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Anglo-Jewry in Caricature 1780-1850

Alfred Rubens

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Anglo-Jewry in Caricature 1780-1850 ALFRED RUBENS, F.S.A., F.R.Hist.S. This paper* is in effect little more than an addendum to my two Presidential addresses published in Transactions XIX under the com? posite title 'Portrait of Anglo-Jewry', which was followed by 'The Rothschilds in Carica? ture' in Volume XXII, but as far as possible the illustrations are restricted to those which have not previously been published. For the his? torian seeking 'to discover how things really were' the engraved caricature is an unrivalled chronicle of day-to-day events, national habits, and prejudices, and the best guide to public opinion. It is of particular importance for the study of Jewish social, political, and economic history because of the scarcity of other sources, and I therefore make no excuse for returning to the subject. To be able to do so without repeti? tion speaks for the volume of the material and the little use that has been made of it. As far as England is concerned, there are, apart from my own contributions, only the two articles by Israel Solomons, on the Jews' Naturalisation Bill of 1753 and on Lord George Gordon, pub? lished in Transactions VI and VII respectively, while in the wider field there is Die Juden in der Karikatur, by Edward Fuchs, published in 1921, a book which is of little value except for the illustrations. MOMENTOUS YEARS The period covered in this article is roughly between 1780 and 1850, seventy momentous years which saw the grant of independence to America, the French Revolution, the Napo? leonic wars, revolutions abroad, and Reform at home. In previous articles I have touched on the social and political conditions of Anglo-Jewry during this period and it might be as well to summarise them here. In 1800, Patrick Colquhoun estimated that there were 15,000 to 20,000 Jews in the City of London, including about 1,500 pedlars, and some 5,000 to 6,000 Jews in provincial towns and seaports.1 There was a great deal of crime due to poverty and unemployment but in fact the general condition of the poor in London was so appalling that the criminal element among Jews was probably not out of proportion to their numbers. They were largely an alien community and for that reason alone came under suspicion of subversive activities during the wars with America and France. Their heroes were Lord George Gordon and Charles James Fox, both of whom were regarded by the Government as dangerous radicals. NO INTEREST IN POLITICS The French Revolution was undoubtedly welcomed by many English Jews and Napo? leon's Jewish policy may have influenced them in his favour but, according to one Govern? ment spy,2 they were not impressed by his offer to settle the Jews in Egypt (he meant Palestine). Only two Jewish Jacobins are known by name: Lewis Goldsmith and John King; the first re? canted and the second was probably a Govern? ment spy. Most of the London Jews of this period were far too occupied in trying to scrape a living to have time for political activities. Even by the middle of the nineteenth century Mayhew noted that the Jewish pedlars dis? played not the slightest interest in politics or emancipation and that their only reading mat? ter was the Police Reports? But if their political * Paper delivered to the Jewish Historical Society on 13 May 1970. 1 P. Colquhoun, A Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis, 6th ed., London, 1800. 2 Cf. Joseph Priestley's comment in a letter dated 6 December 1798: 'Whatever be the view of the French in taking possession of Egypt, I rejoice in it, as it must lead to a happy revolution in all that part of the Turkish dominions which includes Palestine and may eventually contribute to the restitution of the Jews. This, I am informed, is also one of their projects' (Sotheby's Auction Catalogue, 18-19 July 1960, Lot 482). 3 H. Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, London, 1861, Vol. 2, pp. 126-127. 96</page><page sequence="2">Anglo-Jewry in Caricature 1780-1850 97 involvement was slight, Jews certainly voted at Parliamentary elections during the eighteenth century when theoretically they had no right to do so and, at the same time, the Jews of Duke's Place, London, were taking an active part in local affairs.4 It was because so many Jews were engaged in peddling that the Jew was a familiar figure even in remote parts of the English countryside. In London the old-clothesman was part of the daily scene. With a pile of hats on his head and a sack over his shoulder, he could be seen and heard in every street and alley and his ap? pearance is perpetuated in the many books of London Street Cries, while in the caricatures he was the Jewish stereotype. The caricatures tell us little about the wealthier Jews, who were mainly Sephardim, or the increasingly large number engaged in trades and occupations which did not involve street trading. The 'Jew Bill' caricatures of 1753 became bitterly antisemitic for political reasons and in this respect they differ from most of the later English caricatures in which Jews figure, which, while often abusive and offensive, were rarely vindictive. The Jew, whether an old-clothes? man or a Rothschild, was regarded as a comical figure whose appearance and speech could al? ways raise a laugh, and it is rare for Jews to be vilified as a group. SIGN OF TOLERATION It has been said that autocracy in France was tempered by epigram, in Russia by assassina? tion, and in England by caricature. In this connection the following anecdote related by Samuel Taylor Coleridge is of some signifi? cance: 'A celebrated professor in a German university showed me a very pleasing print entitled "Toleration"?a Catholic priest, a Lutheran divine, a Calvinist minister, a Quaker, a Jew, and a Philosopher were represented sitting round the same table, over which a winged figure hovered in the attitude of protec? tion. For this harmless print, said my friend, the artist was imprisoned, and having attempted to escape, was sentenced to draw the boats on the banks of the Danube with robbers and mur? derers: and there he died in less than two months from exhaustion and exposure. In your happy country, sir, this print would be con? sidered as a pleasing scene from real life, for in every great town throughout your empire you may meet with the original'.5 For the purpose of this article I have chosen a representative group of caricatures which can be divided roughly into three categories: social, personal, and political. The first is an oil painting on panel dating from about 1790 showing a group of three typical Jewish pedlars exchanging stories (Fig. 1, Plate I). Slippery Weather, an etching published in 1795, is another purely humorous picture which with the lines below shows the Jew as part of the London scene (Fig. 2, Plate II). Thomas Rowlandson must have spent many hours sketching in London's Jewish quarter around Duke's Place and could never resist an opportunity of introducing a Jew into his many scenes of London life. Even allowing for the coarseness of his street types in general, his Jews are exceptionally malevolent figures and it is unusual to find him in such a restrained mood as he is in Dukes Place Lovers (Fig. 3, Plate III), an etching published in 1797, which, like Fig. 2, comes under the heading of facetiae. MALICIOUS CRUIKSHANKS The Cruikshank brothers also delighted to portray Jews in their etchings and drawings and they were almost equally malicious. The Piccadilly Nuisance (Fig. 4, Plate IV), published in 1818, shows the traffic congestion outside Hatchett's at the corner of Piccadilly and Dover Street, then an important terminus for stage-coaches. A Jew has had his tray of ? A. Rubens, 'The Jews of the Parish of St. James, Duke's Place', in Remember the Days, 1966. 5 The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The Friend, Vol. 1, ed. Barbara E. Rooke. Princeton University Press, 1969, p. 260. I have never seen a copy of the print nor any other reference to it but Dr. Richard Barnett has pointed out the similarity to the design on the reverse side of the 1782 medal commemorating the Edict of Toleration issued by the Austrian Emperor Joseph II. This shows three figures representing Catholic, Protestant, and Jew standing under the Imperial Eagle and a banner inscribed 'Tolerantia Imperantis'.</page><page sequence="3">98 Alfred Rubens oranges knocked out of his hands. A Jewess standing in the foreground sells oranges with one hand and with the other helps a Jewish boy to pick a pocket. Judging by the caricatures, boats sailing between London and Margate frequently had a Jewish pedlar on board. In Voyage to Margate, by Isaac Gruikshank (Fig. 5, Plate V), pub? lished in 1786, most of the passengers are being seasick while the Jew recites his prayers. Jewish life at a seaport is illustrated by the view of Point Street, Portsmouth, by Robert Gruikshank (Fig. 6, Plate VI), from G. M. Westmacott's English Spy, published in 1825 1826, showing Moses' slop shop, with two Jews in conversation outside. In Hebrew Melodies (Fig. 7, Plate II) we are shown three typically Jewish trades: the old clothesman, a woman orange-vendor, and a boy selling lead pencils. The title is an allusion to Byron's Hebrew Melodies, published in 1815 and set to music by Isaac Nathan. A Fleet of Transports under Convoy (Fig. 8, Plate VII), published in 1781, shows a gang of convicts led by two Jews being taken from Newgate. Besides being a commentary on Jewish crime, the print vividly illustrates the brutality of the English penal system. 'Jew Bail', a well-known device which en? abled a few Jews to scrape a living by offering worthless bail, is referred to in Rowlandson's A Lady in Limbo or Jew Bail Rejected (Fig. 9, Plate VIII), published in 1802. Beau Mordecai Inspired (Fig. 10, Plate IX), published in 1773, is an example of the carica? tures which appeared at frequent intervals based on the supposed erotic tendencies of Jews, originating, I believe, from Plate 2 of Hogarth's Harlot's Progress. LORD GEORGE GORDON Promenade in the State Side of Newgate (Fig. 11, Plate X), published in 1793, shows Lord George Gordon with beard and hat as he appeared after his conversion to Judaism. He is in con? versation with Martin van Butchell, another eccentric character, who believed in the im? minent restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land. Many of the other figures can be identi fled as prominent radicals. Ralph Sch?mberg (1714-1792) was a physician like his twin brother, Isaac Sch?m? berg, and both turned Christian. In Brothers in Iniquity (Fig. 12, Plate XI), published in 1778, he is seen with Philip Thicknesse ('Dr. Viper'). Sch?mberg, with a devil on his shoulder, is holding a plate of money, a reference to the charge made against him by Thicknesse that he was 'the villain who robbed the poor from the plate he held at the church door for alms'.6 The characters in A certain Little fat Jew Macaroni and his Spouse going to ye Pantheon have not been identified, but I suspect them to be Sampson Gideon (1699-1762) and his wife (Fig. 13, Plate XII). The next two caricatures are of musicians. Nosee (Fig. 14, Plate XIII), published 1774, is the violoncellist, Jacob Basevi-Cervetto (1682 ? 1783). A New Insect is Charles Furtado (1766 1821) the composer (Fig. 15, Plate XIII). Neither took any part in Jewish communal life. BRAHAM'S AMOURS John Braham's amours were certain to make news and in July 1816 a Mr. Wright, in a matrimonial suit, obtained ?1,000 damages against him.7 Mrs. Wright doing Wrong (Fig. 16, Plate XIV) shows Braham carrying off Mrs. Wright, leaving his deserted mistress, Nancy S tor ace, in despair. He declares in a thick Jewish accent: 'I'm afraid I shall make but a Bad Bargins of dish', and his Jewish appearance is exaggerated. The Cruikshank etching, The Horse-Councellor obtaining a Verdict! or Killing no Murder (Fig. 17, Plate XIV), published in 1821, refers to the trial of army officers after a number of people had been killed during the funeral of Queen Caroline. The defence barrister, John Adolphus (1768-1845), is shown as a centaur perhaps because he was half-Jewish. His brief lying on the ground is endorsed 'Jew and Jury', and a poster on the wall reads: 'A. Dollfuss lately from Coventry formerly of the Old Jew-ry'. The foppish young man in the Dighton 6 Philip Gosse, Dr. Viper, London, 1952, pp. 154 and 254. 7 See Trans. XX, p. 210.</page><page sequence="4">Anglo-Jewry in Caricature 1780-1850 99 caricature (Fig. 18, Plate XV), published 1804, is Pellegrine Treves, junior (1762-1825), as he appeared shortly after the ignominious end of his career in India, where he had ob? tained a post through his father's friendship with the Prince of Wales. A Bill of Exchange (Fig. 19, Plate XV) is the infamous John King, of whom sufficient has al? ready been written. In Blown from Oxford... (Fig. 20, Plate XVI), published in 1829, the diminutive old-clothes? man is Sir Manasseh Masseh Lopes (1755 1831), who had just sold the pocket borough of Westbury to Sir Robert Peel. Lopes became a Christian in 1802 and the caricaturist takes par? ticular delight in advertising his origin. A Waddleing procession from the Stock Exchange . . ., from The Rambler's Magazine for November 1783 (Fig. 21, Plate XVII), refers to the de? fault on the London Stock Exchange of Nathan Salomons (1748 (?)-1825). He is seen leading a procession of four lame ducks (defaulters) and is followed by another Jew. Salomons' failure, which he attributed to conspiracy, caused a financial crisis. The bull and bear which bring up the rear of this procession occur again in happier circum? stances on a broker's copper token (Ashby &amp; Young). The face on the bull (Fig. 22, Plate XVIII) is that of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, and the bear (Fig. 23, Plate XVIII) has the face of Moses Mocatta.8 A Visit to the Synagogue (Fig. 24, Plate XIX), published in 1809, is a typical piece of Rowland son abuse. It refers to the visit on 14 April 1809 of the three Royal Dukes, Cumberland, Sussex, and Cambridge, to the Duke's Place Synagogue. Rowlandson has got the names slightly confused. The visit was made probably as a compliment to Abraham Goldsmid, who had recently negotiated a loan for the Dukes with Abraham and Simeon Boas, of The Hague, a transaction which ruined the lenders. Devotion in Dukes Place . . . (Fig. 25, Plate XIX) probably also refers to the Goldsmid brothers, who in 1809 contracted for the Govern? ment loan of over ?14m. and in 1810 jointly with Baring negotiated a loan of over ? 13m. If the visit of the Royal Dukes to the syna? gogue was one indication of the improved social status of London Jewry, the attendance of the Lord Mayor at a Jewish wedding was of even greater significance. The occasion was the wedding of the daughter of Michael Myers, the City's chief fishmonger, who by royal appoint? ment supplied fish to George III. A copy of the invitation preserved in the British Museum has this note on it: '310 persons sat down to dinner. The Lord Mayor sat at the head table between the bride and groom and opened the ball with the bride who was a beautiful young lady and not the least like a Jewess'. The two carica? tures, The Wedding Dinner (Fig. 26, Plate XX) and The Pattern (Fig. 27, Plate XXI), both pub? lished in 1812, are a vicious attack on the Lord Mayor, Sir Claudius Stephen Hunter, for associating with Jews. MENDOZA'S FIGHTS Dan beating the Phillistines (Fig. 28, Plate XXII), published in 1792, is one of the many caricatures relating to Daniel Mendoza and records his fight with Ward. Killing no Murder . . . (Fig. 29, Plate XIII), published in November 1809, shows a riotous scene in the pit of Covent Garden Theatre. In the foreground a Jew is striking a man whom he holds by the throat, remarking at the same time, 'Down to H - - 1 with all O.P.s and say t'was Dan [Mendoza] that sent the there'. The increased prices charged when the theatre re? opened after a fire in September 1809 created disturbances known as the O.P. (old price) riots and the management hired Daniel Mendoza and other Jewish pugilists to maintain order.9 The Jew Beauties . . . (Fig. 30, Plate XXIV), published in 1806, was a song sung by Mr. Fawcett at Covent Garden Theatre. The last part of the song stresses the importance of Jews in the field of boxing but is also worth noting because it shows how the cockney Jew was sup? posed to speak. The remaining caricatures have a political flavour. 8 D. M. Friedenberg, Jewish Medals, New York, 1970. 9 See also, for references to Daniel Mendoza and to the Covent Garden Theatre O. P. incident, the paper 'The Changed Face of English Jewry at the end of the Eighteenth Century', by Gerald Reitlin? ger, published in this volume.</page><page sequence="5">100 Alfred Rubens A New Mode of raising Supplies . . . for 1780 (Fig. 31, Plate XXV) shows Lord North stand? ing in front of a map of 'America'. He is level? ling a pistol at two figures, one of them a Jew, and he is saying, 'I'll drain both Jew and Gentile'. Blue and Buff" (Fig. 32, Plate XXVI), pub? lished in 1788, shows Charles James Fox drink? ing with some of his friends. The picture on the wall professes to show how Fox had rigged the recent election in three different constituencies. In St. Ann's and Duke's Place a Jew is having his beard shaved by the Duchess of Devonshire, one of Fox's most active supporters. The impli? cation here is that if a Jew's origins were con? cealed there was nothing to prevent him registering his vote. This was probably not far from the truth. Downfall of Monopoly in 1800 (Fig. 33, Plate XXVII) refers to the serious food shortages and famine which occurred in that year. Among the food profiteers and other exploiters of the poor, Rowlandson includes a Jew with a sack of 'Bacon'. This idea of associating Jews with pig products was an old cliche^ SUPPORT FOR CAROLINE The Triumph of Innocence (Fig. 34, Plate XXVIII) was published in 1820 after the con? clusion of the divorce proceedings by George IV against Queen Caroline. The Queen re? ceived a great deal of popular support, par? ticularly from the radical movements, among whom the caricaturist includes the Jews. A bearded Jew carrying under his arm a large poster labelled 'dirty work' is saying, 'Oh save me my friends, her virtue and innocence is believed by the honest and independent sub? jects of this persecuted nation'. The public reaction to the first attempt in 1830 to secure the right of Jews to sit in Parlia? ment is aptly illustrated in Knock and ye shall enter (Fig. 35, Plate XXIX), in which an old clothes dealer and a Moroccan Jewish pedlar are seen at the door of the House of Commons. Five years later, in 1835, when David Salo? mons was elected a Sheriff of the City of Lon? don, public opinion was still hostile. The four Scenes in the City (Fig. 36, Plate XXX) show the awful results of electing a Jew. Not only is re? ligious observance likely to interfere with the performance of his civic duties but that public nuisance, the Jewish orange-seller, would be able to rely on the Sheriff's protection. The agitation for the removal of Jewish dis? abilities continued for the next few years and was very much to the forefront during 1847. In an article headed 'The Jewish Champion'11 Punch accuses Disraeli of creating the noble Jewish characters in Tancred in order to pave the way for Jews to enter Parliament. 'Disraeli has determined in his own mind that until there is a Mosaic Parliament sitting in Rag Fair, the object of his great mission will be unaccomplished'. Punch follows this up with a skit on Coningsby, accompanied by an illustra? tion showing Disraeli in the Jewish old-clothes trading centre near Covent Garden.12 'PUNCH'S' ATTITUDE The cartoon in Vol. 12 (Fig. 37, Plate XXXI) reflects the consistently antisemitic tone of Punch at this time. A momentary change of attitude occurred after the general election of June 1847, when Lionel de Rothschild was elected as one of the Liberal members for the City of London. Punch comments on the new House: 'The return of Baron Rothschild is a feather in the cap of the citizens but it is a feather which shows that the wind blows in the right direction. Though we do not go the whole length of Disraeli in his admiration of his race, though we cannot trace a Solomon in every old clothesman, nor recognise a states? man behind the flashing of five hundred blades, bristling up from five penknives, still we are not insensible to the claims of the Jews to social and political equality. Those who are so eminently skilful in the management of their own interest, may safely be entrusted with a share in watch? ing over the interests of a nation that adopts them into its legislature and the election of Baron Rothschild is a great triumph of en? lightened principle.'13 10 Fox's election colours. H Punch, Vol. 12, 1847, p. 145. i2 Ibid., Vol. 12, p. 166. "Ibid., Vol. 13, p. 41.</page><page sequence="6">PLATE I Fig. 1. Three Jewish Pedlars</page><page sequence="7">PLATE II ,. / .n' njl S M IM? V. K Y V V K A'tTlK U . "' " ' ' ' ... .', /,.?, .&lt; l\.f&gt;. _ i?.' ,?,/,. ? ? ? : I/... , ..'..?r ..//,...../ .j, At'. l,?t.,.i. . -.. ; ;? Fig. 2. Slippery Weather</page><page sequence="8">PLATE III 0 IK;: &gt;S i' ,, . ' |. ? ? v :? S 0 my /Atw ,/t/ryA/ t'/'/Jz/Aw /'Am , .//,?/,?/,;./// Immls ,y lai^o iuun ll J^///Mofos/v^jX.'/A^ //y^/ ,//,/////., ^ //, ./..;., //,.,, ,,/,,/,/,/,/? TAoii &lt;*'/?//'.'////&lt;/&lt;&gt;/'/A,////t ,//.,/ (int,., y /rJ /,//,,. /&gt;//.///.,/! . /., //y// iuuiifil ItHld Youlll //? ///i /////:... ' ! .I.m\ ,|,,\ .1 so 1m.|;?(. Fig. 3. Dukes Place Lovers</page><page sequence="9">PLATE IV</page><page sequence="10">PLATE V</page><page sequence="11">PLATE VI</page><page sequence="12">PLATE VII V l'l ri 'l ??r TKWShiKTS niiclt-r l'ONVOV, Fig. 8. A Fleet of Transports under convoy</page><page sequence="13">PLATE VIII i|. .__[ oi ^-. * ' bb ? ?! E</page><page sequence="14">PLATE IX l&lt; r V t M &lt; * }&lt;?&gt;!&lt;? v i iNsl':1!'!). Fig. 10. Beau Mordecai inspir'd</page><page sequence="15">PLATE X ^^^^^^^^^^^^^HBkHH^^^B^^p^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H ' ? B ^^^^^^^^^^^^^?be^^^^b^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^p- B - ^^^^^^^^^BB^B|||^^^^^^^^^^^B*4 BI^^^^^B^^^^^^^^^^^^^HV^K^-^aV^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^V v^B Kl^H^^^^B^^^^^HimL ly^^^BW^^B : d^B ^^^^^^^BI^^^^^^bP^^kv^^^^^^^^^^kIw^^^^^b ^^^^^^^^^^H^^^^b^^^mS^h^^^^^B^^^^^I^^^^^^^i^h ' ^^^^^^^^^IB^^HHESfeitt^^^^^ta^) ^^^^^^" -^^h ^S^^^^^^^I^bKPn^b H ^b - HBz^^^^^^^H^Ed^m^^H r^rBB^^^^^^^Kl^^^li^B M ^B OBIQHnpHEHK^J r JrJwiL/,'"r"1 ?*Bs^^B H ^ ^ t ^4?^::- . v ' ^^^^^^ -&lt;*^^fcB ?</page><page sequence="16">PLATE XI ^^^^^ brothers i.\ I^iqx'ity. Fig. 12. Brothers in iniquity (Dr. Ralph Sch?mberg and Philip Thicknesse)</page><page sequence="17">PLATE XII Fig. 13. A certain little fat Jew Macaroni and his spouse going to ye Pantheon (? Sampson Gideon and his wife)</page><page sequence="18"></page><page sequence="19">PLATE XIV Fig. 16. Mrs. Wright doing wrong (being carried off by John Braham) TgLL?/C _ obtaining n Vented / orjCt^toMURDEk Fig. 17. The Horse-councellor obtaining a verdict (John Adolphus)</page><page sequence="20">PLATE XV - .MIHI g</page><page sequence="21">PLATE XVI Si^Smmi^ww~~jMmi?L^.m ' ' "' ' ..... - .'' - : ? '?" j ?p</page><page sequence="22">PLATE XVII</page><page sequence="23">PLATE XVIII Ml^B^ *'j^m tiB 4f' jfir^aTfAmBmW^ ^^tj^^^^B^^m^^m^W^^^t^^^^^^tL Fig. 22. Nathan Mayer Rothschild Ashby and Young's stockbroker's token Fig. 23. Moses Mocatta</page><page sequence="24">PLATE XIX Fig. 24. A visit to the Synagogue (Dukes of Cumberland, Cambridge, and Sussex) Fig. 25. Devotion in Dukes Place (? Goldsmid brothers)</page><page sequence="25">PLATE XX %M\ - qBfct&gt; -El ^^^^</page><page sequence="26">PLAT1 XXI</page><page sequence="27">PLATE XXII ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^^^</page><page sequence="28">PLATE XXIII</page><page sequence="29">PLATE XXIV AWhfmsiatl So/t//;? Stttt/j byMI Fmrtrtf,&lt;ri formt (utrtlr/t '/Itm/re. 434 Tint, dar %'ush Mtfr lle\y.f*mt\ Mi/s tieer. Oh! retfaliifslfevi trus she .' Her eves verr surft/mfty li/tir ndlers.iley so**n t/ot the heiter ut"/ite. She etil ma tu ort in two, tor oll &gt;U vorld so it trus a bad shillinu t*h!\ itf tt timntiino itirl So nothifi/f hinderd our imtrriiu/e. Im tonte tin A; Such* a t/iri sttould drerir*. i v Sheranie ti* mr n*/t tuonii/hf, at id sues site. Ma dear J/T. fanvi, don'I iff it on* n y. Butt rush /tturrytl ytsfentity to so/tirhoily else." And drrr rush oh * ud t f * Mifr Jury. fVi/vu/a iiiiiu/ltty Mifr /A r? . Dm deft rush Slits luidtel, ttt/ter Mifr Htuiittti. so taU/hnu de Ludto dr tiet. Ibu may t/o than S!fouls to tout/ . tin .h?ti'tr stielt a temty. von V inert. tier Inder sold rut,'Ins tt/td r.iitts..md lto.it t it/it/At % prrlty siio/i ttf'tt, J/ufdr ttrst time f so ?e tor/in tt1 ? h/th :it*r htliuidt/f enwitrrj/ill in If er u hy /V'./. / ?// ft A tliunotiiti no/ Sol tiMtdt .'.rrtdl.it loee rot l.futd.ottd Iterlteurt ti tti.it/ tit mir f/'tn . lirl/Ar ti s/irA' ot'slutdino nur. it tinihd in n trier, lud dm tue t/otiti/n/ to do lint ht(v deri/u/ out tetter I'tidtrl Jtop . hid *r aitldn7 m/rre uliwi? ,h /*nrr. Oil/ml tiyuiAy Mifs AV/,jW. I ten dtir t.i.*h tfifr Mos..*.jolly Mifr Moses, rut n Mifr M?sts t iistt jtli. ' Ihrltrt t i ut ihtrs erry /?* #? Ltuhrs. nut sri.it tt/*s. und stuit howsyt'ii'tl rrt .' Iltr I In'ihr rush ii,i,//./y ritli.toulttoi tuotiri- m dr sftto.i.'s. Ik instm't so i uht.tr tou?f /the truth; hut tuintht dr i tn. if ft i y d,'/.. &lt;/ irr ,nt,t to tn*.r. So Mifr M?sts loo/.- /,/sorts ot'/or hrot/r/;hotv use i)t ftn t/y litttt list o/'liiTt'ti n : . Ilht 11 ash . 'hin/, d h &gt; Ii iii: i ft n1,1 iv.?7/j- of .hit, utl of'.h h:,n. II &lt;r. Hit 'toth tu timed /ut?&lt;tt.intiv sfhir , / ////// ./.?/* ttht'rif tu\', \t tei.'i to f.-norl' iuti i/,m u . ('/, ' r.it.t Ininyliu.tStift |/?w&lt;rt / .-./,././ /....? A, l v. ,n. x ? m c t t .t-t.r, r,&gt;..tj^t.,. Fig. 30. The Jew Beauties</page><page sequence="30">PLATE XXV E</page><page sequence="31">PLATE XXVI ^^^^ i</page><page sequence="32">PLATE XXVII</page><page sequence="33">PLATE XXVIII</page><page sequence="34">PLATE XXIX Fig. 35. Knock and ye shall enter (Jewish emancipation struggle)</page><page sequence="35">PLATE XXX i 1 ' -in. ... , ?^w^^r?ng ^?YAYAYbYAYAYAYAYAYAYAb ^*^e3?2?9^bYbYbYfm- v^*?^ ^"?^"?WHB?BBBBk ._-?p--_ ^^^^ ????^?^^??MMWWWWBiM^MW^^ _;_____ bb ? ?-E</page><page sequence="36">PLATE XXXI E</page><page sequence="37">PLATE XXXII Fig. 38. The New Boy (Lord John Russell, Lionel de Rothschild, Disraeli)</page><page sequence="38">Anglo-Jewry in Caricature 1780-1850 101 This comment was followed up by the car? toon, The New Boy (Fig. 38, Plate XXXII), in which Mr. Punch hands over Lionel de Roth? schild to the care of his fellow-member for the City of London, Lord John Russell. Disraeli is seen in the background in an attitude of prayer. When Rothschild was prevented from taking his seat in the House of Commons Punch re? verted to its extremely hostile attitude towards H the Jews, which continued for a number of years.14 14 Vol. 14, 1848, p. 68 contains the cartoon, The Last Appeal (against Jewish Disabilities), showing a Jew appealing to Sir R. H. Inglis. Vol. 14, 1848, p. 83 contains The Curly-headed Jew Boy. Vol. 21, 1851, p. 59. Distressing Case of Desertion shows Lord John Russell leaving a cradle containing two Jewish children tied to the door of the House of Lords.</page></plain_text>