Amendments to 'England Expects …'
<plain_text><page sequence="1">Jewish Historical Studies, volume 42, 2009 Amendments to 'England Expects.. MARTIN SUGARMAN Geoffrey Green's article in Jewish Historcal Studies volume 41, entitled 'England Expects...: British Jews under the white ensign from HMS Victory to the loss of HMS Hood in 1941' (pages 63-97), is a superb piece of work. But I and others have found a large number of Second World War Royal Naval British and Commonwealth fatalities which should be published as an addendum to Green's study. These have appeared since the original publication of We Will Remember Them by Henry Morris1 and will be included in the forthcoming updated edition co-authored by myself and with the help of the late Gerald Bean (assisted by the records manager at the Commonwealth War Graves Commission or CWGC).2 It is appropriate that they appear also here. They exclude Merchant Navy casualties, of whom there were well over a hundred. I have added near the end those I could not find on the CWGC website, but who seem to have been killed and to have been Jewish (from sources such as synagogue memorials, Jewish cemeteries, relatives, the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women [AJEX] Chaplain cards and national newspapers). We at AJEX would be glad to hear from anyone who can throw more light on these names or any other matters. Harold Pollins also completed further work in February 2008 on other First World War Jewish Royal Navy casualties not included by Green. These appear after the Second World War names. AMENDMENTS TO GREEN'S SECOND WORLD WAR ENTRIES (Page numbers in brackets after names refer to Green 's article) A. N. ABRAHAMS (p. 88), whose full names were Alphonse Nathaniel, had served in the First World War and re-joined in 1939; killed in an air raid soon after leaving the service. Morris CARLTON (p. 89) was also known as Calton. Irving COLEMAN (p. 90) was also known as Cohen. 1 London 1989, Addendum 1994. 2 Valentine Mitchell, London 2009. 18g</page><page sequence="2">Martin Sugarman Laurence LOBELL (p. 93) was also known as Lobinsky. Wilbor SULLIVAN (p. 95) was also known as William Solomon. ADDITIONS TO GREEN'S SECOND WORLD WAR ROYAL NAVY CASUALTIES AUGSBURGER, Stoker Second Class Stanley George. Son of George Stanley and Margaret Augsburger of Welwyn Garden City, Herts. P/KX664747. HMS Bickerton. Killed 22 August 1944, aged 18. Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Panel 86, Column 2. BIDERMAN, Telegraphist George. Son of Max and Sophie of Willesden, London. P/LD/X 5418. HMS Anhing RNVR. Killed 4 March 1943, aged 28. Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Panel 71, Column 2. COHEN, Air Mechanic First Class Douglas. Son of Monty and May Cohen of Kenton, Middlesex. L/FX579709. HMS Bambara. Killed 5 October 1945. Trincomalee War Cemetery, Sri Lanka, LB. 14. DAHAN, Stoker Second Class Yaakov. Son of David and Simha Dahan of Tel Aviv, Israel. HAIFA/KX5949. HMS Woolwich. Killed 27 May 1943, aged 20. War Memorial Cemetery, Alexandria (Hadra), Egypt, 4.K.21. FRANKEL, Able Seaman Albert Ernest. Son of Albert and Jane Frankel of Yardley, Birmingham. C/JX 236508. SS City of Perth. Killed 26 March 1943, aged 32. Chatham Naval Memorial, Panel 68, Column 3. GOLDENBERG, Warrant Officer I. L. Hong Kong Naval Volunteer Reserve. Killed 23 December 1941. Plymouth Naval Memorial, Panel 96, Column 3. GOLDSTEIN, Lieutenant-Commander Lewis. Son of Maurice and Mary Elizabeth Goldstein, husband of Elsie Emily Goldstein. HMS Lanka. Killed 27 June 1942, aged 59. Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Panel 61, Column 3. GOLDSTONE, Able Seaman George. Son of George and Emma Goldstone, husband of Miriam Goldstone of Hackney, London. C/SSX29126. HMS Ibis. Killed 10 November 1942, aged 22. GOLDSTONE, Stoker First Class Harry. Son of James and Jessie Goldstone, husband of Lilian Beatrice Goldstone. P/KX121535. HMS Hartland. Killed 8 November 1942, aged 26. Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Panel 68, Column 2. 190</page><page sequence="3">Amendments to 'England Expects...' GOLDSTONE, Sub-Lieutenant M. Husband of L. Goldstone of Leeds, Yorkshire. Malayan Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. Killed 15 February 1942. Plymouth Naval Memorial, Panel 98, Column 1. GOULD, Able Seaman Barry Barnett. Son of David Charles and Ethel Maud Gould, husband of Daisy Florence Gould of Paddington, London. D/JX253212. HMS President III. Killed 8 June 1942, aged 20. Plymouth Naval Memorial, Panel 65, Column 1. HEYMANN, Writer Hans Peter (served as HEATON, Hugh Peter). Son of Hans and Elle Heymann of Sutton, Surrey. C/MX678680. HMCS Athabaskan. Killed 29 April 1944, aged 23. Chatham Naval Memorial, Panel 78, Column 3. HYMAN, Leading Wren Iris. Daughter of S Hyman of 684 Finchley Road, London. Worked at Admiralty, SWi; medical discharge in late 1944. Died 28 February 1945. Willesden Cemetery, London, grave PLB 1 5, buried 2 March 1945, supervised by the Reverend Chait, CF; AJEX Jewish Chaplain card. Although discharged, and therefore not commemorated by the CWGC, she should be included as having died soon after active service. IONIDES, Lieutenant Theodore Alexander Maurice (to be confirmed as Jewish, although there is an AJEX Jewish Chaplain card). Son of Alexander George and Alice Wynne Ionides, husband of Anne Joyce Ionides of 60 North Hill, Highgate, N6, Middlesex. Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. HMS President. Killed 11 June 1944. Bayeux War Cemetery, Block V, Row C, Grave 8. KAHN, Midshipman Alan Frank. Son of Cecil Harry Benedict and Agnes Rebecca Fanny Kahn of Waverley, Farnham, Surrey. HMS Drake. Killed 9 July 1947, aged 18. Willesden Liberal Jewish Cemetery, London, Block P, Row N, Grave 40. KREBS, Seaman Emmanuel. Son of Henry and Sarah Krebs of Harrogate, Yorkshire. LT/JX177172. Royal Naval Patrol Service. HM Trawler Almond. Killed 2 February 1941. Lowestoft Naval Memorial, Panel 5, Column 3. Believed awarded MM during siege of Tobruk running supplies to Allied troops from his ship. LENZ, Canteen Assistant Bernard. Son of Herman Carl and Doris Annie Lenz of Ealing, Middlesex. Navy Army and Air Force Institute. HMS Royal Oak. Killed 14 October 1939, aged 18. Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Panel 36, Column 3. LEVEY, Ordinary Seaman John (to be confirmed as Jewish but there are several J. Leveys on the AJEX database for this period). Husband of Annie 191</page><page sequence="4">Martin Sugarman Amelia Levey of Chadwell Heath, Essex. C/JX319104. HMS Hecla. Killed 12 November 1942. Chatham Naval Memorial, Panel 57, Column 3. MYERS, Marine George Edward. PO/X151. Royal Marines. HMS Royal Oak. Killed 14 October 1939. Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Panel 36, Column 1. NATHAN, Lieutenant T. E. Gerald Frederick Joseph. Son of Frederick Joseph and Elsie Florence Nathan of Palmerston North, North Island, New Zealand. Royal Naval Reserve. HMS Manistee. Killed 24 February 1941, aged 27. Liverpool Naval Memorial, Panel 3, Column 1. NEWMAN, Leading Airman Derek. Son of Abraham and Violet Newman of Penn, Wolverhampton, Staffordshire. FZ/705115. HMS Saker. Killed 11 October 1944, aged 18. Lafayette (Temple Israel) Jewish Cemetery, Indiana, USA, Section 3, Grave 24. PHILLIPS, Stoker John Jonas. Son of Max and Celia Phillips. LT/KX105223. Royal Naval Patrol Service. HM Trawler Burra. Killed 30 March 1942, aged 37. Port Said War Memorial Cemetery, Egypt, Block V, Row C, Grave 10. PRESSMAN, Sick Berth Attendant Hyman. Son of Mark and Esther Pressman of Whitechapel, London. C/MX100434. HMS Pembroke II. Killed 19 August 1942. Chatham Naval Memorial, Panel 64, Column 1. RATHE, Leading Writer Ronald Alan Mac. C/MX678681. HMS Trollope. Killed 6 July 1944. Chatham Naval Memorial, Panel 78, Column 3. ROSENTHAL, Chief Petty Officer Henry (father of Henry Clifford, killed HMS Hood). Son of Hubert and Mary Rosenthal, husband of Florence Beatrice Rosenthal. D/204503. HMS Cabot. Killed 31 October 1941, aged 61. Buried Greenbank, Bristol, Plot Pink TT, Grave 51. ROSENTHAL, Able Seaman Victor Raymond. Son of Arthur and Kathleen Rosenthal, husband of Helen Amelia Rosenthal of Tolworth, Surrey. C/JX 135870. HMS Naiad. Killed 11 March 1942. Chatham Naval Memorial, Panel 56, Column 1. SHERMAN, Able Seaman Solomon. Son of Joseph and Ellen Sherman. D.JX192821. HMS Tamar. Killed 2 October 1942. Plymouth Naval Memorial, Panel 66, Column 3. SWITZER, Petty Officer Stoker Harry, DSM. Son of Benjamin Thomas and Mary John Switzer of Freefolk, Hampshire. P/KX81897. HMS Bickerton. Killed 23 August 1944, aged 30. Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Panel 85, Column 2. 192</page><page sequence="5">Amendments to 'England Expects.. TAYLOR, Leading Seaman Abraham Nathan. D/SSX22634. HMS Charybdis. Killed 23 October 1943. St Brieuc Western Communal Cemetery, France, Plot H, Row D, Grave 5. WOOLMAN, Lieutenant (Headmaster) Wilfred. Husband of Reka Woolman of Cosham, Portsmouth. HMS Victory. Killed 23 May 1945, aged 56. Portsmouth and Southsea Jewish Cemetery, Section 3, Grave 18. SECOND WORLD WAR JEWISH NAVAL PERSONNEL FOUND OR SUBMITTED TO AJEX RESEARCHERS, BUT NOT APPEARING ON THE CWGC WEBSITE COHEN, Seaman Aaron. JOEL, Lieutenant Henry Douglas, MBE. Husband of Mrs LB/SB Joel of South Lodge, Grove End Rd, London NW9. HMS Valkyrie. AJEX card but no statement that he died. JOSEF or JOSEPH, George. Believed killed 6 March 1945, but AJEX Record of Honour does not state this. MOSCOWITCH or MOSCOVITCH, Stoker M. Buried Bombay, 23 March 1945. Appears in We Will Remember Them p. 48. PHILLIPS, Stoker J. Aged 19. ADDITIONS FROM THE SOUTH AFRICAN JEWRY BOOK OF HONOUR FOR THE SECOND WORLD WAR BERMAN, Ordinary Seaman Nicholas. Son of Maurice and Maimie F. Berman of Johannesburg. South African Naval Forces. 626728V. Killed 22 November 1944, aged 17. Johannesburg (West Park) Cemetery Jewish External Section, Grave 8. JACOBS, Stoker First Class John. Son of Henry and Dinah Jacobs of Cape Town. Husband of Susan Jacobs of Cape Town. CN72209. South African Naval Forces. HMSAS Bonaventure. Killed 6 December 1944. Plymouth Naval Memorial, Panel 92, Column 1. RAPHAEL, Able Seaman Philip Reginald. Son of Philip and Editha Raphael. Husband of A. V. Raphael of Fairview, Johannesburg. 67841. South African Naval Forces. HMS Hermes. Killed 9 April 1942, aged 42. Plymouth Naval Memorial, Panel 74, Column 2. 193</page><page sequence="6">Martin Sugarman ADDITIONS FROM THE AUSTRALIAN JEWRY BOOK OF HONOUR FOR THE SECOND WORLD WAR ASHER, Stoker John Samuel. Son of Rudolph and Ella Asher of Medinie. PA1913. Royal Australian Naval Reserve. HMAS Kuttabul Killed 1 June 1942, aged 20. Adelaide (West Terrace) Cemetery, Jewish Plot, Row 45, Grave 26E, GRM/5. HERMAN, Able Seaman Isaac. Son of Joseph and Gertrude Herman of Perth, Western Australia. F2692. Royal Australian Naval Reserve. HMAS Perth. Killed 24 August 1943, aged 22 as a POW. Kanchanaburi War Cemetery, Thailand, Block 1, Row J, Grave 63. OPAS, Canteen Manager Maurice. Son of Abraham Louis and Lottie Opas. Husband of Bessie Opas of Bondi, New South Wales. Royal Australian Navy. HMAS Sydney. Killed 20 November 1941, aged 38. Plymouth Naval Memorial, Panel 62, Column 1. ROTHBAUM, Steward Lionel. Son of Harry Isaac and Minnie Rothbaum of Armadale, Victoria. 24576. Royal Australian Navy. HMAS Sydney. Killed 20 November 1941. Plymouth Naval Memorial, Panel 58, Column 2. ADDITIONS FROM THE CANADIAN JEWRY BOOK OF HONOUR FOR THE SECOND WORLD WAR CHIZY, Sickberth Attendant Harold. Son of Abraham and Michla Chizy of Montreal, Quebec. V/51974. Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve. HMS Nabob. Killed 22 August 1944, aged 20. Dunfermline (Douglas Bank) Cemetery, Scotland. Section A, Grave 273. EPSTEIN, Able Seaman Irving. Son of Louis and Rachel Epstein of Montreal, Quebec. V/23432. HMCS Orillia. Killed 12 December 1942, aged 26. St John's Jewish Cemetery, Newfoundland. FELDMAN, Electrical Artificer Fourth Class Arthur. Son of Morris and Grace Ellis Feldman of Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. V/23593. Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve. HMCS Columbia. Killed 26 February 1944, aged 21. St John's (Mount Pleasant) Cemetery, Newfoundland. Section A, Plot 1, Grave C. GREENBLATT, Telegraphist Moses. Son of Joseph and Eva Greenblatt of Montreal, Quebec. V/23388. Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve. HMCS Spikenard. Killed 10 February 1942, aged 21. Halifax Memorial, Canada, Panel 9. 194</page><page sequence="7">Amendments to 'England Expects.. GROSSMAN, Sailmaker Samuel. Brother of Clara Hoffman of Winnipeg, Manitoba. V/71410. Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve. HMCS Cornwallis. Killed 30 July 1945, aged 31. Winnipeg (Shaarey Zedek) Cemetery, 3E.32.3. RESNICK, Ordinary Telegraphist Harold. Son of Michael and Bess Resnick of Montreal. V/5921. Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve. HMCS Stadacona. Killed 17 June 1941, aged 19. Baron de Hirsch Memorial Park, Montreal, Lot 6, Grave 6. SHINEWALD, Telegraphist Sydney James. Son of Jean Shinewald of Winnipeg, Manitoba. V/42020. Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve. HMCS Guysborough. Killed 18 March 1945, aged 20. Halifax Memorial, Canada, Panel 13. WEBBER, Ordinary Seaman Bernard. Son of Nathan and Esther Webber of Toronto, Ontario, and Husband of Dinah Webber of Toronto. V/27272. Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve. HMCS Windflower. Killed 7 December 1941, aged 25. Halifax Memorial, Canada, Panel 8. ZBARSKY, Able Seaman Ralph. Son of Jack and Esther Zbarsky of Vancouver. V/37720. Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve. HMCS Esquimalt. Killed 16 April 1945, aged 21. New Westminster (Sha'arey Tzedek) Cemetery, British Columbia, Plot 22, Grave 9. ZIPORKIN, Able Seaman Jack. Son of Mr and Mrs Arnold Ziporkin of Regina, Saskatchewan, husband of Lorna Louise Ziporkin of Victoria, British Columbia. V/10573. Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve. Killed 3 December 1942, aged 24. Halifax Memorial, Canada, Panel 8. POSSIBLE ADDITIONS FROM THE ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVY, DEVONPORT MEMORIAL, AUCKLAND FRIEDMAN, Supply Assistant Maurice Wybert. Son of Henry and May Friedman of Christchurch. 2373. HMS Neptune. Killed 19 December 1941. Panel 6. MARKS, Sub-Lieutenant Frank Ernest. Son of Ernest and Cecilia Marks of Onehunga. HMS Unicorn. Killed 23 January 1945. Panel 9. MARKS, Assistant Cook Thomas Leslie. Son of Thomas and Louisa Marks of Roseneath, Wellington. 3088. Killed 16 February 1942. Panel 6. URLICH, Sub-Lieutenant Joseph John. Son of James Ivan and Julia (nee Porter) Urlich. HMS Unicorn. Killed 9 September 1943. Panel 9. 195</page><page sequence="8">Martin Sugarman PALESTINIAN JEWISH ROYAL NAVY CASUALTIES OF THE SPECIAL OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE RAID ON TRIPOLI, LEBANON (OPERATION BOATSWAIN) l8 MAY IQ/j-I3 NORDEN or NORDAU, Petty Officer Israel. Chief Engineer, Haganah vessel Sea Lion/Ariyeh Hayam. SHOCHET, Petty Officer Amiram. Second Hand, Sea Lion. YOFEH, Petty Officer/Warrant Officer Katriel. Skipper, Sea Lion. SEVEN CASUALTIES FOUND BY GREEN ONLY FRIEDLANDER, Able Seaman Cecil. Omitted by the South Africans. JOSEPH, Stoker Jack. JOSEPH, Marine Morris. LEVY, Ordinary Seaman Albert. LEVY, Ordinary Telegraphist John Edward. LEVY, Sub-Lieutenant Keith. Omitted by the Australians. ROSENTHALL, Seaman Daniel. FIRST WORLD WAR ROYAL NAVY CASUALTIES (This research was completed in February 2008 by Harold Pollins) A. Included in error Harold James ABRAMS (p. 83). Not Jewish. In the 1891 Census he is in a family headed by his father William J. Abrams, Labourer, born Ireland. M. Myers (p. 86). His address in the Roll of Honour of the British Jewry Book of Honour (London 1922, hereafter BJBH) is the same as that of two brothers who were killed. They are in the 1901 Census, but there is no sign of a third brother with the initial M. Probably did not exist and could be an error in the BJBH. Herbert Isaac/Israel Sanders (p. 86). Duplication of entry B. Confirmation of entry Samuel Kemp (p. 88). Green was uncertain that he was Jewish, but a death notice appeared in the Jewish Chronicle, 2 Jamuary 1916, p. 1. 3 These men are not commemorated by the CWGC with the twenty others lost on the same raid. 196</page><page sequence="9">Amendments to 'England Expects.. C. Omissions (also not in the Roll of Honour of the BJBH) BERRGE, Steward M. 918680. Mercantile Marine Reserve. HMS Eaglet. Killed 25 October 1918. Plashet Jewish Cemetery. BROSKY, Private Arthur. 8673 RAMC attached to HM Hospital Ship Salta. Killed 10 April 1917. Ste Marie Cemetery, Le Havre. (In BJBHp. 519) HYAMS, Stoker First Class Philip Isaac. SS/117451. RN. HMS Chester. Killed 17 December 1919. East Ham (Marlow Road) Jewish Cemetery. JEWELL, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Cyril. RNAS Stonehenge. Killed 8 December 1918. Buried St Mary's churchyard, Ide Hill, Sunridge, Kent. West London Synagogue plaque. WALLIS (Schwartz), Stoker First Class H. RN. K/6940. HMS Pembroke. Killed 20 March 1920. East Ham (Marlow Road) Jewish Cemetery. D. Probably Jewish, but background unconfirmed COSTA, Stoker First Class Isaac da, served as Philip de Costa. K/11988. HMS Lion. Killed 31 May 1916, Battle of Jutland. Portsmouth Naval Memorial. MARKS, Private Lewis. CH/533. RMLI. HMS India. Son of Samuel and Amelia Marks of 56 Harford St, Mile End, London. Killed 8 August 1915, aged 48. Bodo Cemetery, Heligoland, Norway. MARKS, Able Seaman Nathan. Lond/Z/5421. RNVR. SS Lmmure. Killed 27 December 1918. Chatham Naval Memorial. ROSENBERG, Ordinary Seaman Leslie. Tyneside Z/1014. RNVR. Son of Harry and Marie Rosenberg. SS Hazelwood. Killed 18 October 1917, aged 19. Chatham Naval Memorial. SALOMON, Private R. PLY/1690. RND. Son of Mrs E. Salomon. Deal Battalion (Royal Naval Division). Killed 25 June 1915. Redoubt Cemetery, Helles, Gallipoli. STERN, Lance Corporal Wallis. PO/6156 (RMR/A/861). RMLI. HMS Bayano. Killed 11 March 1915. Portsmouth Naval Memorial. 197</page><page sequence="10">Martin Sugarman ADDENDA The following amendments have come to light in connection with papers previously published by Martin Sugarman in Jewish Historical Studies: In 'The Zion Muleteers of Gallipoli, March 1915-May 1916', JHS 36 (2001) page 118, note 24 refers to a meeting on a train with an unnamed RAMC officer. This officer has now been identified by Israeli historians as Dr Gideon Mer, later an Israeli expert on malaria (born Lithuania 1894, died 22 March 1961). Hebrew-speaking soldiers of the Zion Mule Corps are reported as attending Shabbat services in a letter from the Revd David Isaac Freedman of Perth, Jewish Chaplain to the AIF, 2nd Division HQ Mudros, Gallipoli, published by the The Australian Jewish Herald on 10 March 1916. The letter is dated 24 December 1915.4 In 'Confounding the enemy: Jewish RAF Special Operators in radio counter measures with 101 Squadron, September 1943-May 1945', JHS 37 (2002) page 219, the statement that 172574 Flying Officer Harry Taylor (Doniger) was killed is incorrect. Alan Charpentier, a French historian, describes how Harry, the only survivor of his Lancaster crew, used to visit the village of Massey - near the site of the crash - every year after the war and unveiled a memorial there. The 'possibly Jewish' Wireless Operator Hann, Flight Sergeant Krieg and Pilot Officer Liersch (pages 222-3) are now known not to be Jewish. In 'More that just a few: Jewish pilots and aircrew in the Battle of Britain', JHS 38 (2003) page 202, the 'possibly Jewish' Radar Operator Bernard Canon is now known not to be Jewish. The archive of Jack Lennard of Hull, recently acquired by AJEX, makes possible an addition to the section on 'Jewish Prisoners of War at Colditz' in 'Two notes on Jews on active service', in JHS 39 (2004). A letter from Anthony Karpf, a Jewish prisoner there, mentions two French Jewish offi? cers named Shneizel, who were brothers, but whose first names are not given. Karpf also notes that on Yom Kippur in 1942 (which fell in that year on 20-1 September) the Commandant allowed Jewish officers to hold a service. This does not seem to be mentioned in any other source. 4 Rodney Gouttman, An Anzac Zionist Hero - The Life of Lieutenant-Colonel Eliazar Margolin (London 2006) 49. 198</page><page sequence="11">Amendments to 'England Expects...' A further name may also be added to the roll of Jewish prisoners: Private Ralph (Samuel) Cohen/Cowen, King's Royal Rifle Corps, taken prisoner in Crete, was in Colditz 1943-5, where he served as barber to, among others, Douglas Bader, Lord Lascelles, Earl Haig and Giles Romilly. A drawing of him survives by Earl Haig. In 'Breaking the codes; Jewish personnel at Bletchley Park', JfHS 40 (2005) page 244, the 'possibly Jewish' Mavis Lever is now known not to be Jewish. Diana and David Uzielli, mentioned on page 246, were Jewish. Three previously unknown Jews have been identified: Captain William Bailin, Henry Bailin (his brother) and Edna Louise Gluckstein. In 'Hagedud Ha-Sini: the Jewish Company of the Shanghai Volunteer Corps, 1932-42', JHS 41 (2007) Pa?e 203> Lieutenant Benjamin Slossman served in Burma in Force 136 SOE, as did Lieutenant (later Major) Emmanuel Talan, who later received an MBE. 199</page></plain_text>