy of this work. He was now receiving influential support, and the List of Subscribers includes the names of the Duke of Sussex, Earl Spencer, Viscount Kingsborough, the Bishop of Chichester, the Bishop of Salisbury, and the Vice Chan? cellor. It is significant to note that Hirschel's name is absent. Bennett had, for some years, been working on a new translation of the Bible. He felt that the success of conversionist movements was largely due to the incorrect rendering of the Hebrew text, and, after the failure of his eyesight prevented him from following his {profession, he had applied himself energetically to this new task. In 1836 he published a prospectus of the proposed work, under the title of " Specimen of a New Version of the Hebrew Bible ", which showed the Hebrew text, New Version and Authorised Version of selected passages, in three parallel columns. The Subscribers included the Duke of Sussex and the Vice-Chancellor, and the former's copy, which is now in the British Museum, has a lei:ter from Bennett at? tached, written from 26 Villiers Street, and dated 22nd February, 1837, in which he begs the Duke to use his influence with the wealthy members of the Synagogue, to enable his work to be published. But Bennett was not to live to see his plan carried out. Fie died on the</page><page sequence="27">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS 117 0 ... 18th December, 1830, at the age o? seventy-seven, and is buried in the Brompton Road cemetery of the Western Synagogue. His five sons, who were all shorthand writers, and his widow, attempted to publish his New Version of the Bible, and one part, consisting of Genesis, actually appeared in 1841, edited by Francis Barham, with the Hebrew text revised and corrected by H. A. Henry, Headmaster of the Jews' Free School, but it was then discontinued. According to the Jewish Encyclopaedia, Bennett spent the latter part of his life in Bristol, but this appears to be incorrect, as is also the statement b) Nagler that he worked in St. Petersburg.89 Another member of the Western Synagogue, Meir ben Abraham, a contemporary of Bennett, was also an engraver,90 and I am told that the names of several other engravers are to be found among the early records of the Synagogue. Isaac Mendes Belisario, perhaps a grandson of the Rabbi of the same name (who died 1791), is best known by the engraving of the Interior of the Bevis Marks Synagogue drawn and etched by him and published by him in 1817 from 5 Sidmouth Street, Mecklenburgh Square.91 He exhibited landscapes and a portrait at the Royal Academy in 1815, 1816, 1818, and 1831. In 1818 his address had changed to 14 John Street, Bedford Row, and in 1831 to 12 Finsbury Chambers.92 He also exhibited on four occasions at the Old Water Colour Society.93 The British Museum has a lithograph portrait of the actress, Ellen Kean (1805-80), engraved and painted by Belisario and published by him in 1832.94 There is a portrait in water colours of the Rev. Isaac Nathan Valentine with a long Hebrew inscription signed Lion Cohen 5584 (1824). Of the same period is the lithograph portrait of Myer Levy, Principal Reader of the New Synagogue, '' Drawn from life by S. Cohen ", and published 5587 (1827).95 Frederick Benjamin Barlin, a painter, was the son of the Reader 89 G. K. Nagler, Neues Allgemeines Bennett Salomon.) 90 Roth, op. cit., pp. 39 and 55. 92 Graves, Royal Academy. 94 C.E.B.P. K?nstler?Lexicon (Munich, 1845). (s.v. 91 A.J.P., p. 168. 93 Graves, Dictionary of Artists. 95 A.f.P., p. 64.</page><page sequence="28">Il8 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS of the Chatham Synagogue.96 His well-known portrait of Rabbi Solomon Hirschel, which now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery, was engraved by W. Holl and published in 1803 by Barlin from 88 Whitecross Street, with a dedication to Benjamin and Abraham Goldsmid.97 Barlin was an Honorary Exhibitor at the Royal Academy and exhibited in 1802 and 1807, his address then being 38 Beech Street, Barbican.98 The British Museum has two portraits of Wm. Whishaw engraved from a painting by Barlin.99 In 1806, another portrait by Barlin, that of Haham Raphael Meldola, was engraved by a Jewish engraver, Joshua Lopez, and published by the latter from 50 White Lion Street, Pentonville.100 I have seen two other examples of this engraver's work, both portraits of pugilists (John Gully and Hy. Pearce) and published by Lopez from 36 Penton Street, Pentonville. Several members of the Gompertz family have exhibited at the Royal Academy. E. Gompertz, a painter of 34 Edward Street, exhi? bited in 1837. F. T. Gompertz, an architect, of 45 Ebury Street, exhibited in 1858 and i860. G. Gompertz, a painter of 29 North Audley Street and 15 Granby Place, Lambeth, exhibited on six occa? sions between 1830 and 1843. S. Gompertz, an architect of 25 Judd Place West, and 34 Edward Street, exhibited in 1836 and 1837. M. Gompertz exhibited between 1833 and 1835 at the Suffolk Street Galleries.101 Encroaching slightly on the Victorian period, mention may be made of D. de Lara of 115 Fleet Street, who described himself as Lithographer to the Queen,102 and John Raphael Isaac appointed in 1846 medallist, lithographer and engraver to H.R.H. Prince Albert.103 S. Levy, an Honorary Exhibitor at the Royal Academy, exhibited 96 Catalogue, p. 55. 97 A.f.P., p. 54. 98 Graves, Royal Academy. 99 C.E.B.P. 100 A.J.P., p. 70. 101 Graves, Royal Academy. Graves, Dictionary of Artists. 102 A.J.P., p. 135. 103 A. E. Franklin, Records of the Franklin Family (London, 1935), p. 98.</page><page sequence="29">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS II9 there in 1819.104 Joseph Jacobs exhibited a portrait at the Suffolk Street Galleries in 1828.105 The British Museum has a portrait of F. Bartolozzi engraved in 1839 from a painting by Manassah who may have been a Jew.106 There is a view of the Isle of Wight in the Mocatta Library en? graved by Edward Simeon against whose name is a note to the effect that he was a Jew.107 There have been several artists of the name of Solomon or Solo? mons. A. Solomons of Houndsditch who exhibited a portrait at the Free Society of Artists in 1782 is no doubt Abraham Solomon, son of Nathan Solomon. He died in 1839 at Hoxton.108 Another Abra? ham Solomon (1823-62), of 3 Sandys Street, Bishopsgate Without, and other addresses, exhibited at the Royal Academy and other exhi? bitions between 1840 and 1862.109 Joseph Solomons exhibited at Suf? folk Street in 1864; J. L. Solomons at the Royal Academy and British Institution between 1854 and 1856; Joel Wolfe Solomon (of 8 King Street, Covent Garden, 35 Henrietta Street, 1 Strand, and 15 Duke Street), at the Royal Academy and other exhibitions between 1827 and 1849; Rebecca Solomon (a sister of Abraham and Simeon) be? tween 1851 and 1875; Simeon Solomon (1834-1905) between 1858 and 1872. Richard Solomons and Solomon of Brighton have already been mentioned. Solomon Alexander Hart was a distinguished painter who worked chiefly during the Victorian era. We learn from his Reminiscences that he was born at Plymouth in 1806. His father, Samuel Hart, was a native of that city, and had been apprenticed to Abraham Daniel of Bath, a jeweller, engraver and miniature painter; he is mentioned as a mezzotint engraver in Bromley's History of En 104 Graves, Royal Academy. 105 Graves, Dictionary of Artists. 106 C.E.B.P. 107 Illustrations of Jews (Mocatta Library), vol. v. 108 A. E. Franklin, op cit., p. 13. I am indebted to the Rev. M. Rosenbaum for this information. 109 Thackeray, on a visit to the Royal Academy in 1854, ls sa^ to nave remarked of him, " Here is Solomon in all his glory but he is not arrayed (R.A.'d) like one of these." (Jewish Chronicle, January 29, 1937, p. 26.)</page><page sequence="30">120 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS gravers, but when he failed to qualify for a studentship at the Royal Academy, he abandoned his career, and returned to Plymouth. S. A. Hart was sent to school at Exeter at the age of seven, but returned home the following year, and shortly afterwards his father married for a second time. At the age of fifteen he was studying at the British Museum, and was admitted as a student at the Royal Academy in 1823. He was only able to pursue his studies in the evenings, as during the day he earned his livelihood by colouring old prints and making copies of Old Masters in miniature on ivory. At this period he also painted some miniature portraits. In 1826, at the early age of twenty, he exhibited at the Royal Academy a portrait of his father, " Mr. Samuel Hart, Professor of the Hebrew Language", and thereafter he exhibited frequently, including " Study of the late Samuel Hart " (1839); " Israelites " (1840); " Scene in a Polish Syna? gogue " (1841); " Duke of Sussex " (1841); 44 Barrow Helbert Ellis, Esq. of the Hon. East India Co.'s Civil Service " (1844); " Simchath Torah " (1845); " Sir Moses Montefiore, painted for the Spanish and Portuguese Jews for their Vestry Room " (1848); 44 Simchath Torah, Leghorn Synagogue" (1850); "Alderman Salomons, M.P." (1852); " Sir Anthony de Rothschild for the Committee Room of the Jews' Hospital "; 44 The Rt. Hon. David Salomons, Lord Mayor of Lon? don " (1856); "The Rev. Dr. Adler, Chief Rabbi, painted for the Vestry Room of the Great Synagogue " (1857); 4' Rev. A. L. Green " (1858); " The Eve of the Sabbath " (1868); " Sir Moses Montefiore, to be placed in the Town Hall of Ramsgate " (1869); 44 Proposal of the Jews to Ferdinand and Isabella " (1870); 44 Menassah ben Israel before Oliver Cromwell " (1872).111 Hart also did some work as an engraver, and with his father's assistance, was able to instruct his brother, Marx, in the rudiments of wood engraving. In 1830 he exhibited at the Society of British Artists (Suffolk Street) his 44 Polish Synagogue: Elevation of the Law", which was bought by Robert Vernon for ^70, and subsequently be? queathed to the National Gallery. Success now was rapid : Lady Montefiore paid 150 guineas for one of his pictures, and in 1839 he 111 Graves, Royal Academy, op. cit.</page><page sequence="31">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS 121 was elected a full member of the Royal Academy. About 1840, the Duke of Sussex selected Hart to paint his portrait for the Jews' Hospital. Hart attended on the Duke at Kensington Palace, and was surprised to find that the Duke knew all about him. " You for? get," said the Duke,44 the peculiarity which distinguishes my family. We collect a quantity of information and facts concerning persons and their affairs which we never forget. I know when you lived in Newcastle Street, Strand, over the milkshop where you struggled all day to get bread for certain members of your family whom you supported, and when you could only afford time in the evenings to pursue your studies at the R.A." The sittings were very protracted, as there were continual interruptions. The Duchess would call the Duke away for a game of billiards; the Duke of Cambridge would call to examine the picture, and remark, 44 Very like, very like ", and the sitter made matters difficult by smoking continuously. Hart was impressed by his enormous stock of tobacco, cigars and pipes. How? ever, the picture was eventually finished, and the Duchess congratu? lated Hart on it and commissioned him to paint a copy of the head. She said that she thought he had a difficult subject in a corpulent man, but had avoided coarseness and had made him look like a gendeman.112 Hart subsequently painted a portrait of Rabbi Isaac Levi, which was presented to the Rabbi by the Duke of Sussex.11,3 Between 1854 and 1863, Hart was professor of painting at the Royal Academy, and, in 1864, he was appointed librarian. He died at 36 Fitzroy Square, London, on the nth June, 1881.114 There are two Jewish architects during the period under review, both pupils of Sir John Soane, who should be mentioned. George Basevi, the son of G. Basevi of Montague Street, Russell Square, was born in London in 1794. In 1810 he was articled to Soane, who apparently knew his father well. His drawings, many of which are preserved in the Sir John Soane Museum, display con 112 The Reminiscences of Solomon Alexander Hart, R.A. (Ed. A. Brodie, London, 1882). Graves, Royal Academy. Dictionary of National Biography. Jewish Encyclo? paedia. 113 Jewish World, October 28, 1910, p. 7. 114 Long, op. cit.</page><page sequence="32">122 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS siderable artistic talent, and he exhibited at the Royal Academy on six occasions between 1820 and 1837.115 Basevi was one of the leading architects of his time, his most famous works being Belgrave Square (1825?40) and the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1836). He died in 1845.116 David Mocatta was the son of Moses Mocatta of 33 Russell Square, and was born in 1806. He was articled to Sir John Soane in March, 1821, the office hours being from nine to eight, " Hebrew festivals and Sabbaths excepted ". In 1825, he received the medal of the Society of Arts, and he exhibited on fourteen occasions at the Royal Academy between 1831 and 1847. He inherited a fortune on the death of his father, and retired from practice early in life. He was a Vice-President of the R.I.B.A., and from 1875 until his death in 1882 a trustee of the Soane Museum.117 There were several early Jewish collectors and patrons of the arts who may be mentioned en passant: Samson Gideon (1699-1762), who was a collector of pictures;118 David Alves Rebello (1741?96), the celebrated numismatist in whose memory several medals were struck;119 Solomon da Costa Athias, who had an extensive collection of Hebrew books and manuscripts which he presented to the British Museum to form the nucleus of their Hebrew library;120 Ralph Bernal (d. 1854) who formed a vast collection of works of art which were sold by Christie's in 1855 ;121 and Henry Isaacs, a wealthy diamond merchant from Holland who was living at Roehampton about the middle of the eighteenth century and who is said to have possessed a collection of paintings by the most eminent artists, including " The Lord of the Vineyards paying his Labourers " by Rembrandt, and many other pictures by the same artist.122 lir&gt; Graves, Royal Academy. 116 A. T. Bolton, Architectural Education a Century Ago. 117 Ibid. D. A. J. Cardozo and Paul Goodman, Thinly and Thanh^ (London, *933)&gt; p. 25. 118 Jewish Encyclopaedia. 119 A.].?., pp. 92 and 178. 120 Jewish Encyclopaedia. 121 A.J.P., p. 144. 122 Notes and Queries, Series I, vol. v. p. 177; Series IV, vol. i. p. 509.</page><page sequence="33">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS 123 I do not claim that the list of Jewish artists I have given is at all complete. There are English artists, such as Sir John Baptist Medina (1659-1710) the distinguished painter, and Henry Moses the engraver (i782?-i87o), whose names alone should make them the subject of further enquiry. We may discover to whom Casanova was referring when he says, in 1763, " I wrote to Martinelli to procure me the best miniature painter in London, and he sent me a Jew."123 We may also learn whether Harriet Wilson's story of the philanthropic Jewish artist, " a Jew named Town, a painter who keeps a shop in Bond Street "124 was a product of her fertile imagination, or whether it refers to Charles Towne, the landscape artist (d. 1850), who was working at 27 New Bond Street in 1806.125 I have been unable to find the slightest evidence to support the statement that Samuel Cooper, the famous miniaturist (1609-72), was a Jew. Further in? formation on these matters will, no doubt, come to light in the course of time. 123 Memoirs, Navarre Society Edition, vol. ii. p. 196. 124 Harriette Wilson's Memoirs, 1929 Edition, pp. 188-89. Q am indebted to Mrs. Cecil Roth for this reference.) 1125 Graves, Royal Academy.</page><page sequence="34">124 early anglo-jewish artists APPENDIX I. LIST OF JEWISH GOLDSMITHS Prepared by the late P. A. S. Phillips from Sir C. J. Jackson, English Goldsmiths and Their Marks &gt; 1921. London Abraham de Oliveyra, entered at Goldsmiths' Hall 1725 &amp; 1739. ? William Solomon, entered at Goldsmiths' Hall 1747. (Daniel Urquhart &amp;) Naphtali Hart, entered at Goldsmiths' Hall 1791, latest mention 1805. Moses Levy, earliest mention 1804. Samuel Solomon, earliest mention 1806, latest mention 1813. Moses Emanuel, earliest mention 1811, latest mention 1815. ? Samuel Davis, earliest mention 1811. N. Hart (possibly Naphtali Hart, as above), earliest mention 1815, latest mention 1817. Lewis Solomon &amp; Co., earliest mention 1816, latest mention 1824. Simon Emanuel, earliest mention 1819, latest mention 1840. J. Levy, earliest mention 1819. John Foligno, earliest mention 1819. H. Lazarus, earliest mention 1819. D. Solome, earliest mention 1819, latest mention 1822. Benjn. Moses, earliest mention 1822. Hyam Hyams, earliest mention 1823, latest mention 1850. Samuel Cohen, earliest mention 1825. Henry Solomon, earliest mention 1829, latest mention 1837. Judah Hart &amp; Co., earliest mention 1835, latest mention 1840. ? I. Behrends, earliest mention 1835, latest mention 1840. (Griffin &amp;) Hyams, earliest mention 1835, latest mention 1840. There was a London goldsmith named Jacob Isaac in 1641, but it is doubtful if a Jew could have carried on such a trade at that period.</page><page sequence="35">early anglo-jewish artists I25 EXETER. Benjamin S. Nathan, of Plymouth, latest mention 1773. Ezekiel Abraham Ezekiel, earliest mention 1780. Moses Mordecai, entered his mark, MM, at Exeter Assay Office 1788. Simon Levy, mark, S. L., fl. 1825. Jacob Nathan, entered his mark at Exeter Assay Office 1833. Chester. M. Solomon, of Liverpool, earliest mention 1815. Joseph L. Samuel, of Liverpool, watch maker, earliest mention 1835. Ralph Samuel, of Liverpool, watch maker, earliest mention 1838, latest mention 1858. Birmingham. Mosely Solomon &amp; Saul M. Solomon (Solomon Bros.), entered their mark at Birmingham Assay Office 1808. Jacob L. Samuel, of Liverpool, entered his mark at Birmingham Assay Office 1831. Dublin. Abraham Davis, Freeman of the Dublin Goldsmiths Company, 1752-55; 1762-64. Registered with the Dublin Goldsmiths' Company: Israel Wolf, 1784. Isaac Davis, 1787. Samuel Jacobs, 1784. Lawrence Isaacs, 1822. Moses Moses, 1784. Michael Myers, 1824. Lion Davis, 1784. J. &amp; W. Cohen, 1827. Jacob Jetz, 1784. Philips &amp; Cohen, 1827. Levy Wolf, Quarter Brother or Journeyman, registered with the Dublin Goldsmiths' Company, 1744.</page><page sequence="36">126 early anglo-jewish artists Cork. Isaac Solomon, silversmith, earliest mention 1801, died 1845. Waterford City. Josias Jacob, registered with the Dublin Goldsmiths' Company, 1809. APPENDIX II. LIST OF EARLY JEWISH CLOCK AND WATCH MAKERS From F. J. Britten, Old Clocks and Watches and their Ma\ers, 5th Edition, London, 1920. Aaron, Benjamin, 17 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, 1840-42. Abrahams, H., 21 Bevis Marks, 1800-20. Abrahams, Godfrey, 51 Prescott Street, Goodmans Fields, 1835-42. Abrahams, Samuel, 23 Little Alie Street, 1840?42. Abrahams, A., 9 Great Prescott Street, 1840-42. Abrahams, Elijah, 27 Hanway Street, Oxford Street, 1840-47. Barnett, Montagu, 16 Swan Street, Minories, 1842. Benjamin, Joel, 12 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, 1820-35. Benjamin, J. &amp; Co., 1840. Benjamin, M., Bernard Street, Commercial Road, 1820; 77 Leman Street, 1840-42. Benjamin, A., Myrtle Street, Hoxton, 1835. Bergstein, Lulam, 116a Great Titchfield Street, 1842. Cohen, Sam. Jacob, 3 Castle Street, Whitechapel, 1815. Cohen, A. S., 9 Newcastle Street, Whitechapel, 1820. Cohen, H., Exeter, 1835. Davis, David, 28 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, 1830-42. Davis, A. &amp; C, 118 Houndsditch, 1835. Emanuel, Joel, Bevis Marks, 1812-17. Emanuel, Lewis &amp; Son, 36 Swan Street, Minories, 1820-42.</page><page sequence="37">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS \1T] Emanuel Brothers, i Bevis Marks, 1830. Ezekiel, E. A., Exeter, watch, hall mark, 1794. Hart, Aaron, Westminster, 1790. Hart, S. &amp; M., 52 Prescott Street, Goodmans Fields, 1804-18. Hart, Jacob, Hull, 1822. Hart, Naphtali &amp; Son, 5 King Street, 1835-42. Hart, Moses, Exeter, 1828. Hays, Mich. Solomon, N.Y., about 1769. Hyams, Woolf, Portsea, watch, 1815. Hyams, Joshua, 32 Leman Street, 1840-42. Hyman, ?. Watch signed " S. Hyman, Dock ", 1811. Isaacs, Levy, 57 Mansell Street, 1769-83. Isaacs, Lewis, 23 Houndsditch, 1830-42. Israel, John, 180 Whitechapel, 1783. Israels, Joshua, London, clock, 1775. Jacob, Benjamin, Clockmakers' Company, 1706 (also a Dennis and a Daniel J.) Jacobs, Judah, Whitex Street, 1769; 1 Little Mitre Court, Fenchurch Street, 1771. Mr. Thos. Boynton has a bracket clock by him. Jacobs, E., 86 York Street, Westminster, 1820; 25 Bevis Marks, 1825 1835 Jacobs, A., Bowery, New York, 1833-36. Jacobs, Edward, 29 Earl Street, Westminster, 1835. Jacobs, J., Bristol, 1844. Jonas, Samuel, Exeter, watch, 1783. Keysor, Louis, 16 Tottenham Court Road, 1835-40. Lazarus, H., 112 Upper East Street, Smithfield, 1815. Lazarus, J., 15 Carter Street, Houndsditch 1825; 39 Minories, 1830. Lazarus, J., 13 Oakley Street, Lambeth, 1835. Lazarus, H. L., 3 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, 1835. Lazarus, E. &amp; Son, 3 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, 1840-42. Levin, Moses, 7 Cook's Court, Carey Street, 1790-94. Levin, Lewin, 63 Prescott Street, 1804; 51 Mansell Street 1815; 123 Leadenhall Street, 1830. Levy, Michael, Hull, 1770.</page><page sequence="38">128 EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS Levy, Hyam, 121 Whitechapel High Street, 1775-85. Levy, Joseph, New Round Court, Strand, 1780-85. Levy, Lyon, 121 Whitechapel High Street, 1780-85. Levy, M. &amp; C, 19 Maiden Lane, 1790. Levy, Philip, 30 Jewry Street, Aldgate, 1798-1803. Levy, Jonas, 18 Somerset Street, 1800; 135 Whitechapel, 1810; 38 Minories, 1820. Levy, J., Coventry Street, Haymarket, 1815. Levy, B., High Street, Whitechapel, 1820. Levy, J. &amp; Son, 49 Tooley Street, 1820. Levy, J. &amp; Co., 408 Strand, 1825. Levy, A., 17 Camomile Street, 1825-35. Levy, S., 19 Crutched Friars, 1830. Levy, Jonas, 13 Bevis Marks, admitted free of the Clockmakers' Com? pany by redemption, being the first Jew, 1831; 1820-42. Levy, A., 138 Ratcliffe Highway, 1835. Levy, Abraham, 36 Trinity Square, Tower Hill, 1840-42. Levy &amp; Moss, 1 Liverpool Buildings, Bishopsgate, 1842. Levy, Joseph, Bristol, 1844. Levyson, Montague, 125 Pall Mall, 1840. Marks, Lewis, 127 Jermyn Street, 1830-35; 59 Princes Street, Leices? ter Square, 1840-42. Menessie, Elisha, Aldersgate Street, 1790-95. Moses, Selegman, London, long-case clock about 1775. Moses, Ephraim, 135 Whitechapel, 1790. Myers, Moses, 152 Regent Street, 1830. Myers, Abraham, 79 Leman Street, 1840?42. Nathan, Hy., Ratcliffe Highway, Clockmakers' Company, 1673, maker of long-case clocks, 1673?1700. Nathan, Phineas, 9 Magdalen Row, 1840-42. Newman, Joseph, 30 Great Alie Street, 1790. Phillips, Joel, 35 Norton Folgate, 1820. Phillips, Abraham, 33 City Road, 1835. Phillips, P., 15 Bury Street, 1840-42. Rothschild, Joseph, Bristol, 1844.</page><page sequence="39">EARLY ANGLO-JEWISH ARTISTS 129 Samuel, Humphry, Panton Street, 1790. Samuel &amp; Hill, 3 Charing Cross, 1793. Samuel, Moses, Louis &amp; Co., Solomon, all of Liverpool about 1818. Samuel, David, York, fl. 1820. Samuel, Abraham, Little Alie Street, 1820-25. Samuel, J., 142 High Street, Shadwell, 1835. Samuel, Abraham &amp; Son, 11 Little Alie Street, 1840-42. Simmons, Morrice, 40 Great Prescott Street, 1842. Solomon, Hy., Coventry Street, 1775. Solomon, S. C, 13 St. Mary Axe, 1794-1804. Solomon, Edward, Margate, watch, 1799. Solomon, Moses, King Street, 1810; Bevis Marks, 1820; Great Alie Street, 1830. Solomon, Hy., 46 Duke Street, Aldgate, 1835. Solomon, Hy. &amp; Co., 31 Houndsditch, 1840-42. Solomon, P., 26 Mansell Street, 1840-42. Solomon, J., 24 Great Prescott Street, 1842. Solomon, Simon, Bristol, 1843. Symons, Moses, Hull, 1822. Yates &amp; Hess, Liverpool, 1833. K</page></plain_text>