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A Jewish Aid to Marry A.D. 1221

Miss Helena M. Chew

<plain_text><page sequence="1">92 a jewish aid to marry, a.d. 1221. A Jewish Aid to Marry, a.d. 1221. By Miss Helena M. Chew, M.A., Ph.D. Paper read before the Jewish Historical Society of England, February 18, 1925. Attention was first drawn to the appended document by Mr. Hilary Jenkinson in his paper on " The Records of Exchequer Receipts from the English Jewry," read before the Jewish Historical Society in 1912 1; and it was at his suggestion that I undertook to examine and tran? scribe it. The document contains particulars of the receipts from the English Jews for a levy imposed in 1221, during the minority of Henry III. It is filed up, as was common with the Jewish receipts of this period, with the ordinary Receipt Roll for Easter, 5 Henry III. This comprises five membranes, measuring at their greatest extent roughly 13" x 43", fastened together at the head in the usual way, and each consisting of two skins sewn end to end. The entries relating to the exactions from the Jews appear on m. 4, of which they occupy the upper half of the front and the whole of the dorse. The remaining space contains receipts from the Scutage of Biham, which was raised in connection with the suppression of the rebellion of the Earl of Albemarle in 1221. The characteristic double-column method of entry is followed, and the particulars are arranged under towns, in two sections, the one represent? ing, presumably, payments made at Midsummer 1221, the other those made at the following Michaelmas. A summa appears at the foot of each group of entries. At the end of the account the seventeen contributory towns?Gloucester, Norwich, Winchester, Stamford, Nottingham, Lincoln, Cambridge, Northampton, Oxford, York, Bristol, Hereford, Worcester, Canterbury, London, Exeter, and Colchester?are listed with their respective contributions and the grand total is entered. The first point to call for attention in connection with the levy is the comparative insignificance of this total. As given in the roll it 1 Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society, vol. viii. pp. 19 seq.</page><page sequence="2">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. 93 amounts to no more than ?564 3s. 5%d., or just over 981 marcs, of which the York Jewry contributes ?164 105. Od. and the remaining sixteen towns sums varying from ?3 Is. 2d. in the case of Colchester to ?80 105. id. in that of London. The correction of an occasional scribal error, and of one or two slight inaccuracies in arithmetic, gives us an additional 14s. Id., and a few payments are recorded in the later Receipt Rolls ; but even after all allowances have been made the sum appears ludicrously small in comparison with the exactions of John or the later tallages of Henry III himself. The levy of 1221, in fact, bears direct testimony to that moderation which admittedly characterised the dealings of Henry Ill's minority government with the Jews. The reign of terror under John had caused a large exodus, with the result that the English Jewry in 1216 was greatly reduced both in numbers and in wealth. Its diminishing prosperity threatened to react seriously upon the prosperity of the Crown, and it is probably no injustice to William Marshal to regard the protective and conciliatory policy adopted by him during his tenure of the regency, as inspired rather by politic considerations than by motives of pure humanity. But what? ever the intention of the government may have been, its Jewish sub? jects undoubtedly profited by the relaxation of John's relentless persecution. Immigration was encouraged, privileges were confirmed and amplified, and taxation was kept within reasonable bounds. It was not until the fall of Hubert de Burgh in 1232, and the beginning of the rule of foreign favourites, that the era of repression and extortion recommenced. The main interest of the document, however, lies in the purpose for which the levy was made, and the resultant problem of the principle upon which it was assessed. The Roll is entitled " Roll of the Jews of the aid for marrying the king's sister Joan, and for Moses, son of Brun " (Rotulus Judeorum de auxilio pro Johanna sorore Regis maritanda, et pro Mosseo filio Brun'). Setting aside for the moment the question of the identity of Moses, son of Brun, we must first seek an explanation of the curious anomaly of a levy upon the Jews under the name of an " aid to marry As is well known, the term auxilium, in its strict sense, denotes one of the more important incidents of feudal and particularly of military tenure, assessed upon a land basis, the basis of the scutum or</page><page sequence="3">94 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. knight's fee. The feudal aid originated as a voluntary offering made by the tenant to his lord at times of special crisis, but gradually the right of the lord to demand contributions upon certain specific occasions secured recognition. Hence a distinction was drawn between the " ordinary " levies, which ceased to be in any real sense voluntary, and the extraordinary levies which retained, at least in theory, the character of an out-and-out gift. By the time of Magna Carta the " ordinary " occasions for the levy of an aid had been fixed at three? the ransoming of the lord's body, the knighting of his eldest son, and the marriage of his eldest daughter. In the event of the lord's death before]his daughter's hand had been disposed of, the aid to marry might, when it fell due, be levied by his heir, under the title auxilium ad sororem domini maritandam. Now King John had died when his eldest daughter, Joan, was only six years old. In spite of her tender age she had been affianced by her father, as early as 1214, to Hugh of Lusignan, Count of la Marche, and had actually been surrendered into his custody. Six years later, however, Hugh married the widowed Queen Isabella, his own former betrothed and mother of the young princess. Since her affianced husband had thus become her step-father Joan was free once more to enter the marriage market, and on January 15 she was betrothed to Alexander II of Scotland, with the promise of a dowry of 5000 marks. The marriage, originally fixed for Michaelmas 1220, was delayed through the reluctance of Hugh to relinquish his valuable hostage, but the ceremony was at length performed at York by Archbishop Walter de Gray on or about June 19, 1221. Here, then, was an occasion upon which, according to undoubted precedents in the case of mesne lords, an aid might have been demanded from the military tenants of the Crown; and indeed, at a later date, Henry III himself exacted one, with less justification, for the marriage of his younger sister Isabella to the Emperor Frederick II. That no such demand was made in 1221 is probably explained by the fact that the barons themselves were in power, that the exactions of John were fresh in their memories, and that, in common with most minority governments, they were chary of creating dangerous precedents. Instead, we find a levy upon the Jews which is formally described on the Receipt Roll as " the aid to marry the king's sister." What is the significance of this apparently unique</page><page sequence="4">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. 95 application of feudal terminology to a contribution from the English Jewry ? Is it merely accidental, or, if deliberate, does it imply that Jews were subject to the incidents of military tenure, and were therefore more generally included in the feudal organisation than has hitherto been recognised ? Strictly speaking, of course, Jews were debarred from holding land feudally, since they could neither perform nor receive the ceremonial oaths of homage and fealty that played so important a part in determin? ing feudal relationships. Attempts have nevertheless been made to prove that in practice their exclusion from feudal society was less rigid than in theory. It is well established that, in their capacity of money? lenders, Jews often became temporarily seised of free tenements by way of gage. Some years ago Mr. Jacobs discovered among the baronial certificates of 1166 in the Red Book of the Exchequer a few isolated instances of knights' fees in Jewish hands, from which he argued somewhat rashly for the inclusion of the Jews in the feudal military organisation of the twelfth century.2 Mr. Rigg has since shown on better authority that during the disorders of Henry Ill's later years Jews were able, by taking advantage of the financial straits of the barons, to insinuate themselves so successfully into the tenurial system that some actually began to assume?to quote Mr. Rigg?" baronial state, claiming for themselves wardships, escheats and even advowsons." It is difficult to estimate precisely how far the process of encroachment had been carried, but the situation was at least felt to be sufficiently serious to justify the regulations of 1269 and 1271, which " disseised the J ews of all that they possessed in the way of feudal hereditaments, and expressly incapacitated them from acquiring feudal seisin in the future." 3 It is tempting to connect with this process of peaceful penetration the levy of 1221. If the invasion of the feudal position had proceeded so far by 1271, might it not have been already in progress fifty years earlier ? If J ews could claim the rights of feudal lordship, were they not also liable to its duties % In fine, may not the " aid " of 1221 2 J. Jacobs, Jews of Angevin England, pp. 177, 204, 230, 260-1 et seq. 3 J. M. Bigg, Select Pleas, Starrs and other Records from the Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews.</page><page sequence="5">96 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. have been an auxilium in the strict sense of an incident of feudal tenure ? Such speculations as these are fascinating, but, unless they can be based upon an adequate foundation of fact, are likely to be unprofitable; and unfortunately the available evidence in no way justifies insistence upon the theory of feudalisation. Obviously the key to the nature of the so-called " aid " of the Jews will be found in the principle upon which it was assessed?since if the levy were feudal its basis would necessarily be land. I have been unable to trace the actual instructions for the assessment; but it has nevertheless been possible to ascertain with a reasonable degree of certitude the method that was adopted. A precept enrolled on the Memoranda Eoll of 5 Henry III among the writs of the Easter term 4 throws some valuable light on the subject. It is addressed to the sheriffs and bailiffs in respect of the Jewries in various towns, and assigns a day?the vigil of St. John the Baptist next following (June 23,1221)?for the payment of the sums due " for the tallage of 1000 m. in which the community of the Jews of England made fine with us " (de tallagio mille marcarumper quas communa Judeorum Anglie nobiscum finem fecit). Not only is the word tallagium here expressly applied to the levy which is described on the Receipt Roll as an " aid," but it is clear that the practice, usual in the imposi? tion of Jewish taxation, of making the community collectively respon? sible for a specified sum, has been followed. The later stages in the assessment may be reconstructed from a comparison in detail of the returns of 1221 with those for a tallage of 3000 marks which was exacted in 7 Henry III. The procedure seems to have been parallel throughout. The burden imposed by the Crown was evidently distributed between the various local Jewries, and ultimately each individual was assessed according to his capacity. We are compelled, therefore, to admit, however reluctantly, that the so-called Jewish " aid to marry " was in principle an ordinary tallage, assessed upon the traditional basis. There is no more justification for regarding it as technically an auxi? lium than there is for regarding the tallages so often assessed in connection with the military expeditions of the Crown as technically scutages. If evidence exists to support that theory of the inclusion 4 Exch. Mem. Roll, L.T.R. 3, Communia. Easter. See also Botuli Litterarum Clausarum, p. 462.</page><page sequence="6">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. 97 of the Jews in the feudal military system which was so boldly asserted by Jacobs, it must clearly be sought elsewhere. The word " aid " was often loosely employed in the Middle Ages, and but for the specifically feudal associations of the expression " aid to marry," its application to a contribution from the Jews would have excited little comment. It may be suggested that its deliberate use in 1221 in preference to the more common tallagium implies a larger voluntary element in the trans? action than was usual; but it is nevertheless clear that payment of the promised sum was enforced under sufficiently rigorous penalties. Not only was a general warning issued to all debtors to make prompt payment '' as they love themselves and all that is theirs, and as they desire to have residence in our land " ; but it was ordered that any Jew failing to clear off his debt by the specified date should be mulcted in twice the sum with which he stood charged, et insuper ad corpus suum et catalla sua nos graviter capiemus. That the threat was not an altogether idle one is proved by an occasional entry in the margin of our roll of the words debet duplum. Having disposed of the problem of the aid, we have exhausted the chief interest of our document; but before leaving it, we must explain the appearance on the roll of Moses, son of Brun'. A clue is afforded by the writ from which I have just quoted in relation to the " aid." The Jews are ordered to pay, simultaneously with their tallage debts, the moneys due " for half of the hundred pounds, which they give us for expelling from our land Moses son of Brun' the Jew " (de medietate c. librarum quas nobis dantpro Mosseo filio Brun* Judeode terra nostra eiciendo). Clearly we have here an echo of the well-known forgery case transcribed by Mr. Rigg in his " Select Pleas of the Jewish Ex? chequer." 5 The details of the trial are sufficiently entertaining to justify repetition. In the Hilary term of 1220 Moses was charged by Richard, Prior of Dunstable, with forging a charter for ?24, said to have been lent by Brun, father of the accused, to Thomas, a former Prior of the house. Prior Richard contested the validity of the docu? ment on various grounds. It contained, he affirmed, grammatical errors of which so " good, discreet and excellent a clerk " as the late Prior Thomas would never have been guilty. The hand in which it 5 J. M. Bigg, Select Pleas, p. 4. VOL. XL H</page><page sequence="7">98 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. was written was demonstrably not the hand of the canon who, for forty years past, had been personally responsible for drafting all the charters of the house. Further, the document was supposed to date from " the year next after the death of King Henry " (1190); but it was sealed not with the seal of Prior Thomas, but with that of Prior Richard, who had been in office no longer than eighteen years. Finally, the Prior declared, it was evident that the parchment had been washed and whitened with chalk, and the writing blackened with grease to give it the appearance of age. To clinch his argument he produced evidence that Moses had received in pledge for a loan of five shillings to one of the tenants of the Priory, a super-tunica (one is tempted to translate " overcoat " !) and a deed of confirmation sealed with the seals of the Prior and Convent. The loan had been repaid and the super-tunica duly recovered by its owner ; but the charter Moses had never surrendered. Clearly it had served, after being washed and whitened, as the foundation of his ingenious forgery. Against Prior Richard's elaborate indictment Moses could put up but a poor defence. His plea was that the charter had been bought by his father from " a certain servant," and accepted by himself in all good faith ; but, on the inquiry of the justices, he was forced to admit that he knew neither the name nor the whereabouts of the servant from whom the purchase was alleged to have been made. The available evidence, in fact, makes it difficult to avoid the conclusion that, in this instance at least, the Prior's charge was well founded. Moses was committed to the Tower of London to await the judgment of the Court, and the Plea Rolls tell us nothing more of his fate. The sequel appears, however, in the annals of the Priory of Dunstable 6 and in the roll which is the subject of the present paper. From the chronicle we learn how the compatriots of the luckless Moses contrived, by the payment of a mark of gold, to delay judgment for more than a year; and then, when no further postponement was possible, offered ?100 to save him from the gallows. To the ill-disguised chagrin of the Dunstable annalist, the bribe was accepted, and the death penalty commuted to outlawry. Et sic super rotulum suum dictus Judaeus abjuravit regnum regis el utlagatus est. Our Receipt Roll shows that the 6 Annals of Dunstable. Annales Monastici, R.S., vol. iii. p. 66.</page><page sequence="8">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. 99 promised amount was duly exacted from the whole English Jewry in the course of 1221. The incident, apart from its intrinsic interest, is noteworthy as affording further proof of that good understanding between the govern? ment and its Jewish subjects to which the moderation of the " aid " itself testifies. Perhaps also it helps to explain the outburst of anti Jewish feeling among the clergy at the provincial synod of 1222 ; which found expression in an attempt, inspired by Archbishop Stephen Langton but frustrated by the temporal authorities, to prohibit all intercourse between Christians and Jews. The Prior of Dunstable himself, however, appears to have harboured no resentment against Moses' compatriots, for about this very time we find him giving per? mission to the Jews to reside within his jurisdiction and to enjoy his protection, in consideration of the annual payment of two silver spoons, each of twelve pennyweight. Receipt Roll. E. 401/4. Rotulus Judeorum de Auxilio pro Johanna Sorore Regis maritanda et pro Mosseo filio Brun'. [Column I. London. De Benedicto Episcopo .xij. li. x. sol. de auxilio pro Johanna sorore Domini Regis Henrici maritanda. et pro Mosseo filio Brun'. De Jacobo Crespin' .lxij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Sampsone filio Isaac .xviij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Mosseo [fiT] 7 Genero Benedicti .xviij. sol. pro Eodem. De Benedicto filio Riehe .xij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Aaron filio Viuei de Lincolnia .ij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Helia filio Benedicti .xlvij. sol. pro Eodem. De Richa Vidua .xvj. sol. pro Eodem. De Mosseo de Colecestria .iiij. sol. ij. d. pro Eodem. De Abraham filio Muriel' .xxij. sol. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Joscei [Presbyteri] 8 .xvj. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Isaa Episcopo .xv. sol. pro Eodem. De Josceo genero Joscei Presbyteri .xiij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. 7 Fil' expunged. 8 Above the line.</page><page sequence="9">100 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. De Benome Mutun .v. sol. pro Eodem. De Jacobo Le Turk .xlij. s?l. vj. ct. pro Eodem. De Aaron filio Abraham .xxv. sol. pro Eodem. De Aaron filio Beniamin .viij. s?l. iij. 6b. pro Eodem. De Leone filio Isaac .iiij. ?. x. sol. x. d. pro Eodem. De Aaron' filio Leonis .viij. H. xiij. sol. ix. ob. pro Eodem. De Fluria filia Joscei .vj. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Sampsone filio Abraham .viij. sot. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Josce filio Dauid' .xlv. d. pro Eodem. De Helia filio Leonis .iiij. h. xv. d. pro Eodem. De Josceo filio Abraham .xxvij. sol. xj. d. pro Eodem. Summa .xlviij. B. xj. sol. vj. d. ob. Cantebrigia. De Isaac Blund' .iiij. Ii. ij. s?l. vj. d. de auxilio pro Johanna sorore domini Regis Henrici maritanda et pro Mosseo filio Brun'. De Salomone filio Milonis .x. sol. pro Eodem. De Beniamin filio Viuei .xx. sol. pro Eodem. De Milone de Bedeford' .x. s?l. pro Eodem. De Deaye filio magistri Beniamin .xij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Belina filia Isaac .ix. s?l. ix. d. 6b. pro Eodem. Summa .vij. ?. iiij. s. ix. d. 6b. Colecestria. De Benedicto de Colecestria .xviij. s?l. ix. d. de Auxilio. etc. De Deulecreisse .v. sol. pro Eodem. De Abraham de Colecestria .xxv. s?l. pro Eodem. .xlviij. s?l. ix. d. Oxonia. De Isaac filio Helie de Lincolnia .vij. s?l. j. d. pro Auxilio. etc. De Bonami filio Copin' .xvij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Sarra sorore Mulin' .x. s?l. pro Eodem. De Copin' de Oxonia .lv. s?l. pro Eodem. De Bonefei Genero Copin' .xxxvij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Huggeman xiij. s?l. pro Eodem. De Benedicto filio Beniamin .vj. s?l. iij. d. pro Eodem. [debet duplum].9 De Dauid' de Lincolnia .vij. .H. ij. sol. vj. d. Summa .xiiij. H. viij. s?l. x. d. 9 In the left-hand margin.</page><page sequence="10">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. 101 Herefordia in Wallia. De Aaron filio Joscei .xij. so!, vj. d. de Auxilio. etc. De Isaac filio Salom .iij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac Genero Mossei .x. sol. pro Eodem. De Gente filio Isaac .v. sol. v. d. pro Eodem. De Deulecreisse de Oxonia vj. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Salomone de Kent vj. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Beniamin Genero Isaac .v. sol. pro Eodem. De Mosseo de Eilesbir' .v. sol. pro Eodem. De Hamone de Hereford .xvij. H. ij. sot. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Manassero Genero Hamonis .xvj. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. De Helya de Hereford .xliij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Serfdeu de Hereford .lxxv. sol. pro Eodem. De Isaac de Hereford .xiiij. sol. ij. d. pro Eodem. Summa .xxvij. ?. v. sol. x. d. [Column II.] Norhamton' De Josceo filio Samuel5 .xxv. sol. de Auxilio pro Johanna sorore Domini Regis Henrici maritanda, et pro Mosseo filio Brun'. De Dauid' filio Viuei .xxxviij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Samuel' et M?rel' .x. s?l. pro Eodem. De Bacceua Relicta Benedicti .vj. s?l. pro Eodem. De Viueo filio Isaac .cxiiij. sol. j. d. pro Eodem. De Samuel' filio Abraham .xviij. s?l. pro Eodem. De Salamone filio Joscei de Warewich' .xvj. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Viuei .xxix. s?l. vij. d. pro Eodem. De Bella filia Isaac viij. sol. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Deudon' .xj. s?l. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Flurie quondam uxore Deudon' .v. s?l. pro Eodem. De Mosseo filio Isaac .xij. s?l. viij. d. pro Eodem. De Abraham filio Samuel' .xxij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Viueo fiho Dauid' .xxxvij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Salom filio Mossei .xxviij. s?l. iij. 6b. pro Eodem. De Antera de Glovernia .xxvij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Chera filia Brun .vj. s?l. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Sampsone Ruff' .iiij. s?l. ij. d. pro Eodem. De Mosseo filio Isaac .ij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. Summa xxj. IL iij. s. v. d. ob.</page><page sequence="11">102 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. Kantuar' De Viueo filio Isaac .xvij. sol. vj. d. pro Auxilio etc. De Pictauin' filio Isaac .viij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Aaron filio Deulecreisse .viij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Angeuin filio Isaac .v. sol. pro Eodem. De Sampsone de Kantuar' .lvij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Benedicto Deulecreisse et Bono Amico .x. ma. xx. d. pro Eodem. De Josceo filio Sampson' .ij. ma. et dim', pro Eodem. De Mosseo filio Sampson' .xviij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Antera Vidua .xiij. sot. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Meir .xvj. sot. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Josceo filio Meir .xij. sol. j. d. pro Eodem. De Jacobo filio Samuel' et Aaron* Genero suo .xxxvij. sol. pro Eodem. Item iij. sot. [debet duplum iij. sol.]10 De Josceo fratre Sampsonis .xxv. sol. pro Eodem. De Aaron fiJio Joscei .xv. sol. vij. d. pro Eodem. De Melka Vidua .lxx. sot. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Deulebeneie et Genero suo .lxj. sot. x. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Simonis .vij. sot. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Pictauin' filio Joscei .iiij. sol. iiij. d. 6b. pro Eodem. De Mosseo filio Joscei .ij. sot. vj. d. Summa .xxvij. ?. xj. sot. Glouernia. De Mirabilia de Glouernia .lxiiij. sol. vij. d. de Auxilio etc. De Bonenfant filio Mirabilie .xv. sol. pro Eodem. De Belia filia Mirabilie .viij. sot. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac de Lincolnia genero Mirabilie .xij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Mosseo filio Aaron .xiij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Judea Vidua .xviij. sot. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Deudon' .vij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Mossei .x. sol. pro Eodem. De Duce Vidua .xvij. sot. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Abraham de Warewich et filio suo et Genero suo .cv. sot. iij. d. Summa .xiij. ?. xiij. s. vij.d. [In third column.] Ibidem de Termino Sancti Michaelis Sequenti. De Judea Vidua .xxiiij. sol. de Auxilio etc. 10 In the right-hand margin.</page><page sequence="12">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. Be Duce Vidua .xx. s?l. pro Eodem. De Isaac de Lincolnia .xv. s?l. x. d. pro Eodem. De Bonenfant filio Helye .xix. s?l. pro Eodem. De Mosseo filio Aaron .xvij. sol. iij. d. De Isaac filio Mossei .xij. s?l. viij. d. pro Eodem. Summa .c.viij. s?l. ix. d Notingham De Viueo filio Aaron .xxj. s?l. viij. d. pro Auxilio. etc. De Briton' .xviij. s?l. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Manasser' .xiij. s?l. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Dauid' Lumbard' et filia sua .x. s?l. pro Eodem. Summa .lxiiij. s?l. ij. d [Dorse] [Column I.] Norwich' De Mosseo de Lincolnia .v. ma. de Auxilio. etc. De Isaac filio Salomon' .xxxvij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Deaye filio Sampson' .xxxix. s?l. x. d pro Eodem. De Deaye Le Franceis et filiis suis .vj. ?. x. s?l. pro Eodem. De Meir filio Joscei .xxxvj. s?l. pro Eodem. De Viueo de Oxohia .xx. s?l. pro Eodem. De Aaron de Norwich' .xix. s?l. x. d. pro Eodem. De Seinnuret .iiij. s?l. x. d. pro Eodem. De Magistro Meyr .vj. s?l. pro Eodem. De Jacobo de Bungeye .v. s?l. x. d. pro Eodem. De Milka .xv. s?l. pro Eodem. De Simone filio Sarre .xx. s?l. pro Eodem. De Jacobo de Colecestria .iiij. s?l. x. d. pro Eodem. Summa .xx. ?. vj. s?l. iiij. d [In third column.] Item Norwich' de Termino Sancti Michaelis Sequenti. De Aaron filio Jacobi .xx. s?l. de Auxilio. etc. De Rosa filia Jacobi .ix. s?l. pro Eodem. De Meir de Bungeya .viij. s?l. [xj. d.] 11 pro Eodem. De Jacobo filio Joscei .x. s?l. pro Eodem. De Merin' filio Joscei de Oxonia .xl. s?l. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Mossei .x. s?l. pro Eodem. 11 Figures erased.</page><page sequence="13">104 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. De Viueo de Oxonia .xxiiij. sol. pro Eodem. De Deaye filio Sampsonis ,xl. sol. pro Eodem. Summa .viij. ?. xij. d. Bristoll' De Salomone filio Abraham vj. sol. iij. d. de Auxiho. etc. De Communa Judeorum Bristollie .x. H. pro Eodem. Summa .x. ?. vj. sol. iij. d. Stanford' De Isaac de Lincolnia .iiij. h. iij. sol. ix. d. pro Auxiho. etc. De Meir filio Dauid' .xxxiij. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. De Sarra filia Isaac .xviij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Deulecreisse Genero Isaac .xiij. sol. iij. d. 6b. pro Eodem. De Milone Presbytero .xv. sol. pro Eodem. De Jacobo filio Pictauin' .xviij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Aaron' Genero Pictauin' .xv. sol. pro Eodem. De Pictauin' .vcxviij. sol. pro Eodem. Summa .xv. H. xvj. s. ij. d. 6b. [In third column.] De Saintolf [filio Jacobi]12 de Stanford' .x. sol. de Auxilio. etc. Item Stanford' de Termino Sancti Michaelis Sequenti. De Isaac de Lincolnia .1. sol. de Auxiho. etc. De Salomone genero Isaac .xxiij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Deulecreisse genero Isaac .xvj. sol. viij. d. De Santof filio Aaron .v. ma. ix. sol. iiij. d. De Deulesaut .1. sol. De Abraham filio Mossei .xxiiij. sol. De Pictauin' de Stanford' .x. m. De Jacobo filio Pictauin' .xxij. sol. De Aaron Genero Pictauin' .xviij. sol. De Meir Presbytero .xviij. sol. Summa xxij. ?. xxj. d. Notingham'. De Termino Sancti Michaelis Sequenti. De Manasser' de Notingham .xvij. sol. v. d. de Auxiho. etc. De Deulecreisse de Bungeya .ix. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. 12 Above the line.</page><page sequence="14">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. 105 De Dauid' Lombard' .xij. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. De Briton' .xxiij. sol. pro Eodem. Summa .lxij. sol. vij. d. Exon'. De Urseir Genero Amiot .xv. sol. de Auxilio. etc. De Mosseo de Exonia .v. sol. pro Eodem. Summa .xx. sol. Item de termino Sancti Michaelis Sequenti De Auxilio. etc. De Urseir .xviij. sol. pro Eodem. De Deulecreisse .1. sol. pro Eodem. De Mosseo Le Turk .vj. sol. pro Eodem. De Jacobo de Glouernia .lxxj. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. Summa .vij. H. v. sol. viij. d. Item Lincolnia. De Sampsone filio Mathathie .xxxiiij. sol. x. d. [over an erasure] de Auxilio. etc. De Josceo de Bungeya .xlix. sol. j. d. pro Eodem. De Mosse filio Asser' .xxvij. sol. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Deulecreisse filio Mathathie .xliiij. sol. iiij. d. De Josceo de Norwich' [Peiteuin filio Joscei struck through] .vj. s. iiij. d. De Pictauin' fiho Joscei .xij. sol. viij. d. Summa .viij. ?. xiiij. sol. vij. d. fMosseus Judei Oxon'. Glouern'. Heref in Wall'. Wint'. Norwich'. Exon' xx Salom' de Bristoll'. [Summa c. iiij. xviij. ?. vj. s .vij. d. 6b. struck through] Summa .cccxlvj. ?. ij. s?l. ij. d. 6b. debent xxxvij. marc'.13, Cantebrigia. De Termino Sancti Michaelis Sequenti. De Isaac Blundo .c.iiij. sol. [iiij d. struck through] de auxilio. etc. De Beniamin filio Viuei .xxv. sol. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Deaye filio Magistri Beniamin' .xv. sol. pro Eodem. De Salomone fiho Samuel' .xij. s?l. viij. d. pro Eodem. 13 The whole of this entry is written along the bottom edge of the upper skin. I cannot trace any connection with the payment of the " aid."</page><page sequence="15">106 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. De Belya filia Ysaac .xij. sol. iij. d. ob. pro Eodem. De Samuel' filio Magistri .xij. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. Summa .ix. ?. xxiij. d. 6b. Norhamton' De Ister' (?) filia Aaron de Glouernia .xxxiiij. s?l. iiij. d. 6b. deAuxilio. etc. De Sampsone de Glouernia .v. sol. ij. d. 6b. pro Eodem. De Bacceua relicta Benedicti .vij. sol. viij. d. 6b. pro Eodem. De Judea filia Sampsonis .vij. sol, ix. d. pro Eodem. De Miriell' de Wynton' et Samuel' genero suo .xij. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. De Dauid' filio Viuei .xlviij. sol. ij. d. pro Eodem. De Salom filio Mossei .xxxv. sol. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Viuei .xxxvj. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Viueo filio Isaac .x. ma .x. sot. ij. d. pro Eodem. De Viueo filio Dauid' .xlvj. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. De Joseo filio Samuel' .xxx. sol. ix. d. 6b. pro Eodem. Item .x. d. 6b. De Fluria relicta Deodati et Isaac filio suo .xx. s. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Belina filia Isaac .x. sot. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Chera Vidua .vij. sot. viij. d. pro Eodem. [De Abraham Salomone Mosse fratribus liiij. sot. vj. d pro Eodem. struck through]. Non redd'. De Mosseo de Bristol!' .ij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Samuel' et pueris suis .lxxvj. sol. pro Eodem. Summa .xxvj. ?. vj. s?l. vj. d. 6b.14 Oxonia. De Dauid' de Lincolnia. vij. Ii. ij. sol. vj. d. de Auxilio etc. De Sarra sorore Mulin' .x. sol. pro Eodem. De Benef filio Mossei .xliij. sol. pro Eodem. De Bonamy filio Copin' .xvij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Leone Hugeman .xiij. sol. xj. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Elye .viij. sol. xj. d. pro Eodem. De Benedicto de Warewich' .xxiij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. Summa .xij. H. xix. sol. iiij. d. Ebor'. De Leone Episcopo .xiiij. ?. de auxilio. etc. De Aaron de Lincolnia .xiiij. ?. pro Eodem. De Isaac de Norhamton' .viij. H. et j. ma. pro Eodem. 14 Rectius, ?26 6s. 5jd.</page><page sequence="16">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. 107 De Aaron filio Isaac .viij. H. et j. ma. pro Eodem. De Josceo de Kent .vij. ?. pro Eodem. De Benedicto Episcopo .xj. B. pro Eodem. De Manasser' filio Leonis .v. ma. pro Eodem. De Manassero de Warewich' .lx. sol. pro Eodem. De Viueo de Pontefracto .lxj. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Josceo de Lincolnia .xxxiiij. sol. ix. d. De Rosa Vidua .lvij. sol. pro Eodem. De Meir. Genero suo .v. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Deudone filio Viuei .xxxviij. s?l. ix. d. De Gentillio de Lincolnia .xliij. sol. De Samuel' fratre Aaron .xlij. sol. xj. d. De Helia de Kent .xv. sol. iiij. d. xx Summa .iiij. iiij. li. xij. sol j. d. [Column II.] Wintonia De Manassero Leuy .vj. s?l. x. d. [ob]15 pro auxilio etc. De Deulegard filio Helye .lxij. s?l. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Salomone de Beuerlac' .xxviij. s?l. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Salomonis .xvij. s?l. xj. d. pro Eodem. De Josceo de Wilton' .xv. s?l. pro Eodem. De Lombard' de Wintonia .xxxij. sol. vj. d. De Salomone filio Salom' .ix. s?l. iiij. d. 6b. pro Eodem. De Samarien filio Lumbard .xlij. sol. j. d. pro Eodem. De Ursell' Leui .xvj. s?l. .x. d. pro Eodem. De Abraham de Oxonia .xvj. s?l. x. d. ob. pro Eodem. De SoleUie Vidua .vj. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Deaye .iij. sol. ix. d* pro Eodem. De Antera filia Chere .xvij. sol. vj. d. De Abraham filio Chere .xlij. sol. j. d. De Helya filio Chere .Iij. s?l. viij. d. ob. De Hamekin' [filio15] Chere .xxxv. s?l. pro Eodem. De Deulebenete filio [Chere15]' .lxvj. sol. ij. d. pro Eodem. Summa .xxiij. ?. xj. s?l. ix. d. [In third column.] Item Wintonia de Termino Sancti Michaelis Sequenti. De Lumbard' .xlj. s?l. ij. d. de auxilio etc. [Sic] De De Samarien' filio Lumbard' .Iiij. s?l. iij. d. 6b. 15 Above the line.</page><page sequence="17">108 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. De Salomone filio Salomonis .xj. s?l. x. d\ ob. De Salomone de Beuerlac' .xxxv. sol. vij. d. 6b. De Josceo de Wilton' .xviij. s?l. x. d. De Isaac filio Salomonis .xxij. sol. viij. [ijd. struck through] d. 6b. De Soleillie Judea .vij. s?l. xj. d. De Ursell' .xxij. s?l. xj. d. De Abraham genero Ursell' .xxj. sol. iiij. d. De Deulegart lx[x 16]ix. s?l. .j. d. De Deaye .iiij. s?l. ix. d. De Manassero .vj. sot. iij. d. De Elya filio Chere .lxvij. sot. vj. d. De Deulebeneye filio Chere .iiij. h. iiij. s. De Antera filia Chere .xxij. sot. ij. d. De Abraham filio Chere .Iiij. sol. iij. d. 6b. De Abraham Hamekin .xlij. sol. viij. d. Summa .xxix. h. xv. sol. iiij. d. ob. Lincolnia. De Mosseo filio Asser .xxxvij. s?l. vj. d. pro Auxilio etc. De Benedicto filio Mossei .viij. s?l. iij. ob. pro Eodem. De Josceo de Bungeya .xxxviij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Salomonis .xxxij. sot. vj. d. De Deulecreisse fiho Mathathie .xxxvij. s?l. vj. d. De Deulecreisse filio Helie Bungeie .vij. sol. vj. d. De Gerson' Episcopo .xxxij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Benedicto filio Pictauin' iiij. H. pro Eodem. De Sampsone Prumentin' .xl. sol. pro Eodem. De Godenot' sorore Frumentin' .xvij. sot. v. d. pro Eodem. De Ursello filio Pucele. lx. sol. pro Eodem. De Helia de Lincolnia et Familia sua .x. H. Summa .xxix. B. xj. s?l. ix. d. 6b. Item De Termino Sancti Michaelis Sequentis [sic]. Pro Auxilio etc. De Leone genero Elye .lvij. sol. pro Eodem. De Isaac Cok .xlj. sot. ij. d. pro Eodem. [sic] De De Meyr filio Dauid' .xlij. sot. viij. d. pro Eodem. De Benedicto de Norwich' .xj. sol. pro Eodem. [sic] De De Viueo filio Aaron .xxvj. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac fiho Helye .xxiij. s?l. iiij. d. pro Eodem. 16 Above the line.</page><page sequence="18">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. 109 De Benedicta filio Mossei .x. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Pictauin' Genero Helye .xl. sol. pro Eodem. De Abraham de Bedeford.' .xxxj. sol. viij. d. pro Eodem. Summa .xiiij. 11. iij. sol. ix. d. Ebor' De Benedicto Episcopo .x. ?. xij. sol. vj. d. de Auxilio. etc. De Viueo de Pontefracto .xlviij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Aaron filio Joscei .xiiij. h. xv. sol. pro Eodem. De Deulecreisse filio Magistri .cxvj. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Manasser' filio Leonis .lxxiiij. sol. j. d. pro Eodem. De Aaron filio Isaac .ix. ?. iij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Leone Episcopo .xiij. h\ vij. sol. vj. d. pro Eodem. De Josceo de Kent .viij. Ii. xij. s?l. j. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac de Norhamton' .xj. 11. vij. s?l. vj. d. Summa .lxxix. ?. xvij. s?l. xj. d. Bristoll'. De Josceo Furmag' .iij. ma. et dim. de Auxilio etc. De Bonefey fratre suo .xxxviij. s?l. pro Eodem. De Viueo Le Puinter .xij. s?l. viij. d.17 pro Eodem. De Leone nepote Abraham' .iiij. sol. ij. d. pro Eodem. Item xij. d. De Jacobo filio Samuel' de Oxonia .vij. h\ De Milone Episcopi .iiij. s. pro Eodem. Summa .xij. ?. vj. s?l. vj. d. Heref ordia in Wallia. De Isaac Blundo .xviij. s?l. de Auxilio. etc. De Gente filio Isaac .iiij. sol. x. d. pro Eodem. De Beniamin genero Isaac .vj. sol. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Salomone de Kent .vij. s?l. xj. d. pro Eodem. De Deulecreisse de Oxonia .vij. sol. xj. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac de Norhamt' .iiij. sol. ix. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac de Bristoll' .x. sol. pro Eodem. De Mosseo de Ailesbir' vj. sol. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Aaron .xv. sol. x. d. pro Eodem. De Manassero Episcopo .xj. s?l. viij. d. pro Eodem. Summa .iiij. ?. iij. s?l. vij. d.18 17 Inserted at side. 18 Bectius ?4 135. 5d.</page><page sequence="19">110 A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. Wigornia De Josceo filio Mossei. xlij. sol. ij. d. de Auxilio. etc. De Salme .vij. sol. xj. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac Episcopo .xj. sol. j. d. pro Eodem. Summa .lxj. sol. ij. d. Kantuaria De Benedicto Cresselin' et Bonami .viij. Ii. ix. sol. x. d. de Auxilio. etc. De Mosseo Presbytero .xxiij. sol. iij. 6b. pro Eodem. De Josceo fratre Bonami .xv. sol. iij. d. pro Eodem. De Isaac filio Meir j. ma. pro Eodem. De Milka Vidua .iiij. ?. iij. sol. pro Eodem. De Aaron Genero Milka (sic) .xviij. sol. iiij. d. pro Eodem. De Peiteuin' et Mosseo fratre suo .viij. sol. ij. d. 6b. pro Eodem. De Jacobo filio Samuel' xl. sol. ij. d. pro Eodem. De Pictauin' filio Isaac .xj. sol. j. d. De Josceo filio Sampsonis .xxxix. sol. pro Eodem. De Jacobo filio Samuel' .x. sol. vj. d. De Aaron filio Cresselin' .xj. sol. De Josceo filio Aaron .xxxj. sol. viij. d. De Angeuin' filio Isaac .v. sol. xj. d. pro Eodem. De Viueo filio Isaac .xvij. sot. vj. d. Summa .xxiiij. ?. xvij. sol. et x. d. London' De Aaron de Londonia .viij. Ii. et j. ma. de auxilio etc. De Helya filio Leonis .iiij. li. xv. d. pro Eodem. De Leone [Blund' .iiij. struck through] filio Isaac .iiij. ?. j .ma. pro Eodem. De Riehe Vidua .xvij. sol. pro Eodem. De Benedicto filio Riehe .xiiij. sol. x. d. pro Eodem. De Aaron de Lincolnia .xiiij. d. pro Eodem. De Sampsone filio Isaac Cirographar' .xviij. sot. pro Eodem. De Jacobo Le Turk .xlj. sot. x. d. pro Eodem. De Abraham filio Muriell' .xxj. sol. vij. d. De Jacobo Crespin' .lxij. sot. vj. d. De Aaron de Norhamton' .viij. sot. v. d. De Mosseo de Colecestria .v. sol. De Isaac Episcopo .xix. sol. De Aaron filio Abraham .xxv. sot. De Sampsone filio Abraham iij. sol. ij. d.</page><page sequence="20">A JEWISH AID TO MARRY, A.D. 1221. Ill De Josceo filio Abraham .xxxiij. s?l. iiij. d. 6b. pro Eodem. De Mosseo Genero Benedicti Episcopi .xx. sol. pro Eodem. Summa .xxxj. li. xviij. sol. ix. d. 6b. [In third column.] Pacationes Judeorum ad Sororem Regis maritandam. Glouernia. Norwich'. Wintonia. Stanford'. Notingham. Lincolnia. Cantebr'. Norhanton'. Oxonia. Ebor'. Bristoll'. Herefordia. Wigornia. Kantuaria. Londonia. Exonia. Colecestria. Summa .xix. H. ij. s. iiij. d. Summa .xxviij. K. vij. s. iiij. d. Summa .Iiij. H. vij. s. iij. 6b. Summa .xxxvij. ?. xvij. s. xj. d. 6b. Summa .vj. H. vj. s. ix. d. Summa .lij. ?. x. s. iij. 6b. Summa .xvj. li. vj. s. ix. d. Summa .xlvij. li. x. s. Summa .xxvij. li. viij. s. ij. d. Summa .clxiiij. li. x. s. Summa .xxij. ?. xij. s. ix. d. Summa .xxxj. K. ix. s. v. d. Summa .lxj. s. ij. d. Summa .lij. H. viij. s. x. d. xx Summa .iiij. li. x. s. iiij. d. Summa .viij. li. v. s. viij. d. Summa .xlviij. s. ix. d. Summa .dcliiij. ?. iij. s. v. d. 6b.</page></plain_text>