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A Dutch Burial-Ground and its English Connections

Rev. Isidore Harris

<plain_text><page sequence="1">DISUSED PORTUGUESE CEMETERY, MIDDELBURG, 1911, BEFORE RESTORATION DISUSED PORTUGUESE CEMETERY, MIDDELBURG, RAILED IN AFTER RESTORATION, 1912</page><page sequence="2">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. By the Bey. ISIDORE HARRIS, M.A. (A Paper read before the Jewish Historical Society of England on July 1, 1912.) When Jews were driven out or escaped from the Iberian Peninsula towards the end of the fifteenth century, one of the countries to which the refugees, in course of time, made their way was Holland. Not at once could they migrate there, for the Netherlands in the fifteenth century were an appanage of Spain, and it was not long before the Inquisition established itself on Dutch soil. Then came the revolt of the Netherlands from Spanish domination, the downfall of Spain, and the rise of Holland to maritime and commercial supremacy. This was the opportunity of which Jews availed themselves to secure a home in the Northern Republic. Joseph Nassi, created Duke of Naxos by the Sultan of Turkey, had rendered valuable services to William of Orange, in return for which the Stadtholder showed a disposition to favour the settlement of Jews in Dutch territory.1 The Union of Utrecht, signed in 1579, five years before his death, allowed every dweller in the United States of Holland to practise his religion unmolested. So far as the Jews were concerned, this act of toleration could not have become effective at once. But it bore fruit a few years later, when Don Samuel Palache, an Envoy of the King of Morocco, resident in Holland, induced Prince Maurice, the son and successor of William of Orange, to accord Jews freedom of domicile in the Netherlands, and to allow them to meet for worship in his house in Amsterdam.2 This was 1 J. A. J. De Villiers, Holland and some Jews. Chiswick Press, 1908, p. 10. Comp, his article in the Jewish Review, July 1912. 2 Ibid. p. 12. VOL. VII. 113 H</page><page sequence="3">114 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. in 1596. Two years later, a regular place of worship, the "Beth Jacob" Synagogue, was opened. In 1591 Palache was living in Middelburg, the capital of the prosperous province of Zeeland. He made a proposition to the Middel? burg magistracy to receive Marrano settlers and allow them religious freedom. " In return they would develop the city into a flourishing commercial centre by means of their wealth."1 The intolerant attitude taken up by the Reformed preachers of that day prevented the city fathers from acceding to Palache's request. Nevertheless, Portuguese Jews wTere gradually penetrating into Zeeland, and helping in the development of Dutch enterprise. A very small number must have been settled in Middelburg early in the sixteenth century. There is a record in the city archives, dated January 21, 1541, of a complaint made to the Emperor Charles V. concerning the acts of a Jewish sect, and of a sentence of death at the stake passed by the Emperor's Secret Council on two Jewrs, Marco and Louis Fernandez.2 Not till a hundred years later did Jews receive official permission to settle in the capital of Zeeland. Among the Jewish inhabitants mentioned at this date was the famous scholar Jacob Judah Leon (Templo), to whom the States of Zeeland gave permission to publish a work on the " Represen? tation of Solomon's Temple," after having received from the learned William Appolonius a guarantee that there was nothing in this work opposed to God's holy word as taught by the Christian Reformed Church. Templo was an ingenious draughtsman, and the model he constructed in connection with his pamphlet created a considerable sensation in Holland and elsewhere. It was submitted to Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles L, who probably saw it when she visited Holland in 1642 to quicken European interest in her husband's cause, and heard her own Royal House prayed for in the Amsterdam Synagogue.3 Many years later, when Charles II. was on the throne, Templo, desiring to submit his model to the English King, drew up a description of his work in 1 Graetz, History of the Jews, iv. p. 705 (Airier, ed. p. 663). 2 F. Nagt glas. Eene Rustplaats der Bannclingen. De Graven der Portugeesche Joden te Middelburg, Overdruk uit het Zeewsch Jaarbochje, 1864, to which I am indebted for many of the particulars in this paper. 3 Rev. S. Singer, " The Earliest Jewish Prayers for the Sovereign," Trans? actions Jewish Hist. Soc. of England, iv. p. 104.</page><page sequence="4">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 115 English, together with a " Dedication to His Sacred Majesty." This Dedication is preceded by "A Prayer for the Prosperitie of His Royal Majestie," which is one of the earliest prayers for the Head of the State in the English tongue. One of the earliest?the first English prayer of that character having been embodied by Menasseh ben Israel, ten years previously, in his " Humble Addresses to the Protector."1 It wras in this connection that Templo visited England in 1675, not ?Mr. Lucien Wolf conjectures?for the first time.2 Having made a study of heraldry, he employed his powers of draughtsmanship while here in designing the Masonic coat now used by the English Grand Lodge, his design being made up of Hebrew symbols.3 To his many other accomplishments Templo added that of a controversialist. He was the author of a theological polemic entitled "Colloquium Middelburgense." Anterior to Templo's time?in 1625?there had been living at Middel? burg, Senhor Abraham van Peres, a Director of the Dutch West India Company, and the founder of the Colony of Berbiee in British (then Dutch) Guiana.4 In 1654 the number of Portuguese Jews in Middelburg was increased by an influx of their co-religionists from Brazil. The Dutch had captured Brazil from Spain in 1624?an enterprise in which they availed themselves of Jewish help, given through the medium of the Dutch West India Company. For the next twenty or thirty years considerable numbers of Jews settled there under Dutch protection. In the phrase of Mr. De Villiers,5 they brought " Dutch liberty of conscience " to the colony of Marrano exiles who had been banished to Brazil in the middle of the sixteenth century, and were living there as New Christians. These exiles now resumed the Jewish worship, and together with their Dutch co-religionists established powerful business relations and formed impor? tant communities at Recife and other places. Had the Dutch retained 1 Rev. S. Singer, "The Earliest Jewish Prayers for the Sovereign," Trans? actions Jewish Hist. Soc. of England, pp. 105-107. 2 Lucien Wolf, " Anglo-Jewish Coats of Arms," Transactions Jewish Hist. Soc. of England, ii. p. 156. Kayserling's date, 1617 (Bihlioteca Esp.-Port.-Jtid. p. 58), is obviously a mistake. 3 A copy of this design in colours is printed by Mr. Wolf to follow upon p. 156 of the above article. 4 De Villiers, Holland and some Jews-, pp. 24, 25. 5 Ibid. p. 21.</page><page sequence="5">116 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. their hold of this wonderful country, these communities might have come in course of time to rank among the most flourishing Jewries in the world. As we learn from a letter written by the elder Yossius to Hugo Grotius in January, 1640,1 Menasseh ben Israel intended at one time taking up his residence in Brazil, where he had a brother-in-law, and one? time business partner, living?Ephraim Soeiro.2 The second part of his " Conciliador," published in 1640, was dedicated to the Brazilian Council of the East India Company, which had many influential Jews on its board. But in 1654, the Dutch unwisely abandoned Brazil to the Portuguese. The Jews thereupon left the country, or were driven out of it. Many went to Guiana, then known as the Wild Coast, which they converted into a flourishing colony. The Jews of Surinam became for a time the most important colonial community in the world.3 Some took passage from Bahia in the ship St. Catarina for New Amsterdam, and thus helped to lay the foundations of the Jewry of New York.4 Others returned to the Netherlands, and a number made their way to the then flourishing port of Middelburg, where the Dutch East India Company had one of its leading establishments, located in a handsome building which is still standing on the North Dam. In connection with this reference to the trade of Middelburg may be cited the following items from the Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, dated Sept. 14-24, 1655, being Extracts from Sec. Nicholas to Mr. ?Jane:?"There is great joy at Middelburg for the arrival of their East Indian ships. Cromwell has agreed with the Jews, and some of their Rabbis are learn? ing English, and will go from several parts to settle in England; they have already meetings in London." The new arrivals in Middelburg Avere not very warmly welcomed by the authorities, who were afraid that such numbers of refugees would. disturb the religious feeling of the town. Accordingly they were summoned before the justices. They admitted that they were in the habit of meeting among themselves to read Portions of the Law and the Prophets?passages from which were duly submitted to their lordships. 1 Kayserling's " Manasseh ben Israel," translated in the Miscellany of Hebrew Literature, ii. p. 27. 2 Ibid. p. 26. 3 De Villiers, pp. 21-23. 4 C. P. Daly's "The Settlement of Jews in New York," passim; Jewish Encyclopedia, ix. 2596.</page><page sequence="6">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 117 In the following year, December 4, 1655, the Middelburg Adminis? tration sold to these settlers a piece of land outside the Lange vijlepoort, wdth permission to use the same for a burial-ground, on condition that they conducted their burials quietly and without ceremonial. Some time previously the congregation had fitted up a Sephardic Synagogue in the house of one of their leading members?Paulo Jacomo de Pinto, who lived at No. 153 Wijk G. De Pinto was one of those fugitives from Brazil who, when it wras ceded to the Portuguese, had petitioned the Dutch authorities for permission to proceed to the colony of Guiana.1 Thus it came about that from the middle of the seventeenth century, and down to the end of the first quarter of the eighteenth century, there flourished in Middelburg a Sephardic community, the remains of which are preserved in the inscriptions covering the tombstones of their now disused cemetery in the Jodengang. These inscriptions?93 in number? are now published for the first time. The earliest one is No. 16 in the list, and it is dated 4 Elul, 5416 ( = 1656). The latest is No. 70, and dated 14 Adar, 5481 ( = 1721). It will thus be seen that the burials extended over a period of sixty-five years. Some of the tombstones are ornamented with elaborate coats-of-arms, which give evidence of the high social status of the refugees. Most of the inscriptions are written in the Portuguese tongue, and they generally conform to the same type of wording. A large number of the names, the majority in fact, are those of w7ell-known Portuguese families. But there are a very few Ashkenazic names, and I think wre may safely assume that Nos. 49, 50, 54, 60, and 92 are Ashkenazic tombstones. The most important inscription in the burial-ground is that on the recently-restored monument of Samuel Menasseh ben Israel (No. 26). He died in September, 1657, in London, where he had been acting for just three years as his father's right-hand in the negotiations with Oliver Cromwell for the readmission of Jews to this country. The story that, while here, the University of Oxford conferred on Samuel the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and Medicine has been discredited. This story, as you are aware, is related with much circumstance by Koenen in his Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland (p. 440). He gives the text of the diploma, signed by John Owen and Prof. Clayton, and dated 6th May, 1 De Villiers, p. 23.</page><page sequence="7">118 A DUTCH BUKIAL-GKOUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 1655. Dr. Neubauer and Dr. Griffith, Keeper of the Archives of the University, have adduced reasons for regarding this document as spurious,1 and in the opinion of Dr. Hermann Adler, these reasons were unanswer? able.2 One fact, however, which tells in favour of the document is its date?6th May, 1655. It has been assumed by Kayserling3 that Samuel was not in England on that date. He ivas in England on that date. He had arrived here on September 1, 1654, in the company of his uncle, David Arbabanel Dormido.4 In the following year he was sent back to Holland to fetch his father to come and plead the Jewdsh cause in person. But it was not until May 16, that the Protector and Council issued a pass for Samuel ben Israel to return to Holland for this purpose.5 Thus Samuel must have been in England during the greater part of the month of May, and he may have remained here till the following month or later. And slight further confirmation of the story is furnished by the tombstone itself, which describes him as " Doctor Semuel" ; though such a title may not count for much, considering that Manasseh ben Israel in his " Humble Addresses " designates himself " Doctor of Physick." Thomas Pocock's statement6 that Samuel married and left a child behind him may be dismissed as so much gossip, considering that it occurs in a sentence which is obviously untrustworthy: "He (Menasseh) left one of his sons behind him in England, who married into a credible family, but did not long survive his good father, leaving behind him only one child." 7 Menasseh took his son's body to Middelburg, where he had rela? tives. His wife, Rachel Soeira, was a great-granddaughter of Don Isaac Abravanel,8 and members of the Abravanel family, as two of the tomb 1 Jeivish Chronicle, Sep. 3, 1886. 2 Trans. Jewish Hist. Soc, i. p. 34. 3 Kayserling, Misc. Heb. Lit, ii. p. 92 : " The date could never have been correct, since Manasseh at that period had not yet come to England." * Lueien Wolf, Menasseh ben Israel's Mission to Oliver Cromivell, Introduc? tion, p. xxxiii, 5 Calendar State Papers, Domestic Series, 1655, p. 585. Comp. Lucien Wolf's "Introduction," p. xxxvi. 6 Introduction to the Term of Life, p. v. 7 Mr. G-omes Serra, who supplied the information to Pocock for his bio? graphical "Introduction," must have been an unreliable informant. 8 Mise. Heb. Lit., ii. p. 7.</page><page sequence="8">A DUTCH BUKIAL-GKOUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 119 stones (Nos. 8 and 9) show, were living in Middelburg at the time. It was in the house of some member of this family that Menasseh was taken ill on his arrival with his son's body in Holland. According to Kayserling,1 he died in the house of his brother-in-law, Ephraim Abravanel, on the 11th Kislev, 5418, corresponding to November 20, 1657. But for his illness, he might have proceeded straight to Amsterdam, and buried his son there. He himself, though he died in Middelburg, was buried in Amsterdam, in the Portuguese cemetery at Oudekerk.2 His tombstone is in a good state of preservation. One wonders why it should have been necessary for Menasseh to convey his son's body all the way to Holland, considering that the London Jews had acquired a burial-ground in Stepney already in February 1657,3 and that at least one Jewish interment (that of Isaac Brito) had taken place a month previously to Samuel's death (Elul 5417). In his petition to Oliver Cromwell for help, Menasseh assigns as his reason his son's dying wish to be buried in Holland.4 But why should the son have imposed upon the father so difficult and costly an enterprise ? We can only explain it on the assumption that both father and son had quarrelled with the London community, who, as Dr. Adler thought,5 must have been guilty of base ingratitude to the distinguished divine. So far as the dates show, and not more than one or two stones are undated, that of Samuel was the third burial in this ground. Judique Habilla (No. 16) had been buried a year previously, and Joseph de Lagarca (No. 13) six months previously. In the year 1721, the Municipality passed a resolution forbidding the congregation to bury bodies brought from outlying places which had 1 Misc. Heb. Lit., pp. 68, 93. 2 "By the generosity of the Jews of Amsterdam, his body was brought thither, and decently interred at their expense" (Pocock, "Introduction," p. v). Having been a Haham of Amsterdam, his community would naturally desire to give him burial. Moreover, Menasseh's wife had been buried at Oudekerk. 3 See Mr. Israel Davis' article on " The Resettlement'* in the Jetuish Chronicle of Nov. 26, 1880. The date set forth in the lease is 1656. The year would be so named in accordance with the old practice of beginning it in March. 4 Dr. H. Adler's " Homage to Menasseh ben Israel." Transactions Jewish Hist. Soc. of England, i. p. 47. 5 Ibid. p. 41.</page><page sequence="9">120 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. no communal burial-ground of their own. The plague was then raging in Antwerp, which used to send its dead to be buried at Middelburg, and the authorities were afraid of infection. It was in this year that the burials ceased, although the ground wTas by no means full. Some time during the first half of the eighteenth century, the Portuguese community disappeared from Middelburg, leaving little behind them save their tombstones to tell the story of their brief but prosperous existence. Their disappearance is to be explained on the ground that Middelburg was now declining in commercial importance. It wras no longer the centre of the European wine-trade, and it was fast losing the attractions it once had for merchants with large trade connections, who had been in the habit of seeing a constant succession of richly-freighted ships sailing up to their very doors on the North Dam. No doubt the wealthy Sephardim found it to their advantage to settle elsewhere?in the Hague, in Amsterdam, in Hamburg, and in England, w7hich wras now freely opened to Dutch Jews; w7hile others went to the West Indies. The place of the Sephardic aristocrats of Middelburg was gradually taken by a humbler stratum of Jewish settlers of Ashkenazic extraction. There were dissensions for a time between the two elements, which culminated in a compact of peace approved by the magistracy in 1725. But already in the year 1704 the Germans acquired a burial-ground of their own at Seisspoort, and in the following year they built a regular synagogue.1 Synagogue and burial-ground are still in use, and both are in an excellent state of preservation. The German community are thus left in the position of trustees of the disused burial-ground of the original Sephardic settlers. In the notes I have made to the inscriptions I have not been able to trace any very definite connections betwreen the individual names on the tombstones and the corresponding family names that occur in the annals of the London Portuguese community. But I think I have shown a sufficient general resemblance to render it tolerably certain that a considerable number of the relatives and descendants of those who are buried in this ground must have made their way to England towards the end of the seventeenth, and in the course of the eighteenth century, and 1 Ter Qedachtenis aan het Tiveehonderdjarig Bestaan der Israelitische Kerle te Middelburg, 1705-1905. Middelburg, 1906.</page><page sequence="10">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 121 thus helped to build up the Bevis Marks congregation. It cannot be a mere coincidence that we have in Middelburg and London so many persons bearing the common family names of Aboab, Abarbanel, Almeyda, Bondia, De Caceres, Del Carlo, Cardoso, De Castro, Coronel, Coutinho, Da Costa and Mendes da Costa, Dias, Fonseca, Gomes, Lorenco, Miranda, Nunes, Oliveira, Pereira, Pimentel, Royz, and Da Silva. These identities of surname, I submit, are not only full of interest, but they warrant us in drawing the conclusion that a certain number of the progenitors of the London Portuguese community must have hailed from the once-flourishing capital of Zeeland. Who exactly they were I am not in a position to say. The list of names and dates I have furnished needs more careful and expert study than I have been able to give them. My notes on them can only be regarded as tentative. What I have put forward is in the nature of rough material, some of which may be worked up at a future time by historians of Anglo-Je wry. I should not have ventured to bring it under the notice of the Society, but for the fact of wrhich many members are aware that for the past year I have been engaged in putting this burial-ground in order ; beginning with the restoration of the tombstone of Samuel Menasseh ben Israel in token of gratitude of a few English Jews for the part he took in seconding the memorable labours of his illustrious father, and being led on from that to exposing the sur? rounding tombstones which lay hidden with their inscriptions beneath a thick layer of moss and grass. Having recovered these inscriptions, the next thing to do was to copy and translate them; and that achieved, it seemed that they possessed sufficient Anglo-Jewish interest to warrant their incorporation in the invaluable Transactions of this learned Society. It is thus bedrock information, in a two-fold sense, that I offer for the consideration of future students. But apart from their scientific and Anglo - Jewish interest, it seems to me that these tombstones must possess for Jews, to whatever nationality they belong, a very strong sentimental interest. Here lies buried a colony of refugees, of Sephardim who fled from persecution. From Spain and Portugal they had been driven to Brazil. Some had taken in Holland on their way. Then Brazil becomes Portuguese, and sends them to Holland again. They are grudgingly received into Zeeland, and there they remain for a short period, openly professing their religion. They remain until better business openings in other parts of</page><page sequence="11">122 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. Europe beckon them to move onwards. Thus the chequered fortunes of this little community form a typical chapter in the long story of Jewish wanderings. Faithfully they reflect the curious combination of opposite dominating forces in Jewish history?the spiritual and the material; religious steadfastness blended wdth love of commercial enterprise. It is a pathetic picture upon which this restored burial-ground in a sleepy old Dutch tow'n invites us to gaze. I hope the time and attention you have bestowed upon it this evening will not appear to you to have been ill-spent.</page><page sequence="12">INSCRIPTIONS ON THE TOMBSTONES IN THE OLD PORTUGUESE CEMETERY AT MIDDELBURG. First Row, [Two stones without inscriptions.] 1. Sa Debora Gomes den [sic] 21 Adar Anno 5473 2. Sa Do Bemaventurado Abraham Lopez de Castro Falesceu em 15 de Nissan 5469 S. A. G. G. 1. The grave of Debora Gomes (died) 21 Adar 5473 (1713). 2. The grave of the blessed Abraham Lopez de Castro. Died on the 15th Nissan 5469 (1709). May his soul enjoy glory. Second Bow. 3. De Benjamin Aboab Cvia Alma Gose Descanco Faleseo em 26 de . . . 4. Sa De Benjamin Dias Da Costa Faleseo em 2 de Sebat Do Ano 5426 Sva Alma Goze Descanco 5. Sa Da bein-Aventvrada Kachel Lea Barua Peres Qve Faleseo en 1 de Tamus Anno 5424 'PI '2 "2 '3 'n 3. The grave of Benjamin Aboab. May his soul enjoy rest. Died 26th . . . 4. The grave of Benjamin Dias Da Costa. Died on the 2nd Shebat 5426 (1666). May his soul en? joy rest. 5. The grave of the blessed Rachel Lea Barua Peres, who died on the 1st Tamuz 5424 (1664). May her soul be bound up in the bundle of life. 123</page><page sequence="13">124 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 6. Sa Do Emcvrtado Mordohay Hizkiyav Karkaconi Falesev em 26 de Iyar Ano de 5424 7. Sa Da Mvi Virtvoza Sra Abigiail Pereira Vivva de B (DLP). Falesev em 7 de Adar Anno 5424 8. A qvi se mandov Depositar o corpo do Benaventvrado Sr Jacob Abrabanel da Serra qven el Dio Levov Para Si en 25 de Tisri do Ano da Creacao de Mvndo 5424 'n '1 ? '2 'n 6. The grave of Mordecai Hezekiah Karkaconi, whose life was cut short. Died on the 26th Iyar 5424 (1664). 7. The grave of the most virtuous lady Abigiail Pereira, widow of David Lopez Pereira. Died on the 7th Adar 5424 (1664). 8. Here it was directed to deposit the body of the blessed Senhor Jacob Abrabanel de Serra, whom God took to Himself on the 25th Tishri, in the year of the Crea? tion of the World 5424 (1663). May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life. [Coat-of-arms : On a bend, dexter, between two stars, a star, between two dragons' heads couped at the neck.] 9. A qvi se mandov Lansar o corpo Do Senhor Joseph Abravanel Da Veiga qven el Dio Para Si Levov en 18 de Tisri do Anno da Creacao do Mvndo 5423 71 '1 S 'J n 9. Here it was directed to bury the body of Senhor Joseph Abra vanel Da Veiga, whom God took to Himself on the 18th Tishri, in the year of the Creation of the World, 5423 (1662). May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life. [Coat-of-arms : Quarterly, first and fourth an eagle displayed, second and third three fleurs-de-lis, two and one.] 10. Sa Da Vertvoza Donzela Ester Gastiel Falesev em 25 de Yar Anno 5422 10, The grave of the virtuous damsel Ester Gastiel. Died on the 25th Iyar 5422 (1662).</page><page sequence="14">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 125 11. Sa Da Bemaventurada Sara Montesinos Q. Faleseo em 26 de Qislev Do Anno 5422 Svalma Gose da Gloria 12. Sa de Raquel Pimentel que Faleseou en xv de Ylul Do Ano 5422 Sua alma Gose da Gloria 13. A qvy Yas Aventurado Velio Honrado Joseph de Lagarca que Foy Deos Servido Chamar Para a secunda Feira 12 Tebet Anno 5417 N?. 3 14. Sa Da bein-Aventvrada Ester da Costa Mvlher de Abraham da Costa F? em 19 de Adar 5420 71 '3 * '3 71 15. Sa De Sara Fa de Ab. Levi Bondia F. em 19 Tebet A0 5434 16. Aquy Yas aonrada Dona Judique Habilla Muller de Baruch Habillo que Deos Foy Seruido Chamar Para sy quinta Feira 4 Elul 5416 Anno N?. 1 11. The grave of the blessed Sara Montesinos, who died on the 26th Kislev 5422 (1661). May her soul enjoy glory. 12. The grave of Rachel Pimentel, who died on the 15th Elul in the year 5422 (1662). May her soul enjoy glory. 13. Here rests the blessed, aged, honourable Joseph de Lagarca, whom God was pleased to call to Himself on Monday, 12th Tebeth 5417 (1657). No. 3. 14. The grave of the blessed Ester da Costa, wife of Abraham da Costa. Died on the 19th Adar 5420 (1660). May her soul be bound up in the bundle of life. 15. The grave of Sara, daughter of Ab. Levi Bondia. Died 19 Tebeth 5434 (1674). 16. Here rests the honourable Dame J udique Habilla, wife of Baruch Habillo, whom God was pleased to call to Himself on Thursday, 4 Elul 5416 (1656). No. 1.</page><page sequence="15">126 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 17. Sa de David Filho de Daniel Lobo Falesev A 17 de Yar Ano 5422 18. oh F. de obo Falesev dar Ano 5421 17. The grave of David, son of Daniel Lobo. Died 17th Iyar 5422 (1662). 18. [This stone is mutilated, and is perhaps to be read: Selomoh, son of Daniel Lobo. Died Adar 5421.] Third Roiv. [First stone without inscription.] 19. Aqui Yaze la ille y Noble S. D. Rachel Haim Fvllana Esposa del ille y Noble S. S Fvllana T. Coronel Fallecio en 8 de Scebat Ano 5434 Repose en paz. Amen 19. Here rests the illustrious and noble lady, Dame Rachel Haim Fullana, wife of the illustrious and noble Senhor De Fullana T. Coronel. Died on the 8th Shebat 5434 (1674). May she repose in peace. Amen. [Coat-of-arms : Impaled. Dexter : A lion rampant, facing to the dexter. Sinister : Per pale, a tree in a pot.] 20. Sepultvra de Raqvel Dias de Lvcena Falesev em 2 de Ab No ano de 5431 Sva Alma Goze Descanco. Amen 21. Sa da Vertvosa Ester de Lvcena Falev em 23 de Nisan 5430 Sva Alma Goze Descanco 22. Sa E Izaqve Serano de Liorne Falesev em 6 de Tisri A? 5431 S. A. G. F. 20. The grave of Rachel Dias de Lucena. Died on the 2nd Ab in the year 5431 (1671). May her soul enjoy repose. Amen. 21. The grave of the virtuous Ester de Lucena. Died on the 23rd Nisan 5430 (1670). May her soul enjoy repose. 22. The grave of Izaque Serano of Leghorn. Died on the 6th Tishri 5431 (1670). May his soul enjoy bliss.</page><page sequence="16">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 127 23. Sa Do Gazan Selomoh Gisqviav Royz Felesev em 30 Nisan Ano 5430 Sva Alma Goze da Gloria 23. The grave of Hazan Selomoh Chizkiau Royz. Died 30 Nisan 5430 (1670). May his soul enjoy glory. 24. Sa Do Bemaventvrado Haham Yahacob Franquo Lagarto que Foy Ds. Servido Recolher Para si quarta Feyra 8 Sebat A. 5427 25. Aqi Yas Sepultada a mvi zeloza temente del Dio onrada virtvoza e pia Sra Dona Sara Montezinos Main de Sel Avo de Ab. Levi Bondia Sendo Chamada a seos povos vella Efarta de Dias em 18 de Ylul 5425 Sua Memoria Para Bendisao 26. Sa Do Doctor Semvel F? Do Haham Menasseh Ben Israel Faleceo em 2 Tisri 5418 27. Sa Do Bemaventurado Abraham Mendez da Costa Falesceu em 4 Tamuz 5450 'H 2 ? '3 'n 24. The grave of the blessed Haham Jacob Franco Lagarto, whom God was pleased to gather to Himself on Wednesday, 8 Shebat 5427 (1667). 25. Here lies buried the most zeal? ous, God-fearing, honourable, virtuous and pious lady, Dame Sara Montezinos, mother of Samuel and grandmother of Ah. Levi Bondia, who was gathered to her people in old age and full of days, on the 18th Elul 5425 (1665). May her memory be for a blessing. 26. The grave of Doctor Samuel, son of Haham Menasseh ben Israel. Died on the 2nd Tishri 5418 (1657). 27. The grave of the blessed Abra? ham Mendez da Costa. Died on the 4th Tamuz 5450 (1690). May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life. [Coat-of-arms : Per pale, six rib-bones, two, two and two.]</page><page sequence="17">128 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 28. Aquy Yas aonrada Dona Ester Neta M?ller de Mose Netto que Deos Foy Seruido Chamar Para sy tersa Feira 27 Hesuan 5417 Anno N?. 2 29. Aqvi esta Sepvltado o corpo de Ribka de Oliveira Sva Alma Goze Descanco Falesev em 3 de Elvi 5429 28. Here rests the honourable Dame Ester Neta, wife of Moses Netto, whom God was pleased to call to Himself on Tuesday, 27 Heshvan 5417 (1656). No. 2. 29. Here is buried the body of Re? becca de Oliveira. May her soul enjoy happiness. Died on the 3rd Elul 5429 (1669). Fourth Row. 30. Sa De Ribca Lourenco Falesceu em 27 Nisan Anno 5442 Sua Alma Goze Gloria 31. Sa De Samuel Lorenco Faleseu em des de Hesuan Ano E 5441 Sua Alma Goze Descanso 32. Sa de Rahel Crespa Mulher de Yshak Crespo Falesceu em 18 Sivan 5441 S. G. G. F. 33. Sa Da Virtuoza Da Rachel Viuva de Rephael Levi Bondia Faleseu em 28 Kislef A0 5438 S, A. G. D. G. 30. The grave of Rebecca Lourenco. Died on the 27th Nisan 5442 (1682). May her soul enjoy glory. 31. The grave of Samuel Lorenco. Died on the 10th Heshvan 5441 (1680). May his soul enjoy repose. 32. The grave of Rachel Crespa, wife of Isaac Crespo. Died on 18 Sivan 5441 (1681). May her soul enjoy bliss. 33. The grave of the virtuous Dame Rachel, the widow of Raphael Levi Bondia. Died on 28 Kislev 5438 (1677). May her soul en? joy glory.</page><page sequence="18">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 129 34. De Leonora Hiya B Josep Spinosa Henriques Falesio em 21 Si van 5441 35. mnp rmo nrxow mo r6mnn prw ?rcun m Bnnb ty* enp rnp 'n '2 '3 'n 36. prw own atyv ntiD h prw nna 'n 3 '3 'n TDn'n jw 37. Sa De Rachel Montezinos Falesev em 14 Tebet A0 5438 S. A. G. D. G. Da Mvito Zeloza Sra Dona Rachel Ooronel Vivva D. AG. Coronel Falesev em 1 de Nisan 5437 Goze Sva Alma Folgansa 34. The grave of Leonora, the daughter of Joseph Spinosa Henriques. Died on 21 Si van 5441 (1681). 35. The tombstone of the young girl, Simcha, daughter of Isaac Gomes De Suza. Died on Sab? bath the 19th Kislev 5443 (1682). May her soul be bound up in the bundle of life. 36. " He who sitteth in the heavens doth laugh." The tombstone of the distinguished and beneficent Isaac Gomes De Suza. Died, Friday the 6th Tebeth 5444 (1684). May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life. 37. The grave of Rachel Montezinos. Died on the 14th Tebeth 5438 (1678). May her soul enjoy glory. 38. The grave of the very zealous lady, Dame Rachel Coronel, widow of AG. Coronel. Died on the 1st Nisan 5437 (1677). May her soul enjoy bliss. Fifth Row. 39. Sa De Abraham Isr. Baraza Faleseu em 22 de Tebeth 5439 Sua Alma Goze Descanco VOL, VII, The grave of Abraham Isr. Baraza. Died on the 22nd Tebeth 5439 (1679). May his soul enjoy repose. I</page><page sequence="19">130 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 40. Sa Da Sra Reina Baraza Molher de JB Baraza Faleseu em 13 Nisan 5441 Sua Alma Goze Descanco 41. Sa De Rachel Fa B Gar. . . Montezinos Fal. em 10 de Tebet 5 40. The grave of Dame Heina Baraza, wife of Abraham Bar? aza. Died 13 Nisan 5441 (1681). May her soul enjoy repose. 41. The grave of Rachel, daughter of Gar. . . Montezinos. Died on the 10th Tebet 5-. [This stone is mutilated, and only a portion of the name commencing " Gar " (Garson ?) is visible.] 42. Sa Do Bemaventurado Sr Samuel Pan to ja Falesceu em onze Kislef Anno 5443 S. A. G. G. 43. Sa Do Bemaventurado Sr David Goncales Falesceu em primo Sivan de Anno 5444 S. A. G. G. 44. Sa Da Bemaventurada Hana Mulher de Samuel Pantoja Falesceu em 15 Sivan Anno 5445 S. A. G. F. 45. Sa Bemaventurada Rachel Nunez Mulher de Abraham Nunez Falescev em 7 Elul 5445 S. A, G. G, 42. The grave of the blessed Senhor Samuel Panto ja. Died on the 11th Kislev 5443 (1682). May his soul enjoy glory. 43. The grave of the blessed David Goncales. Died on the 1st Sivan 5444 (1684). May his soul enjoy glory. 44. The grave of the blessed Hanna, wife of Samuel Panto ja. Died on the 15th Sivan 5445 (1685). May her soul enjoy happiness. 45. The grave of the blessed Rachel Nunez, wife of Abraham Nunez. Died on the 7th Elul 5445 (1685). May her soul enjoy glory.</page><page sequence="20">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 131 46. Sa Do Zelozo Talmid Chaeham Yshac Levi Fubini Foy Chamado a seus Povos em Ultimo Dia de Sivan 5447 S. A. G. G. 47. Sa Da Bemaventurada Dona Sara Vaz Aboab Viuva de Binjamin Aboab Falesceu em 6 Veadar Anno 5448 S. A. G. G. 48. Aqui Yaze la bienaventurada Dona Esther del Cano Mugerqque Fue de Josua del Cano Falecio en 15 Sivan 5449 S. A. G. G. 49. mnp imo ?tajnonn *rv&gt;n"d p prw n wink p i nsstf so. nn^n b?kpi mnp rmo jron 3pir 'n 'a '3 'n 46. The grave of the zealous and learned Isaac Levi Fubini, who was gathered to his people on the last day of Sivan 5447 (1687). May his soul enjoy glory. 47. The grave of the blessed Dame Sara Vaz Aboab, the widow of Benjamin Aboab. Died on the 6th Veadar 5448 (1688). May her soul enjoy glory. 48. Here lies the blessed lady Esther del Cano, who was the wife of Josua del Cano. Died on the 15th Sivan 5449 (1689). May her soul enjoy glory. 49. The tombstone of the honour? able Isaac, the son of the hon? ourable David Tebli. Died Wed? nesday 17 Adar 5449 (1689). May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life. 50. The tombstone of the honour? able Jacob Cohen. Died Wed? nesday, 8 Iyar 5445 (1685). May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life. Sixth Row. 51. Do Bemaventurado Mancebo Yshak Ysrael Falesceu em 20 Sivan Anno 5454 51. (The grave) of the blessed youth, Isaac Israel. Died on the 20th Sivan 5454 (1694).</page><page sequence="21">132 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 52. . Sa Da Bemaventurada Dona Ribca Aboab Falesceu em primo Veadar Anno 5453 S. A. G. G. Sa Do Bemaventurado David Haim Ysrael Dias Falesceu em 1 Tisri Anno 5453 S. A. G. F. Sa Do Bemaventurado Simon Bar Yeuda Falesceu em 25 Kislef Anno 5452 S. A. G. G. Sa Da Bemaventurada E. Honesta Dona Ribca de Almeyda Mulher de Yshak Lopez de Almeyda Falesceu em 7 Seba Anno 545 (?) S. A. G. G. 56. Sa Do Bemaventurado Abraham Ha Dias Vaz Falesceu em 10 de Hesvan A0 5451 S. A. G. G. 57. Sa Da Bemaventurada E. Honesta Sa Da Esther de Almeyda E. Sossa Falesceu em 9 Elul Anno 5450 S. A. G. G. 54. 52. The grave of the blessed lady Rebecca Aboab. Died on the 1st Veadar 5453 (1693). May her soul enjoy glory. 53. The grave of the blessed David Haim Israel Dias. Died on the 1st Tishri 5453 (1692). May his soul enjoy happiness. 54. The grave of the blessed Simon Bar Yeuda. Died on the 25th Kislev 5452 (1691). May his soul enjoy glory. 55. The grave of the blessed and honourable lady Rebecca de Al? meyda, wife of Isaac Lopez de Almeyda. Died on the 7th Shebat 545 (?). May her soul enjoy glory. 56. The grave of the blessed Abra? ham H(avil)a Dias Vaz. Died on the 10th Heshvan 5451 (1690). May his soul enjoy glory. 57. The grave of the blessed and honourable lady Dame Esther de Almeyda and Sossa. Died on the 9th Elul 5450 (1690). May her soul enjoy glory.</page><page sequence="22">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 133 58. Sa Da Bemaventurada Ribca Lobo de Lima Falesceu em 24 Tamuz Anno 5449 S. A. G. G. 59. Do Bemaventurado Daniel Hezkiav de Morales Falescev em 5 Tebet 5450 S. A. G. F. 60. rm^n mnp mv? npn wirb '3 "i dv 'n '3 * 'n 58. The grave of the blessed Rebecca Lobo de Lima. Died on the 24th Tamuz 5449 (1689). 59. (The grave) of the blessed Daniel Hezekiah de Morales. Died on the 5th Tebeth 5450 (1690). May his soul enjoy happiness. 60. The tombstone of the honour? able Brendla, wife of Jacob Cohen. Died Friday the 20th Tishri 5449 (1688). May her soul be bound up in the bundle of life. Seventh Row. 61. Sa Da Bemaventurada Dona Rachel Aboab Falesceu em 18 Adar Rison Anno 5456 S. A. G. F. 62. Aqvi Yaze La Vertuoza de Raqvel Pinta qve Fallesio en 22 de Marso A0 5456 63. Sa Da Bemaventurada E. Honesta Dona Sara Dorta Faleceu em Tamus A0 545 (?) S. A. G. G. 61. The grave of the blessed Dame Rachel Aboab. Died the 18th Adar Rishon 5456 (1696). May her soul enjoy happiness. 62. Here lies the virtuous Rachel Pinto, who died on the 22nd March 5456 (1696). 63. The grave of the blessed and upright Dame Sara Dorta. Died Tamuz 545 (?). May her soul enjoy glory.</page><page sequence="23">134 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. Sa Do Virtvozo Mansebo Binyamin Gomes E Sossa F? em 19 E Tebet 5455 S. A. G. F. Sa Do Virtuoza E. Honesta Senhora Jeudit Mulher de Eliau Velosinos que Falesceu en 28 de Ab Anno 5454 S. A. G. G. Sa Da Bemaventurada Honesta Dona Sara da Cunha Faleceu em 6 Sivan Anno 5454 S. A. G. G. Sa D? Virtuozo Mancebo Joseph Filho de Jaaeob Semah Ferro Falesceu em 14 Sebat A? 5454 S. A. G. G. Sa Do Bemaventurado Virtuozo Mancebo Jaaeob Filho de Refael de Arredondo Faleceu em 22 Elul A? 5453 S. A. G. G. 64. The grave of the virtuous youth, Benjamin Gomes de Sossa. Died 19th Tebeth 5455 (1695). May his soul enjoy happiness. 65. The grave of the virtuous and upright lady Judith, the wife of Elijah Velosinos, who died on the 28th Ab 5454 (1694). May her soul enjoy glory. 66. The grave of the blessed, up? right lady Sara da Cunha. Died on the 6th Sivan 5454 (1694). May her soul enjoy glory. 67. The grave of the virtuous youth Joseph, son of Jacob Semach Ferro. Died on the 14th Shebat 5454 (1694). May his soul en? joy glory. 68. The grave of the blessed, vir? tuous youth Jacob, son of Raphael de Arredondo. Died on the 22nd Elul 5453 (1693). May his soul enjoy glory.</page><page sequence="24">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 135 69. Sa De la bien Aventvrada Abigail de Lvzena Mvger de David Sanehes Fallecio en 2 de Jvnio de 5454 S. A. G. D. G. 70. Sa Do Bemaventurado Mosseh del Rio Alias Manuel Cardozo que Faleseu em 14 Adar A? 5481 Sua Alma Goze da Gloria 71 '1 ? '3 71 69. The grave of the blessed Abi? gail de Luzena, wife of David Sanches. Died on the 2nd June 5454 (1694). May her soul enjoy glory. 70. The grave of the blessed Moses del Rio alias Manuel Gardozo, who died on the 14th Adar 5481 (1721). May his soul enjoy glory. May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life. Eighth Row. 71. Sa Do Bemaventurado De Izaqve Gomez Dias Fu em 22 Nisan Anno 5476 S. A. G. G. 72. Sa Do Bemaventurado Abraham Gomez Dias Faleceu 6 Sivan Anno 5474 73. De David Alvares de Luna Falecio en 25 de Hesvan 5460 74. Sa De Sara Alvares de Luna Falecio en 23 de Hesvan 5460 S. A. G. da Gloria 71. The grave of the blessed one Isaac Gomez Dias. Died on the 22nd Nisan 5476 (1716). May his soul enjoy glory. 72. The grave of the blessed Abra? ham Gomez Dias. Died 6 Sivan 5474 (1714). 73. (The grave) of David Alvares de Luna. Died on the 25th Hesh van 5460 (1699). 74; The grave of Sara Alvares de Luna. Died on the 23rd Hesh van 5460 (1699). May her soul enjoy glory.</page><page sequence="25">136 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 75. Sa Do Bemaventurado Yehosua Eliau del Canho Falesceu em 2 de Tamuz Anno 5459 S. A. G. G. 76. Sa Do Bemaventvrado Senhor Abraham de Castro Y Olive-Ros F? em 27 Adar A? 5466 71 '3 71 77. Sa Do Bemaventdu D. Jacob Aboab F. D. Benyamin Aboab Fceo em 27 D. Sebat A? 5458 D. Aya Piadade De S. Alma 78. Sa Do Bemaventurado Mancebo Mosse F? de Ysehak Montesinos Falesceu em . . . 79. Sa Do Bemaventurado Jahacob Nunes Mibanda Faleceu em 30 Kislef Anno 5470 S. A. G. G. 80. Sa Da Bemaventurada Abigail Filha de Abraham Lopez de Almeyda Faleceo em Tebet Ano 5470 S. A. G. G. 75. The grave of the blessed Joshua Elijah del Canho. Died on the 2nd Tamuz 5459 (1699). May his soul enjoy glory. 76. The grave of the blessed Senhor Abraham de Castro Y Oliveros. Died on the 27th Adar 5466 (1706). May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life. 77. The grave of the blessed one, of Jacob Aboab, son of Ben? jamin Aboab. Died on the 27th Shebat 5458 (1698). God have mercy on his soul. 78. The grave of the blessed youth Moses, son of Isaac Montesinos. Died on . . . 79. The grave of the blessed Jacob Nunes Miranda. Died on the 30th Kislev 5470 (1709). May his soul enjoy glory. 80. The grave of the blessed Abigail, daughter of Abraham Lopez de Almeyda. Died Tebeth 5470 (1710). May her soul enjoy glory.</page><page sequence="26">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 137 Ninth Row. 81. Sa De Sara Del Ca?o Muger que Fue de Jeosua Del Cano Falecio en 26 de Kisleu 5461 82. Sa De Rybca Fylha de Bynjamin Dionis de Caceres Faleceo 14 Nissan 5473 83. Sa Do Bemaventurado Zelozo Abraham Pereyra Coutinho Faleceu 27 Hesvan Anno 5473 S. A. G. G. 84. Sa Do Bemaventurado de Yaccob de Cordoua Faleceu 19 Ab A? 5472 S. A. G. G. 85. Beati Mortui qui in Domino Moriuntur Sa Del bienaventurado De Abraham Gomes da Silva qve Falecio en 7 de Nisan Anno 5471 86. Sa Da Bemaventurada Dona Rachel Montesinos Fa S Yschac Montesinos Faleceu em 10 Elul A0 5460 S. A. G. G. 81. The grave of Sara Del Ca?o, who was the wife of Joshua Del Cano. Died on the 26th Kislev 5461 (1700). 82. The grave of Rebecca, daughter of Benjamin Dionis de Caceres. Died 14 Nisan 5473 (1713) 83. The grave of the blessed, zeal? ous Abraham Pereyra Coutinho. Died 27 Heshvan 5473 (1712). May his soul enjoy glory. 84. The grave of the blessed one, of Jacob de Cordova. Died 19 Ab 5472 (1712). May his soul enjoy glory. 85. Happy are the dead who die in the Lord. The grave of the blessed one, of Abraham Gomes da Silva, who died on the 7th Nisan 5471 (1711). 86. The grave of the blessed Dame Rachel Montesinos, daughter of Isaac Montesinos. Died on the 10th Elul 5460 (1700). May her soul enjoy glory.</page><page sequence="27">138 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 87. Sa Da Bemaventurada Dona Ester Aboab Mulher de Ysebac Montezinos Faleeeu em 11 Elul A0 5460 S. A. G. G. 88. Sa Da Bemaventurada Dona Hanna Soliz Faleeeu em 10 de Tisri Anno 5461 Sua Alma Goze Gloria 89. Sa Do Bemaventuraddo do Jaacob Gastiel que foi Recolhido A seus Povos em 14 Tamus 5460 Sua Alma Goze de Gloria 90. Sa de Jacob Lviz Gomes Filho de Ischac Ls Gs S. A. G. G. 5467 91. Sa Do Bemaventurado Ischac de Fonceca F? de Abraham de Fonceca e Rachel de Salazar Faleeeu em 16 Nisan 5460 S. A. G. F. 87. The grave of the blessed Dame Ester Aboab, wife of Isaac Mon tezinos. Died on the 11th Elul 5460 (1700). May her soul enjoy glory. 88. The grave of the blessed Dame Hanna Soliz. Died on the 10th Tishri 5461 (1700). May her soul enjoy glory. 89. The grave of the blessed one, of Jacob Gastiel, who was gathered to his people on the 14th Tamuz 5460 (1700). May his soul enjoy glory. 90. The grave of Jacob Louis Gomes, the son of Isaac Louis Gomes. May his soul enjoy glory. 5467 (1707). 91. The grave of the blessed Isaac de Fonseca, son of Abraham de Fonseca and Rachel de Salazar. Died 16th Nisan 5460 (1700). May his soul enjoy bliss. Tenth Row. 92. The grave of the blessed Isaac Montezinos. Died 30th Adar 5461 (1701). May his soul enjoy glory. 92. Sa Do Bemaventurado Yschac Montezinos Faleceu em 30 Adar Anno 5461 S. A. G. G.</page><page sequence="28">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 139 93. *idk*&gt; ina b? 'n in *m hd obwn ^&gt;3 nv roi?ao jrnn kbO nnp:i 'i niK -)dd3 jron "ra&gt;? "pab 'X'd'n yik'm "i dv '?n '3 ? 'a 'n 93. " And the word of the Lord came unto Nathan saying." Here is buried a man of good works and upright conduct, the aged Judah Joseph Nathan, son of Asher Cohen. Died Thursday evening, and buried Friday the 1st Adar 5481 (1721). May his soul be bound up in the bundle of life.</page><page sequence="29">TENTATIVE NOTES ON THE ABOVE. Benjamin Aboab [3] ; Sara Vaz Aboab [47]; Ribca Aboab [52]; Raehael Aboab [61]; Jacob Aboab [77]; Ester Aboab [87] :? Aboab, one of the most prominent Sephardic names in Holland and England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Comp. Jahacob Aboab (Lucien Wolf, " The Jewry of the Restoration," Trans. Jewish Hist. Soc, v. p. 19; Gaster, Hist. Berns Marks Cong., p. 17), Isaac Semah Aboab (Gaster, p. 74), Abraham Aboab {Ibid. p. 90), Jahacob Semah Aboab {Ibid. p. 93). Jacob Abrabanel da Serra [8] :? The armorial bearings of Jacob Abarbanel (variously spelt also Abra? banel, Abravanel) are those of the Abarbanel family. The Middelburg Abarbanels included also Ephraim Abarbanel (Soeiro), the brother-in-law, and at one time business partner in Brazil, of Menasseh ben Israel, in whose house Menasseh died (Kayserling, Misc. Heb. Lit., ii. pp. 26, 68). It wTas from this Ephraim Abarbanel?it would appear from the researches of Mr. Lucien Wolf (see his art. on "The Disraeli Family," Trans. Jewish Hist. Soc, v. pp. 216, 217)?that the English Abarbanels are descended. A daughter of Ephraim Abarbanel, Bathseba, married a Lindo, and thus became an ancestress of the Disraelis. Another brother-in-law of Menasseh ben Israel was Joseph Abarbanel, a physician practising at Amsterdam, and the father of Jonas Abarbanel (Kayserling, Sephardim, p. 206). Another Ephraim Abarbanel was a Hazan at Amsterdam, who was succeeded at his death by Emanuel Abenatar Melo {Ibid. p. 175). Joseph Abravanel da Veiga [9]:? He bears the escutcheon of the Da Veiga family (Antonio de Villas-Boas, Nobilarchia Portuguesa, p. 338). Samuel da Veiga and Aharon da Veiga were among the founders of the Bevis Marks congregation (Gaster, pp. 11 and 17). Comp. Binjamin V?a de Veiga {Ibid. p. 94). Ribca de Almeyda [55] ; Esther de Almeyda E. Sossa [57]; Abigail Lopez de Almeyda [80]:? D3Almeida, a well-known Portuguese name. Comp. Abraham Nunes 140</page><page sequence="30">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 141 da Almeida (Gaster, p. 49), Abraham de Almeida (Ibid. pp. 76, 78, 90, 92), Mordecai Nun es Almeyda (Hyamson, History, p. 283), Manuela Nunez D'Almeyda, poetess, 1720 (Kayserling, Die j?dischen Frauen, p. 174), Joseph D'Almeida, stockbroker, 1716-1788 (Bibliotheca Anglo-Judaica, p. 124). Abraham Isr. Baraza [39]; Heina Baraza [40] :? Are Baraza and Barrassa (Menasseh ben Israel dedicated one of his works to Diego Barrassa, of Amsterdam) different forms of the same family name ? Sara Fa. de Ab. Levi Bondia [15]; Rachel Viuva de Rephael Levi Bondia [33] : The name of Levy Bondia occurs also on the tombstones at Amsterdam (De Castro, p. 24). In a few instances (Ibid. pp. 26, 28) the name is spelt uBomdia." Comp, the English name Eliau Abenacar Bomdia (Gaster, pp. 74, 77). The word Bondia signifies "good day." Cp. the Hebrew name Yomtob. Rybca Fylha de Bynjamin Dionis de Caceres [82] :? De Caceres (Caseres), one of the most prominent names in the history of the early Anglo-Jewish community. The name has survived to modern times, Jacob de Casseres being included in Dr. Gaster's list of Yehidim of Bevis Marks in 1901. Esther del Cano [48]; Sara del Carlo [81]; Jehosua Eliau del Canho [75] : Comp. Mosseh de Cano (Gaster, pp. 53, 79, 91), Joseph del Cano (Ibid. pp. 92, 93). Manuel Cardozo [70]:? Cardozo, a common Sephardk name on Dutch tombstones. There were Cardozos in the eighteenth century in London, Amsterdam, and New York. A Cardoso had founded the first Portuguese synagogue in Hamburg in 1630. Aaron Cardozo, a London merchant, went to New York in 1752 (Jewish Encyclopedia, iii. p. 575). Comp. Isaac Nunes Cardozo (Gaster, p. 61), Aaron Cardoso, diplomatist, circa 1805 (Bibliotheca Anglo-Judaica, p. 127), Jacob Aboab Cardoso and his daughter, Sarah Cardoso (Lucien Wolf, "The Disraeli Family," Trans. Jewish Hist. Soc, v. p. 214). Abraham Lopez de Castro [2] ; Abraham de Castro [76] :? De Castro, a prominent Sephardic name in Holland and England. Often spelt "De Crasto." Comp. Joseph Mendez de Castro (Gaster, pp. 29,</page><page sequence="31">142 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 92), Isliac e Selomoh de Crasto (Ibid. p. 77), David Isaac de Crasto (Ibid. p. 147), Israel David de Crasto, Day an, who died 1785 (Picciotto, p. 193). Jacob de Cordoua [84] :? De Cordova, a familiar Anglo-Je wish Sephardic name. De Fullana T. Coronel [19]; Rachel Coronel, viuva de A. G. Coronel [38]: Coronel, a prominent name in Anglo-Jewish history. The family has survived in England to modern times, Edward E. Coronel being included in Dr. Gaster's list of Yehidim of Bevis Marks for 1901. Abraham Pereyra Coutinho [83] :? This Coutinho was living in Amsterdam in 1675 (Kayserling in Jewish Encyclopedia, iv. p. 317). There wrere several other Coutinhos settled in Amsterdam in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Moses Henriques Coutinho was one of the early Jewish settlers in Jamaica in 1670-1680, having come from Barbadoes (J. Q. R. xii. p. 711). Benjamin Dias Da Costa [4]; Ester da Costa [14]; Abraham Mendez da Costa [27] :? The Da Costas were one of the most prominent Sephardic families, the members of which were to be found in Europe in the cities of Lisbon, Antwerp, Amsterdam, and London. Comp. Abraham Roiz da Costa (Gaster, p. 13). Sara da Cunha [66] :? Comp. Judica da Cunha (Gaster, p. 92). David Haim Ysrael Dias [53]; Isaque Gomes Dias [71] ; Abraham Gomes Dias [72] :? Comp. Samuel Dias (Gaster, p. 13), Abm. de Isaac Dias and Isaac Lopes Dias (Ibid. p. 146), Isaac de Jacob Dias, Jacob de Isaac Dias, Jacob Lopes Dias and David de Isaac Dias (Ibid. p. 147). The word Dias signifies " days." Sara Dorta [63] :? Comp. Ishac Suarez Dorta (Gaster, p. 13). Dorta is a contracted form of de Orta (see the name Eliahu de Orta in De Castro, p. 31). Ischac de Fonceca F? de Abraham de Fonceca [91]:? Fonceca, a common name in the Bevis Marks community. The Liver? pool Directory of 1790 gives the name of Alexander Fonseca, bead merchant,</page><page sequence="32">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 143 Tarleton Street. Manuel de Fonseca, Carvajal's servant, was one of the earliest settlers in England (Lucien Wolf, "Orypto-Jews under the Common? wealth," Trans. Jewish Hist. Soc, i. p. 56). Abraham Fonseca is among a list of Jewish merchants in London in 1753 (Picciotto, p. 94). Rachel Haim Fullana, esposa de S. DE. Fullana T. Coronel [19] :? She was closely related (according to ISFagtglas) to Don Nicolaas de Oliver y Fullana, a colonel in the Spanish service, who took the Jewish name of Daniel Judah when he openly espoused Judaism. This inscription shows that there was an alliance between the two distinguished families of Fullana and Coronel. Esther Gastiel [10]; Jaacob Gastiel [89] :? The form "Castiel" frequently occurs on the tombstones at Amsterdam. Debora Gomes [1]; Binjamin Gomes [64]; Jacob Luiz Gomes, Filho de Ischac Ls. Gs. [90]:?. Gomes, a familiar name in the annals of Bevis Marks. Comp. Jahacob Gomes Serra, one of the founders of the Bevis Marks congregation, Phineas Gomes Serra (Gaster, pp. 30, 73), Antonio Gomes Serra (Ibid. p. 62), Franco Gomes (Lucien Wolf, " The Jewry of the Restoration," Trans. Jewish Hist. Soc,, v. p. 9), and Mosseh Gomez da Mesquita, a Haham of Bevis Marks. David Goncales [43] :? Comp. Abraham Coen Gonsales, one of the founders of the Bevis Marks congregation, Jahacob (Jaques) Gonsales (Gaster, pp. 29, 30, 76, 78, 95). Leonora, daughter of Joseph Spinosa Henriques [34] :? Henriques is a famous name in the annals of Bevis Marks. The word " Hiya " in the inscription I take to be the Spanish word " hija." Mordohay Hizkiav Karkaconi [6]:? This is a French place-name. Carcassone, the ancient Carcasso of Roman times, an old town in France. Haham Jahacob Franquo Lagarto [24] :? He is probably identical with Jacob Lagarto who was at one time the religious head of the congregation of Tamarico, in Brazil, and the author of "Ohel Ya'akob." See, however, Kayserling, Bib.-Esp.-Port.-Jud. (p. 55), which gives the date of his rabbinate as 1680.</page><page sequence="33">144 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. Ribca Lomo de Lima [58]:? De Lima is a common place-name. Elias de Lima was one of the signa? tories to the famous petition of the Jews to Charles IL, and a founder of the Bevis Marks congregation (Gaster, pp. 4, 11). Ribka Lourenco [30] ; Samuel Loreuco [31] :? Comp. Benjamin Dias Lorenco (Gaster, pp. 29, 154 ; Picciotto, p. 193). David Alvares de Luna [73] ; Sara Alvares de Luna [74] :? The surname "de Luna" occurs in the burial register of the Bevis Marks community. But it is just possible that through a stonemason's mistake " Luna" may have been substituted for " Lima." See tombstone No. 58. Jahacob Nunes Miranda [79]:? This Portuguese place-name (erroneously spelt on the stone Mi&amp;anda) occurs sixteen years earlier in Gaster, p. 29. Comp, the alias, Manuel Nunes Miranda (Gaster, pp. 62, 92), Abraham de Miranda (Ibid. p. 90), and David de Miranda (Ibid. pp. 92, 93). The name, in the form of Mirando, has survived to modern times, Hyman Mirando being a contributor to the Bevis Marks Bicentenary Fund in 1901. Miranda also is a current Sephardic name. Ester Net a, mulher de Mose Netto [28] :? A later Moses Netto was the author of an English translation of the Prayer Book which was banned by the Bevis Marks authorities (Picciotto, p. 151). Rachel Nunez, mulher de Abraham Nunez [45] :? Nunes is one of the most familiar names in the annals of Bevis Marks. Comp. Benjamin Nunes, one of the founders of the Bevis Marks congrega? tion, Ishac Israel Nunes (Gaster, p. 13), Moseh Israel Nunes (Ibid. pp. 29, 93), Abraham Fez. Nunes (Ibid. p. 30), Ishac Fernandes Nunes (Ibid. p. 73), Benjamin Nunes (Ibid. p. 76), Selomoh Fern. Nunes (Ibid. p. 147), Semaniah Nunes, Sara Fer? Nunes, and Rachel Ferd. Nunes (Ibid. p. 148), Manuel Rodrigues Nunes (Lucien Wolf, "The Jewry of the Restoration," Trans. Jeivish Hist. Soc, v. p. 9). In the Liverpool Directory for 1790 occur the names of J. Nunes, 2 Suffolk Street, Duke Street, and Mrs. Anna Nunes, 10 Benn's Gardens.</page><page sequence="34">A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. 145 Ribka de Oliveira [29] :? Oliveira, a common Sephardic name. Comp. Abraham de o^Livera (Gaster, p. 13), Joseph and Michael d'Oliveira (Lucien Wolf, "The Jewry of the Restoration," Trans. Jewish Hist Sue, v. p. 9). Abigiail Pereira, viuva de David Lopes Pereira [7] :? Pereira, a very frequent Sephardic name. Comp. Ishac Lopez Pereira (Gaster, pp. 29, 53, 73), Aaron Israel Pereira (Ibid. p. 73), Joseph Pereyra (Ibid. pp. 74, 96), Daniel Lopes Pereira (pp. 94, 156), Benj. Lopes Pereira (Ibid. p. 147), Ephrm. Lopes Pereira (Ibid. p. 148), Benjn. Ms. Pereira, Elias Lopes Pereira, Sam1. Mendes Pereira and Am. Mendes Pereira (Ibid. p. 156), E. Mendes Pereira (Ibid, p. 157). It is possible that the name on the tomb? stone should be read " Daniel Lopes Pereira." Rachel Lea Barua Peres [5] :? Can this Peres have been related in any way to Senhor Abraham van Peres, founder of the colony of Berbice, wbo was living in Middelburg in 1625 (De Villiers, p. 24), and who had two sons, Abraham and Daniel ? Raquel Pimentel [12] ;? Comp. Jacob Pimentel (Gaster, pp. 74, 93, 95), Abraham and David Henriques Pimentel (Ibid. p. 118), David Abenatar Pimentel (Ibid. p. 156), Jacob Abenatar Pimentel, who interested himself at the end of the eighteenth century in the poor of Bevis Marks (Picciotto, p. 258), Sara de Fonseca Pina Y Pimentel, poetess, 1720 (Kayserling, Die j?dischen Frauen, p. 174). Selomoh Gisquiau Royz [23] :? Royz (Rois), an abbreviated form of the name Rodriguez, occurs fre? quently in the annals of Bevis Marks. Rachel de Salazar [92] :? Comp. Abraham Ishac Fernandes Salazar (Gaster, pp. 76, 78, 92, 95). Abraham Gomez da Silva [85] :? Da Silva, a prominent name in the annals of Bevis Marks. Comp. Joseph Dasilua (Gaster, p. 13), Moses da Silva (Ibid. pp. 88, 91), Jahacob Rodrigues Silva (Ibid, p. 91), Abm. Vaz da Silva (Ibid. p. 146), Joseph and Reph1. Vaz da Silva (Ibid, p. 148), the brothers Daarte and Francisco da Silva (Lucien Wolf, "The Jewry of the Restoration," Trans. Jewish Hist. Soc, v. p. 18). VOL. VII. K</page><page sequence="35">146 A DUTCH BURIAL-GROUND AND ITS ENGLISH CONNECTIONS. Esther de Almeyda E. Sossa [57]; Binyamin Gomez DE. Sossa [64] :? For the name "Sossa" see De Castro, pp. 83, 84, and Kayserling, Bib.-Esp.-Port.-Jud. Isaac Gomes de Suza [35, 36] :? The Portuguese ambassador, Antonio de Souza, was one of the earliest Marrano settlers in London (Lucien Wolf, "Resettlement of the Jews in England"). So also was Simon de Souza, Carvajal's brother-in-law (Lucien Wolf, " Crypto-Jews under the Commonwealth," Trans. Jewish Hist. Soc, i. p. 63 ; " The Jewry of the Restoration," Ibid. v. p. 9). Abraham Ha. Dias Vaz [56] :? Comp. Ishac Vaz nunes (Gaster, p. 17), Isaac Hamiz Vaz (Ibid. p. 146). The name "Vaz" survives to-day in the West Indies. Further references may be made to an unpublished Appendix to Dr. Gaster's memorial volume on Bevis Marks, containing particulars of the congregational Ketuboth. The surnames on the tombstones constantly recur in these documents. With the name "Ferro" [67] comp. "Farro" (Ketu? both, 5457, 5458), " Faro " (K., 5464, 5487), and " Ffaro " (K., 5462). With "Luzena" [69] comp. "Lusena" (K., 5481). With "Morales" [59] comp. "Morales Henriques" [K., 5455]. With "Soliz" [86] comp. "Solas" (K., 5482, 5486]. There is also much valuable material for a study of the subject in a MS. copy of the Bevis Marks Burial Register, compiled by Mr. Lucien Wolf.</page></plain_text>