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Anglo-Jewish Coats of Arms

Lucien Wolf

<plain_text><page sequence="1">ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OF ARMS. -+ By LUCIEN WOLF. To speak of Jewish armorial bearings is scarcely accurate, for the coats of arms used by Jews are very seldom Jewish coats of arms. As a rule, the last thing Jewish applicants to Heralds' College think of is the emblazonment of any reminiscence of their family traditions or their racial origin on the escutcheons which are intended to mark their rank in Gentile social life. This is exceedingly regrettable, both from the heraldic and the Jewish standpoint. No conscientious student of the " gentle science " can view with satisfaction the accumulation of spurious heraldic material utterly devoid of historical or genealogical value; nor can any chauvinist Jew be otherwise than disappointed that his brethren should elect to follow the examples of Gentile parvenus, when a proper and intelligent use of their own historical emblems and devices might found a branch of heraldry, rivalling, in its valid claim to antiquity, some of the wildest fancies of the mediaeval pursuivants. Thus, the Salomons family might have very appro? priately adopted a Clavicle. Davidson might use a Magen David instead of the Gentile bearings which a Jewish family of that name has borrowed from its Scotch namesakes. A " sun in splendor " or a flame of fire would be a fitting crest for a Myers or a Phillips. A family named Benjamin has such a flame for a crest, whereas a Wolf would obviously be the more legitimate object. There is not a single registered case with which I am acquainted of a Cohen or a Levi who has introduced into a coat of arms the Jewish emblems of his ancient descent. The failure of the mediaeval mind to grasp the historical connec? tion between the Jews and the people of the Bible will account for the otherwise strange inconsistency which marks the attitude of the early</page><page sequence="2">151 ANGLO-JE WISH COxlTS OF ARMS. Heralds towards the Israelitish people. While, on the one hand, they explicitly denied the right of the Jews to bear arms,1 on the other they sought to prove the antiquity of the art of blazon by declaring that the patriarchs were the first gentlemen, and as such used coat armour. Thus Sylvanus Morgan, in his 6( Sphere of Gentry," assigns to Adam a plain shield gules (red).2 It is an amusing coincidence that the leading Jewish family at the present day, the Rothschilds, derive their name from a similar escutcheon which is the basis of their coat of arms. Unwarranted as are these fictions, they possess a far larger pro? portion of truth than their inventors suspected. European heraldry only became systematised in the thirteenth century; but long prior to that date the Jews had used family and tribal emblems which, but for the legal prohibition to which I have referred, might have followed the methodising course which gave a scientific coherency to the ruder and much less ancient devices of the Western nations. The antiquity of heraldic devices among the Jews is shown by several references to them in the Bible, as for example in Numbers ii. 2, where u every man of the children of Israel" is instructed to " pitch by his own standard with the ensign of his father's house." There is even a mythology of Jewish heraldry, for the Rabbis invented shields and devices for the heroes of Bible history.3 The seals of the early Hebrews were, in spite of the Law, graven with images disposed more or less armorially.4 In process of time the language of seal symbolism became an object of study, and Leopold Low has expressed the opinion that the Talmudic terms miDIBH 'WH and flllion WH refer to persons who discharged in their day the functions of heralds.5 At no time in their mediaeval history did the Jews altogether abandon these emblems. Long before they adopted surnames from the analogies in Jacob's Blessing and other Biblical texts, they made the same analogies yield designs for family seals. Judah would stamp his shtaroth with a Lion, Benjamin with a Wolf, Naphtali with a Stag, 1 Schudt: Merkw?rdigkeiten IL, p. 262. 2 See also the Authorised Bible of 1611, and Fuller's "Pisgah Light." 3 Low : Alterthumshunde, p. 56. 4 Levy : Siegel u. Gemmen, pp. 33-46 and pi. III. 5 Alterthnmskun.de, pp. 58-60.</page><page sequence="3">ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OP ARMS. 155 Issachar with a Bear, and so forth. The Biblical prohibition anent graven images was compounded with by slightly smudging the image.1 Sometimes these crests came very near simulating real coat armour. Thus among the Jewish seals still extant is one of Todros Halevi of Toledo, who flourished in the fourteenth century, consisting of a pointed quarterfoil charged with a ^R^^jjw triple towered castle and fleur de Iis2 (fig. 3). Another Wt% seal,3 inscribed with the name p *D n? WD, kK^-^S seems to show an attempt at impalement* The shield w&amp;ffi$fi?M is divided into two lozenges, one charged with a j^^^Pj^jjf female figure, the other with a palm tree, and above Fig. 1. it is a crest in the shape of the extended hands of the Cohanim surmounted by the Crown of the Law (fig. 1). The official seal of the late Chief Rabbi, Solomon Herschell,4 was distinctly heraldic, although, instead of a shield, its main feature consisted of a Scroll of the Law. On this was a perpendicular band charged with a bucket, while the dexter and sinister spaces H|HP^^^^^H|H were inscribed y^pT T^K w ^K^^^^^^^j^k nDfcW (Deut. xxxii. 7). For sup ffig^)jjjfe, V^aB Por*ers ? na,d a sta? an(* a li?n rampant b*^:$fr*v -^*"f^ v*"j^^yI ?an ?^V10US reference *? tDe Rabbi's iW^iW^ ancestry, n? p OV?and the whole Uj?^ ' fjm WaS surmounte&lt;* ^y a ducal crown naively intended to represent the Wm^^^^^^^j?M Crown of the Law (fig. 2). Many ^^Hk^?^^^^2^B^^H examples of this sort of design? generally with the tables of the Deca Fig- 2? logue substituted for the open Sepher ?are to be found on the breast-plates and mantles of Synagogue scrolls* Jewish emblems have sometimes been heraldically tricked on tombstones. Henriques de Castro, in his account of the Cemetery at Amsterdam, describes two tombstones on which the Tree of Life appears on shields ensigned with coronetted helmets elaborately 1 Cf. Hist. MSS., Fourth Report, p. 458. 2 Cat. Anglo-Jewish Exhibition, p. 190 (British Museum Exhibs., No. 44). 8 Ibid., p. 149 (No. 2,287). 4 Cat. Anglo-Jewish Exhibition, p. 21 (No. 620).</page><page sequence="4">156 ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OF ARMS. mantled.1 The armorial character of all these devices was doubtless due to the influence of Gentile heraldic art. At the same time it is interesting to note2 that ages before heraldry was recognised as a system, the devices on Jewish seals displayed rude representations of supporters and crests. At least one Jew is known to have made a study of heraldry? Jacob Jehuda Leon, surnamed Templo, who visited England in 1675, not, perhaps, for the first time.3 He was an ingenious draughtsman, and, besides other heraldic work, designed the Masonic coat now used by the English Grand Lodge, a quaint copy of which was shown at the recent Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition, and is herewith repro? duced.4 This coat is entirely composed of Jewish symbols. It is obviously an attempt to display heraldically the various forms of the Cherubim pictured to us in the second vision of Ezekiei?an Ox, a Man, a Lion, and an Eagle?and thus belongs to the highest and most mystical domain of Hebrew symbolism. Its crest is composed of the mercy seat with the attendant Cherubim in the orthodox attitude prescribed in Exodus xxv. 18-20, and its supporters represent the same mystical figures as they appear in Ezekieli. 11, with their right and left wings respectively extended towards each other and the outer wings covering their bodies. The motto on the original coat, composed by Templo, was in Hebrew, and is given by Lawrence Dermott, the Masonic writer, who saw it in 1759, as "Kodes la Adonai." The panel here shown has the motto in English, " Holiness to the Lord," together with a pendant of Masonic symbols which are not mentioned in Dermott's description. Hence it seems clear that this panel is an adapted version, and not the original of Templo's design.5 1 De Castro : Keur van Grafsteenen, pp. 85, 87. 2 Levy, loc. cit. 3 "Relation of the most memorable things," etc. (1675). Dedication to Chas. II. Templo says of his Model of the Temple that " it was graciously owned with devote affection thirty years ago and upwards by that serene Queen, your Majesty's mother." 4 Cat., pp. 20,21. See also the coloured plate herewith reproduced. Ahiman Mezon, by L. Dermott. Second edition (1764), p. xxxiv. 5 " Masonic Student," writing to the Freemason some years ago?I do not know the exact date as my authority is a newspaper cutting?says of this coat of arms, "A learned friend of mine has a panel with the same arms, carefully</page><page sequence="5">ARMS OF THE GRAND LODGE OF ENGLISH FREEMASONS. EARLY COPY OF A DESIGN BY RABBI JACOB TEMPLO. (From a XVIIth Cent, panel in the possession of Mr. W. H. Rylands).</page><page sequence="6">ANGLO-JE WISH COATS OF ARMS. 157 The story that the original was found among Templo's papers and that he was the author of it is, in my opinion, very well grounded. A man of many accomplishments?theologian, controversialist, lin? guist, herald, and artist?he had a monomania for the study of every? thing relating to the Temple of Solomon and the Tabernacle of the Wilderness. He constructed gigantic models of both these edifices, which he sold in 1643 to Queen Henrietta Maria of England, and he wrote tracts about them in Spanish, Dutch, and English. To the study of the Cherubim he gave especial attention, writing two separate pamphlets?one in Latin, the other in Spanish?to explain his views with regard to them. In the Spanish tract he deals at considerable length with the various forms of the Cherubim, and he associates them with the four traditional standards of the quadrilateral Hebrew en? campment by which the 44 tent of meeting" was surrounded in the wilderness?the Lion of Judah, the Man of Reuben, the Eagle of Dan, and the Ox of Ephraim.1 He was also very fond of heraldic designs, and all his pamphlets were ornamented with the coats of arms of the distinguished persons to whom they were dedicated. Hence it is exceedingly likely that he was the author of the coat attributed to him by Dermott. Judging, however, from the beauty of his draw? ings, and especially of one exquisite little engraving of the quadriform Cherub prefixed by him to his Tratado de los Cherubim, the original design must have been far superior to the panel here shown. It might be worth while enquiring whether it is to be found among the muniments of the Grand Lodge of England. Another enquiry I should like to suggest in this connection. Dermott refers to "the collection of the famous and learned Hebrewisf, architect and brother, Rabi Jacob Jehudah Leon," in which the Masonic escutcheon was found. What has become of this collection ? Perhaps some of our Continental correspondents will kindly try to ascertain for us. The escutcheon of the English Grand Lodge is not the only coloured, which came, curiously enough, from St. Albans, certainly of seventeenth century work," This is no doubt the panel which is here copied, and which has been kindly placed at my disposal by its owner, Mr. W. H. Rylands. 1 Tratado de los Cherubim, p. 25. For particulars of Templo's life, see Graetz's Geschichte X , pp. 24, 200, 201; Jost: Geschichte VIII., p. 261; PpND (1788) IV., p. 297, Life by David Franco.</page><page sequence="7">158 ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OF ARMS. non-Jewish coat used in England in which Jewish elements are to be found. The Anglo-Israelites have expended much inge? nuity in attempting to prove that the Lions in the Royal Arms were borrowed from the banner of the tribe of Judah. It is at any late certain that they were introduced into the arms by Richard I., to commemorate his exploits in the Holy Land, but their significance was doubtless held to refer more to the exploits than to the Land. The lion which appears in the shield of the Cambridge Hebrew School has a more valid claim to Judaic ex? traction, seeing that it is marked with the Hebrew letter T) and is associated with the study of the language of Judah. Two English families named Jew, one settled in Devonshire and the other in Worcestershire, bear on a silver shield three funny little heads of Jews. Hebrew mottoes, derived from the Bible and transliterated, are not of infrequent occurrence in the English armory. The Grants of Monymusk in Aberdeenshire have a Bible for their crest and " Jehovah-jireh" for their motto. The Whethams of Kirklington write " Jehovah" under their arms, and u Hallelujah" is the motto of the Aylmer and Tuite families, the latter spelling it ((Alleluiah."1 Jews obtained grants of arms long before they acquired rights of citizenship. In a few instances such grants were merely incidental to the patents of nobility which, with curious inconsistency, were occasion? ally conferred on them. Jacob Batsheba Schmieles, who, in 1622, was ennobled by the Emperor Ferdinand, under the title Bassevi Yan Treuenburg, received a coat consisting of a lion and eight stars on a field azure.2 It was, however, principally due to the example of the Marranos that a demand for heraldic devices arose among the Jews. Many of the Marranos were allied to the best blood in the Peninsula, and they brought with them to Holland and England escutcheons which they had borne with perfect right in their Iberian homes. Almost all the early tombstones in the Sephardi cemeteries in Amsterdam and London are ornamented with coats of arms which will be found to agree in nearly every particular with the descriptions given under the same 1 See under these names in Burke's General Armory. 2 Graetz : Geschichte X., p. 41.</page><page sequence="8">^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^\\ ARMS OF LORD ROTHSCHILD.</page><page sequence="9">ANGLO-JE WISH COATS OF ARMS. 159 names in the " Nobiliarchia Portugueza" of Antonio de Villas Boas and other heraldic works. Some of the wealthier families, such as Suasso, Mendez, Da Costa, Villareal, Alvarez, Salvador, Cardoso, d'Aguilar, and Da Silva, registered their arms at Heralds' College soon after their settlement in this country. When the Yehidim of Bevis Marks were observed to affix arms to their coaches and family china, the wealthy members of the Duke's Place and Hambro' Synagogues?such as Benjamin Levi, Moses Hart, Michael Adolphus, Aaron Franks, and Benjamin Isaac?made applica? tion to the Garter King for a similar privilege which was unhesitatingly granted them. Thus this " custom of the Gentiles " became fairly established among us, and there are few wealthy Jewish families to-day who do not quarter arms as bravely as though their ancestors had all been Crusaders. There is indeed a case on record of a Christianised scion of an existing Anglo-Je wish family who obtained a grant of arms on the strength of a fictitious pedigree tracing his descent from " a wandering Knight of the Middle Ages." Another family, of perfectly respectable Jewish origin, has conjured up, on the strength of a mis? taken transliteration of the Hebrew surname borne by an ancestor, a tradition of illegitimate descent from an English ducal house, a portion of whose arms it has accordingly adopted. It is satisfactory to know that these instances of unscrupulous snobbishness are not exemplified by professing Jews. Among the arms of Marrano families duly registered in this coun? try are those of Andrade, Bernal, Brandon, Coronel, Dias Fernandez, Lopes, Losada y Lousada, Sampayo and Ximenes. Many are not registered, such as Aguilar, Belisario, Castello, Cortissos, and Lara, but are nevertheless used by the families. The registered Sephardi arms? that is arms of families who did not acquire heraldic rights by marriages with Gentiles, but assumed escutcheons abroad or received special grants here?include the names of Basevi, Disraeli, Franco, Gideon, Medina, Mocatta, Montefiore, Ramus, Ricardo, and Sassoon. The principal charge on the Disraeli shield, which was already registered by the grandfather of Lord Beacons field, is a triple-towered castle. It might prove of considerable genealogical interest to ascertain what authority Benjamin d'Israeli had for this escutcheon, seeing that the Halevis of Toledo?as we have already mentioned?used a similar</page><page sequence="10">160 ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OF ARMS. device on their seals (fig. 3), and that Toledo was the home of a very pp_^^^^^_ distinguished Jewish family named Tafcf*^\^l^l Israeli, which may have inter-married ij rirffi w'*k Halevis.1 Lord Beaconsfield W^^rajP^H was entitled, under the will of Mrs. f?^f?SSn^lu Brydges Wylliams, of Carnanton, to I'*(fffm@trWA quarter the Mendes da Costa and Lara wH5f^3ts?B arms? Dut ne never availed himself of ffir jS?SlHH tne privilege, although he did not decline v^SS^^^^H bequest ?f ^40,000 by which it was ??SMBM^M accompanied. Among the Ashkenazi 3# families who have received English grants are those of Adler, Barned, Barrow, Benjamin, Blumberg, Cohen, Davidson, De Symons, De Vahl, De Worms, Goldsmid, Hambro, Helbert, Israel, Jacobs, Jessel, Joseph, Lawson, Levin, Mayer, Merton, Meyer, Montagu, Moses, Moss, Nathan, Norden, Raphael, Rothschild, Salomons, Samuels, Saul, Sch?mberg, Waley and Wolff. Besides the arms borne by Marrano families, the only escutcheons which Jews may be said to have legitimately assumed are the shields borrowed by certain Ashkenazi families from the house-signs of the Frankfort Judengasse. The most important of these is the coat used by the Rothschilds. The honours obtained by this distinguished house have made the coat a very elaborate one ; but, over all its numerous charges, may yet be seen a representation of the ancient " escocheon gules " by which the Ghetto Stamm-haus was distinguished and from which the name of the family was derived. An interesting tradition attaches to one of the charges. It is said that Mayer Amschel Roth? schild on his death-bed exhorted his five sons always to act in unison and illustrated his advice by the Persian fable of the bundle of wood which was easily broken up when the sticks were separate, but which proved indestructible as long as they were securely bound together. As an object form of this lesson, which has been so faithfully observed, a hand grasping five arrows is quartered twice on the Rothschild shield.2 A similar charge appears on the escutcheon of the De Worms family, which is allied to the Rothschilds. Here a hand grasping three arrows is figured on a shield of pretence gules. The arrows represent the three 1 Zunz : Zur Gesch. u. Lit., pp. 425-28. Also supra, p. 155. 2 Ehrentheil: J?d. Familien-Buch, pp. 275, 276.</page><page sequence="11">ARMS OF SIR ALBERT SASSOON, BART.</page><page sequence="12">ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OP ARMS. 161 brothers, Solomon, G-abriel, and Maurice de Worms, and the shield is adopted in right of their mother, Jeannette de Rothschild. Traces of family history are also to be found in other armorial bearings. The motto over the Goldsmid crests, which is the Vulgate version of "n D^aa *D records a tradition of the Maccabean des? cent of the family ; the sugar-canes in the Lousada arms indicate the source of the wealth of that old Jamaica family ; the bezant (a gold coin) in the Salomons crest reminds us that Levy Salomons, the grand? father of Sir David, was an eminent financier, and the jewel in the Jessel crest recalls the fact that Zaclok Jessel, the father of the late Master of the Rolls, was an eminent dealer in precious stones. The Belisario arms are ensigned with a Knight's helmet which was granted to an ancestor of the family in recognition of his skill as an actor, but without the dignity of knighthood. The crest of the De Vahl family, a demi-lion rampant, ducally crowned and holding a sceptre erect or, indicates descent from Saul Vahl, who is reputed to have occupied the throne of Poland for one day. The only really Jewish coat of arms with which we are acquainted is that of the Sassoon family. Even the motto is Hebrew rtMDKI HDtf, and the charges are all strictly Jewish emblems, consisting of the Lion of Judah, a palm tree,'a pomegranate, and an olive branch, while the crest is a dove volant with a sprig of olive in its beak. Another escutcheon of purely Jewish extraction is that of the Ma?sey Lopez family. It is a copy of a device carved on a marble monument in the Synagogue at Leghorn, which the ancestors of the Franco family are said to have used for several genera? tions as their" armorial ensign." The coat was confirmed by Heralds' College in 1760 to Jacob Franco1 whose grand-nephew, Ralph Franco, afterwards assumed the name of Lopez, and succeeded to the baronetcy granted to his uncle, Sir Arms of the Mocatta Family. 1 Documents relating to this grant will be found in the Appendix to the present paper (Appendix I.).</page><page sequence="13">162 ANGLO-JE WISH COATS OF ARMS. Manasseh Lopez. The arms are still borne by his descendants. The Mocatta shield has a strong Jewish element in the shape of a seven branched candlestick and the very appropriate motto " Adhere and Prosper." Perhaps the most interesting of all Anglo-Jewish escutcheons is that of the Montefiore family. The special interest of this familiar coat of arms is due to the fact that it has a history of its own and at the same time possesses a certain historic importance. There are very few Jewish coats of arms of which the development can be traced from primitive family emblems or which indeed, have had any legitimate development at all, and there are still fewer which possess intrinsic historic interest. Both these distinctions, however, belong to the Montefiore arms. The germs of the escutcheon are to be found on a Parochet which was presented to the Levantine Synagogue at Ancona just two hundred and fifty-nine years ago, and which is still in existence. The donor of this curtain was a member of the congregation, one Judah or Leone Montefiore, and the gift was worked in gold thread on red silk by his wife Rachel, nee Olivetti. The following is the text of the not over-elegant Hebrew inscription, which covers the major portion of its richly ornamented surface : nnyn jn? hy ion n?tn nyh d^un us nnn d51n hy 1?d mn vp tnD? n? *d my Tin D^?^ nan mw) n*n m*\? nsn tow n&amp; ?p?n nma na di^i ds^d njn njcsa in1? m diWi d"n ruv tjmtD nn n?nn b?k v?v ?in.</page><page sequence="14">ARMS OF THE LATE SIR MOSES MONTEFIORE, BART.</page><page sequence="15">ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OP ARMS. 163 TRANSLATION. " And he set np the vail of the covering and covered the Ark of the Testimony." (Exod. xl. 21.) This song shall be a witness of it. When the voice of him is heard who is to bring forth the Law from the Ark, And the doors of the Sanctuary are opened and light breaks forth from its boundaries, When the portion of the Law for the day is read and the Scroll returned to its resting place, Then lift up your heads, 0 ye gates ! and be exalted ye portals of the Universe. If, in after-times, it be enquired, whose handiwork is this ? Say her of the House of Montefiore?Rachel the wife of Jehudah, In the year (that it hath thus been worked) five thousand three hundred and ninety, May the Almighty Judge grant life and peace to the House of Israel and Jehudah, In the mouth of a dove a plucked olive leaf, in a lion's claw a budding lily, Observe the beauty, ye who behold it! how exquisitely lovely is its appearance ! Emblems of the Montefiore and Olivetti families are inserted just above the last two lines, one representing a lion on a mount holding a branch of flowers in his paws and the other a dove, also on a mount, with an olive branch in its beak.1 The first of these devices is the earliest rude form of the Montefiore escutcheon. It seems to have soon developed, for in a MS., named " Kan Zippor," now in the Ramsgate College, written by Joseph Montefiore, a descendant of Judah Montefiore, and ancestor of Sir Moses, we find the charges tricked on a shield, in heraldic style with a second mount and a cedar added. The principal interest of this representation of the arms lies in the fact that the author gives a Scriptural significance to each of the charges. Thus, to the lion is attached the exhortation, " Be as strong as a lion to perform the will of God" ; the hills are explained by the text, " I will lift up mine eyes to the hills whence cometh my help ; my help cometh from the Lord which made heaven and earth" ; and the cedar is interpreted by the verse, " The righteous shall flourish like a palm-tree, he shall grow like a cedar of Lebanon." 2 1 These facts, together with a copy of the inscription, were given to me by the late Mr. Joseph Barrow Montefiore, who had obtained them from the authorities of the Ancona Synagogue. 2 See Appendix II. M 2</page><page sequence="16">164 ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OF ARMS. This coat, with certain additions and modifications, was first registered at Heralds' College on the 28th January, 1819. The grant was made to " Moses Montefiore, of New Court, St. Swithin's Lane, in the City of London and of Tenby Lodge, near Tunbridge, in the County of Kent, Esquire, Captain in the third regiment of Surrey a *n tuna The Montefiobe Arms. Early device from Kan Zippor by Joseph Montefiore. Local Militia, to him and to his descendants and to the other descen? dants of his father, Joseph Montefiore, of the City of London, merchant, deceased." The additions introduced by the grantee were a dagger and two Btars on the chief or upper part of the shield, together with the motto " Think and Thank " and the modifications consisted</page><page sequence="17">ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OF ARMS. 165 in the transference of the flowers to the mounts and the substitution, in the paws of the lion?which now became the crest?of a flagstaff bearing a forked pennon inscribed " Jerusalem " in Hebrew characters. At this time Sir Moses was already married and he quartered the arms of his wife's family?the Cohens?with his own. As Sir Moses's public career developed and he became successively a Knight and a Baronet, the symbols of these dignities were added to his arms. The crowning additions which completed the escutcheon and at the same time gave it the element of historic importance it now possesses were the supporters. They consist, on the dexter side, of a lion guardant, and, on the sinister, of a stag, each holding a flagstaff from which streams a banner inscribed, like the pennon in the crest, "Jerusalem" in golden Hebrew characters. They were granted in 1841 in recognition of the services rendered the previous year by Sir Moses Montefiore in his memorable mission to the East, and hence they constitute a kind of heraldic protest against the "Blood Accusation " which gave rise to the mission, and the falsity of which was so signally demonstrated by the illustrious grantee on that occasion. Nor are they altogether a mute protest. The Royal Warrant by which they were conferred?for, except in the case of Peers and Knights of Orders, supporters are not granted by the Heralds but by the Crown direct, as a special reward of some memorable exploit?recites the whole story of the Damascus outrage in terms which render it, from the point of view of the Jewish historian, a document of considerable importance. This document will be found among the appendices to this paper.1 It is to be hoped that there will be no necessity for pub? lishing another collection of Christliche Zeugnisse against the Blood Accusation, as was done ten years ago; but should the need at any time arise, the warrant for the supporters in the Montefiore coat of arms will be found not the least significant of the testimonies recorded against the infamous calumny. It should be added that when the Montefiore baronetcy was re? vived in the person of Sir Francis Montefiore?the present head of the family?the supporters were allowed to go with the title. Conse? quently they still figure in the escutcheon. 1 See Appendix II.</page><page sequence="18">166 APPENDIX. I.?THE FRANCO (MASSEY LOPEZ) GRANT. To the Right Honourable Thomas Earl of Effingham Deputy with the Royal Approbation to the Most Noble Edward Duke of Norfolk Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England. The Humble Petition of Jacob Franco of the Parish of St. Catherine Coleman within the City of London, Esquire, 2d. son of Moses Franco, late of the City of Leghorn, Merchant, deceased. That your Petitioner and his Ancestors have used for their Armorial Ensigns on a Field a Fountain proper thereout issuant a Palm Tree Vert the same as depicted in the margin hereof which Arms being represented on a Marble Monument in the Synagogue of the Jewish Nation in the City of Leg? horn for your Petitioner's Family and the same being attested by persons of integrity supported by the Firm of John Dick, Esquire, His Britanick Majesty's Consul in the City and Port of Leghorn under his Hand and Consular Seal: And your Petitioner being made a free Denizen of this Kingdom and desirous with your Lordship's permission to have his Family and the said Arms registered among the Gentry of this Realm humbly prays your Lordship's Warrant to the Kings of Arms concerned that the said Arms as borne by his Ancestors with some suitable Crest and Motto may be allowed granted and confirmed to Him and his Descendants, the Descendents of his said father Moses Franco late of the City of Leghorn, deceased and also to Moses the only surviving son of his Uncle Raphael Franco and his Descendents. And Your Petitioner shall &amp;c. JACOB FRANCO. To All and Singular to whom these Presents shall come Stephen Martin Esquire, Garter Principal Bang of Arms and Charles Townley, Esquire, Claren ceux King of Axms of the South East and West Parts of England from the River Trent Southwards Send Greeting. Whereas those Ancient Badges or Ensigns of Gentility commonly called or known by the name of Arms have heretofore been and still are continued to be conferred upon deserving persons</page><page sequence="19">anglo-je wish coats of arms. 167 to distinguish them from the common sort of People who neither can or may pretend to use them without lawful authority. And whereas Jacob Franco of te Parish of St. Ca therine Cole man within the City of London, Esquire, second son of Moses Franco late of the City of Leg? horn, Merchant, deceased, hath represented unto the Right Honourable Thomas Earl of Effingham Deputy with the Royal Approbation to the Most Noble Edward Duke of Norfolk Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England: That his Ancestors have used for their Armorial Ensigns on a Field a Fountain proper thereout issuant a Palm Tree Vert, which being repre? sented on a Marble Monument in the Synagogue of the Jewish Nation in the City of Leghorn aforesaid as the Arms of his Family and the same being certi? fied by Persons of Trust and Integrity supported by the Cer? tificate of John Dick, Esquire, His Britanick Majesty's Consul in the City and Port of Leghorn under his Hand and Consular Seal and having been made a free Denizen of this Kingdom and desirous that his Family and the said Arms may be registered among the Gentry of this Realm did therefore pray his Lordship's Warrant that the said Arms as borne by his Ancestors with some suitable Crest and Motto might be allowed granted and confirmed unto Him and his Descend ents and to the Descendents of his said Father Moses Franco late of the City of Leghorn, deceased, and also to Moses the only surviving son of his Uncle Raphael Franco and his Descendents. And forasmuch as His Lordship duly considering the premises did by Warrant under his Hand and Seal bearing date the twenty seventh day of March last past order and direct Us to grant and confirm unto the said Jacob Fbanco and his Descendents and the Descendents of his father Moses Franco such Arms and Crest accordingly; and also to assign unto Moses the only surviving son of his Uncle Raphael Franco and his Descendents the same Arms and Crest with a proper difference: Know Ye therefore that We the said Garter and Clarenceux in pursuance of the Consent of the said Earl of Effingham and by virtue of the Letters Patent of Our several offices to each of Us respectively granted under the Great Seal of Great Britain have assigned and do by these Presents Grant and Confirm unto</page><page sequence="20">168 anglo-jewish coats of arms. the said Jacob Franco the aforesaid Arms viz. : In a Field a Fountain thereout issuant a Palm Tree all proper And for the Crest on a Wreath of the Colours a dexter Arm couped and embowed habited purpure purfled Or the Cuff Argent and Hand proper holding therein a Palm Branch Vert together with this Motto Sub Pace Copia as the same are in the margin hereof more plainly depicted to be borne and used for ever hereafter by Him the said Jacob Fbanco and his Descendents and by the Descendents of his said Father Moses Franco late of Leghorn deceased and the same with the difference of a Cinquefoil Or to be borne and used by the said Moses Franco the only surviving son of his Uncle Raphael Franco aforesaid and his Descendents according to the ancient usage and practice of Arms without the Let or Interruption of any person or persons whatsover: In Witness whereof We the said Garter and Clarenceux Kings of Arms have to these Presents subscribed Our names and affixed the Seals of Our several Offices this Tenth day of April in the thirty-third year of the Reign of Our Sovereign Lord George the Second, by the G-race of G-od King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith &amp;c, and in the year of Our Lord One thousand seven hundred and sixty. S. Martin Leake, Charles Townley, Principal King of Arms Clarenceux King of Arms Extracted from the Records of the College of Arms, London, this second day of September, 1895, and examined. Albert W. Woods, Garter. II.?MONTEFIORE ARMS ; WARRANT FOR SUPPORTERS. Victoria R. Victoria, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith, to our right trusty and right entirely beloved cousin and Councillor Bernard Edward, Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal, and our hereditary Marshal of England, and Knight of our most noble order of the Garter, greeting : Whereas, it hath been represented unto us that our trusty and well-beloved Sir Moses Montefiore of Grosvenor Gate, Park Lane, in the Parish of St. George, Hanover Square, in our County of Middlesex, and of East Cliff Lodge, Ramsgate, in our County of Kent; Knight, Fellow of the Royal Society, and late Sheriff of London and Middlesex, in consequence of inform? ation having been received from the East, that a number of Jews have been imprisoned and tortured at Damascus and at Rhodes, and that many children had been imprisoned, and almost deprived of food and several persons tortured till they died, under the plea of the Jews having assassinated a priest called Father Thomasso at Damascus; he ha'l, in conformity to a voluntary offer made afc a general meeting of the London Commititee of Deputies of the British Jews and</page><page sequence="21">ANGLO-JEWISH COATS OP ARMS. 169 others, held on the 15th of June last, proceeded (accompanied by Lady Monte fiore) to Alexandria, with the view of proving the falsity of the accusation and of advocating the cause of his unfortunate and persecuted brethren ; that he arrived at Alexandria in the beginning of August, and succeeded in obtaining from the Pasha of Egypt, Mahommed Ali, the release with honour, of the persons accused who had been confined and permission for those who had fled to return to their homes, and he then proceeded to Constantinople, where he had an audience of the Sultan, Abdoul Medjid, and obtained from His Imperial Majesty a firman proclaiming the innocence of the Jews and securing to all persons professing the Jewish Religion under the Turkish dominion equal rights with their fellow-subjects. We, taking the premises into our Royal consideration and being desirous of giving a special mark of our Royal favour to the said Sir Moses Montefiore, in .commemoration of these his unceasing exertions in behalf of his injured and per? secuted brethren in the East and the Jewish nation at large, have been graciously pleased to allow him to bear supporters, although the privilege of bearing sup? porters be limited to the Peers of our Realm, the Knights of our Orders, and the Proxies of Princes of our Blood at installations except in such cases wherein, under particular circumstances, we have been pleased to grant our license for the use thereof. Know ye, therefore, that we of our princely grace and special favour, have given and granted, and by these presents do give and grant unto him, the said Sir Moses Montefiore our Royal license and permission that he may bear the following supporters to his family arms, that is to say on the dexter side a lion guardant, and on the sinister side a stag, each supporting a flag-staff, therefrom flowing a banner, the dexter inscribed Jerusalem in Hebrew characters, as the same are in the painting hereunto annexed more plainly depicted ; the said supporters being first duly exemplified according to the laws of arms, and recorded in the Heralds' office, otherwise this our license and permission be void and of none effect. Our will and pleasure therefore is that you, Bernard Edward, Duke of Norfolk, to whom the cognisance of matters of this nature doth properly belong, do require and command that this our concession and especial mark of our Royal favour be registered in our College of Arms to the end that our officers of Arms and all others upon occasion may take full notice and have knowledge thereof, and for so doing this shall be your warrant. Given at our Court of St. James, the twenty-fourth day of June, in the fifth year of our reign. (Signed) By Her Majesty's command Normandy. [The engravings of seals on pp. 155 and 160 are from photographs by Mr. Frank Haes.]</page><page sequence="22">RABBI JACOB JEHUDA LEON TEMPLO, DESIGNER OF THE COAT OF ARMS OF THE GRAND LODGE OF FREEMASONS OF ENGLAND. (See paper on "Jewish Coats of Arms").</page></plain_text>