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A Contribution to the History of the Readmission of the Jews

Rev. Hermann Gollancz

<plain_text><page sequence="1">A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE READMISSION OF THE JEWS. By the Rev. Peof. HERMANN GOLLANCZ, D.Lit. Paper read before the Jewish Historical Society of England, February 18, 1907. Me. Lucien Wolf, in the Introduction to his splendid volume on " Menasseh ben Israel's Mission to Cromwell" (published by the Jewish Historical Society of England), remarks (p. xl.) as follows :? " Until the publication of the ' Humble Addresses, there are but scanty clues in the printed literature of the time to the frame of mind in which Menasseh's mission found the English public." This is undoubtedly true in the main; but there is, at all events, one little volume of some 300 pages, which I had the good fortune to purchase some months ago, which is most interesting, not only on its own account, but also from its connection with the important events of the December of 1655. I have searched diligently throughout Mr. Wolf's historic volume, full as it is of references and footnotes, but have failed to discover the slightest mention of this work. I say this in no critical spirit, but rather in a grateful one that Mr. Wolf has kindly left me some crumbs of information that I am able to offer my hearers on the period which he has made his own. I have read through Mr. Max Kohler's " Menasseh ben Israel and some Unpublished Pages of American History," thinking to find some allusion to this book, but in vain. This little work was printed for the author in 1655, and bears the curious title, "Charls Stuart and Oliver Cromwel United, or Glad Tidings of Peace to all Christendom; To the Jews and Heathen Conversion; To the Church of Rome certain downfall; The Irish not to be transplanted. Extraordinarily declared by God Almighty to the 189</page><page sequence="2">190 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF Publisher, Walter Gostellow." The motto is taken from Psalm lxxxv., verses 10 and 13 : " Mercy and truth are met together, righteousness and peace have kissed each other, and shall set us in the way of His steps." This publication is, I think, but another indication of " the frame of mind " in which those among the English public favourable to the readmission of the Jews under the Protectorate of Cromwell viewed the whole matter. It is brimful of the con versionist longing; and when we say this, we scarcely mean to imply that this frame of mind on the part of many was hypocritical, or anything but sincere. References to the Jews throughout the book are most sympathetic (biblical similes abound), while no expression is too base for the Church of Rome ; and as regards the Irish, it would do the hearts of the Nationalists good to read the kindly manner in which they are occasionally spoken of; whilst Americans might be justly proud when they hear their country referred to, in the middle of the seventeenth century, as " happy America," " blest America," and when they listen to the author's rebuke, " What! Compassion left the Christian world and fled into America 1" The address to the reader concludes thus :? " I may not detain you longer, nay I dare not, from God's word of Prophesie in this Book, agreeable to his own, in nothing contrary ; Proclaim it I must to all concerned and so I do; though the unworthiest of my Lord's servants, a faithfull Communicator of his mercifull loving kindness I am commanded to be unto all the Sons and Subjects of the Protestant Church and God's Viceroy on Earth, Charls Stuart. To the Church of Rome and the Rebellious faithfull will I also shew myself, that Church shall fall, and no Rebellion ever prosper, God hath said it, and if it come not to pass, put me to Death : I may not for fear or favour be un faithfull to my trust; that is a sacriledge of the highest nature, and therefore in spite of the Devil or danger, I tell you wickedness shall not longer prosper on earth. Did not the ground open and swallow quick those first rebels and Schismaticks, Corah, Dathan and Abyram : and did not Absolom's Mule in the midst, whilst he was acting of his Rebellion, go from under him, leaving him hanging by the head. Such shall no more prosper than their Church of Rome, which shall fall, good men shall be Honourable and rule but for the ungodly, whilest I pray for their conversion, I fear their confusion."</page><page sequence="3">THE READMISSION OF THE JEWS. 191 The first 184 pages of this publication consist of six sections, signed by the author, and addressed, " From my house, the 10 of November 1654." Then follows "A Postscript, clearing the author from guilt of pride or falsehood." This runs to page 231. The whole of the next page (232) is taken up with the following bold-typed proclamation of prophecy:? PROCLAIM I MUST, and DO, THE CROWN IS GIVEN OF GOD to CHAR LS STUART CHARLS the SECOND, KING of ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND, DEFENDER of the FAITH, KING OF THE WHOLE WORLD. TO this CHARLS THE GOOD, and CHARLS THE GREAT, is OLIVER CROMWELL by GOD also HONOURED to be GENERAL of all his FORCES, LONG LIVE my KING, and his LIEUT. O. C. Amen, Amen, YEA, let all the People say, AMEN.</page><page sequence="4">192 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF Pages 270 - 277 contain " My second letter to our Sovereign, C. Rex," dated April 21, 1654. " My second letter to the Protector, O.C.," occupies pp. 278-281, written "at my house in Broad Str, May 25, 1654." The reference on p. 282 to Elenor Channel's " prophesie very highly considerable, falling out in a time much about mine, the matter one with mine," leads the author to print on p. 286 &lt;c The Prophesie and Message of Elnor Channel, sent to the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell, April 19, 1654." His " Admonition to covetous and therefore miserable men" concludes (p. 292) with a personal confession, and a reference most interesting to us Jews, and particularly to the members of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Addressing " Covetous and therefore miserable men," he says : "I beg of God for your amendments, although you have necessitated me to beg of the World money to print this Book, which I will repay God willing. Yet I believe some that commanded me, rather thought it given than lent, so visibly poor hath violent men and these ill times made me. I have lost by hundreds and thousands, despoiled of all, but that makes a continual feast: it is not for faithfull servants and good subjects to lie down in Beds of Roses, when their Saviour stands crowned with thorns, and their King falls shorter by the Head; we must suffer with them before we can raign with them; happiness is for him that overcometh, and the Crown of Glorie is given to such as fear God and honour the King. Of which blest number, though I cannot presume you are, yet I hope this Rabby and good Jews, I next direct too, will shortly be." Following upon these words, from p. 293 to p. 303, is a letter the existence of which, I venture to think, is unknown even to students of Anglo-Jewish history, which, as far as I know, has not been reprinted, and which you may be as surprised to hear, as I was to observe, is addressed by the author of the book to no less a personage than Menasseh (spelt " Mannasseth ") Ben-Israel. The references therein to Antony Montezinus and the Jews in America, as also to Mr. Moses Wall (translator of the " Hope of Israel"), are points of additional interest. In the body of the work (p. 269)</page><page sequence="5">THE READMISSION OF THE JEWS. 193 allusion is already made to " Manasseth Ben-Israel" and his book entitled " The Hope of Israel." This highly-important letter reads as follows : ? "For Mannassetfi Ben Israel, at Amsterdam : " Most Learned Rabby, " Sir, your Book intituled the Hope of Israel, Dedicated to the Supream Court of England, a Parliament, came not to my hand nntill this was near ready for the Press. " Certainly Sir, you have been of God's goodness guided aright to make your addresses to this Church and Nation, you observe well, we have con? tinued to pray for your conversion, duty binds us to it, to treat your persons otherwayes than well, we should not ; to assist what possible we can, a people so anciently the beloved Sons of God, and most honourable offspring of Faith full and blessed Abraham is, and ought to be all our devoirs. Sir, I read your so excellent and profitable resolution to carry on the Famous and Learned History of Josephus. And also further observe your desire, that if anything offer to men in the Christian world fit for your purpose, your request is they would be pleased to acquaint you with it. " Sir, In this Book you will finde things very highly considerable, God having been pleased to communicate it to the World in his own way by Prophesie, your Brethren expect a deliverance and restauration, not far off, because all the Prophesies amongst your own are fulfilled. " Sir, It is my firm belief, that in our Kings Raign, Charts Stuart, Charls the Second, and under his government you will have deliverance, Peace, and Protection, the ground for my so believing, this book will inform you, I have therefore given you it, with all its circumstances at full, that thereby you may have the clearer satisfaction, that it is not delusion. About the 18th year of my age I was in several of your Synagogues, my eldest Brother a Studient and fellow of Corpus Christi Colledge in Oxford, there with me, to observe, &amp; accomplish himself lor the good of others. He, Sir, having conversed with divers of your Rabbles, did after tell me what they so believed, as not to be moved from. "That for a people so beloved of God, and to whom the promises of the Almighty wrere so peculiarly good, so many, so frequently afforded and made known, as to the Jews they were, your Robbies could not be persuaded, that Shilo, or the Messiah could be come into the World, and they not know of it, to whom say they, he was promised as a King to deliver, restore, and govern them in this World; take heed, Sir, the love of this World, deceives a world, thus to bound the Almighty, and herein to place your happiness, demon? strates your misapprehend of him, &amp; what was Prophesied by your own of VOL. VI. " N</page><page sequence="6">194 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF him. David tells you, as well as others, his Kingdom was not of this World, he came to his own, which were your selves, but ye refused him, he after turned to us the Gentiles, who indeed enjoy him, that you yet hope for. I wonder, Sir, you see not this clearly fulfilled and proved to you in your own Prophets, as also in that so excellent piece of History, you are carrying on, Josephus, was not Jerusalem destroyed and made a heap of stones? all which our Saviour long foretold it should be so, and that Generation should not pass untill all were fulfilled, as in the 22 of Luke, and the 32 verse, referring to the destruction of Jerusalem, that it was fulfilled, Josephus his story confirmeth, and the continuance of that verdict is yet evident. " The other Prophesie, which evidently argues Christs Divinity, by its success also, is what yourself, and your own Robbies cannot but see and hear fulfilled, concerning the Woman that spent the Oyntment on our Saviour, for which he told that it should never be forgotten, but with the Gospel be Preached to all ages, as in Matthen) the 26. and the 13. yourself, Sir, living in the Christian World cannot but see, read, and hear this fulfilled, the Fathers of our Church &amp; Protestant Beligion have published to the World the fulfill of your allowed Prophesies, and shewed it you clear as the Sun. Sir, have you ever lain so long under Gods displeasure, as since you have shut your eyes against so great and clear a truth 1 "That God will in mercy gather you from the corners, &amp; parts of the World is my belief, as well as yours, that many of you are in America I may not doubt, neither do I allow for other than true the relation given to your? self and others at Amsterdam, in the year 1644, by Antony Montezinus. " I now only advise, and especially commend to your reading the New Testament, you have it with you in languages : very many of you sufficiently understand, God hath put us of this Church and Nation to give it you in more languages, hasting to you, Sir, that will acquaint you with truer and better things to Salvation, than the story of the Sabattical River, whose great stones you say rest upon your Sabboth onely, but all other dayes continue to be carried about in motion. Sir, to the frequent reading of that New Testament, the best Book in the whole World, be pleased to joyn your often prayers, beseeching the Almighties guidance in all things for the better understanding of it, thus continuing in well doing, reading, and praying, you are sure to be taught of God, and know you will, that what the prophet Isaiah Prophesieth in his 28 Chapter, and 16 vers. Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation, a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation : he that believeth shall not make haste. Now, Sir, would you, and all yours, as new-born Babes, desire the sincere Milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby, you would suddenly know, that this corner stone, and sure foundation, is Christ our Lord already come, To whom coming as unto a living stone disallowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and 'precious, would you I say, but come thus fitly prepared, ye also as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house ; an holy Priest</page><page sequence="7">THE READMISSION OF THE JEWS. 195 hood, to offer up spiritual sacrifice acceptable to God by Jesus Christ, and he that thus believeth on him, shall not be confounded ; this stone which the builders dis? allowed (you, Jews) the same stone is made the head of the corner. Converted to him you shall be, therefore look about you, your time is at hand, ye are a chosen generation, a royal Priest-hood, an holy Nation, a peculiar people, that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvelous light; So that with the fulness of Gentiles now coming in, you make perfect that building which himself the living corner stone holds together. u This observe you have in the 1 of Peter, the 2 Chapter, from the 4 to the 10 verse, in that Testament is the fulfill of all your Prophesies of him that was to come, Shilo already come, look, I say, on that his word, and know him, look not for Him as a Temporal King. Next, Sir, fur your further good, make your applications to Churls Stuart, Charts the Second, Gods Vice-roy on Earth, who sitting in Parliament makes then the Supream Court of England, before not: so rightly called, this Charts is your and our King, blest and happy for ever, by God and him you may not doubt to be freed ere long from the many unsupportable pressures &amp; sufferings (your Antony Montezinus truly tells you, and us) are imposed upon you in America, and yet endured by your brethren the Jews, from the cruel hands, swords, and tongues of those proud, idolatrous, high minded, and puft up Nation the Spaniards, constraining the Roman Religion, which Church of Rome shall fall, God hath said it, and that Nation shall not long Tyrannize over you nor those poor Indians there : if this come not to pass, put me to death your deliverance is not far off. " Sir, we have an Earthly King for your comfort, that will shewr you in his professed Protestant Religion the wayes of truth, which you and all are commanded to walk in, that you may at the last, to your comfort also, know and see him the King of glory, Jesus Christ our Lord, that is above in heaven, which heavens must contain him untill his second coming, whose appearance, or making of himself known to you, for your conversion, I hope, (nay, I believe) is at hand : I beseech God open your eyes, that you may see him, though you have stopt your ears, as being not willing to hear bis Gospel, charm he never so sweetly : Sir, you are sure of my readiness to serve you in all I can, to God first praying for you, next in my true endeavours for you and your Nation, to this my King Charls Stuart, Gods Vice-Roy on Earth, that whilest you live in this World, you may be favoured, and defended of his goodness and power, by his so victorious, happy, and prosperous Lieutenant General of all his Forces Oliver Cromwel. Lastly, Sir, when your bodies shall go the way of all flesh, my prayers have been, are, and shall be, that your Souls may go the way of all Saints, and so all of you sit down and keep a perpetual Sabbath of rest with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the Kingdom of Heaven; to which Kingdom, God of his infinite mercie bring all of you and us.</page><page sequence="8">196 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF " Sir, I doubt not to prevail with that worthy Gentleman which translated your book, Mr. Moses Wall, to translate this my Letter into a language fitter for your observe, your accomplishments speak you skilled in Arts and Tongues, my self bread to Trade and Negotiation, Sir, I beseech Almighty God to improve all your studies to his glory, and your brethrens good. Such is the most affectionate and harty prayers of your undoubted friends, and servants of this Nation, as also more particularly "Sir, Tours for ever to command "W. GOSTELLO." Who was this Walter Gostellow 1 As I have not been able to hit upon any biographical notice of this worthy,1 I must construct one by piecing together such details of his life and self-imposed mission as occur in this little volume. He tells us that " having past from Bristol, the seas and much foul weather in December 1652, he arrived at Cork, where he heard the sentence of Death pronounced upon 30 or more of the Irish gentry &amp; others for several barbarous murders by them committed." . . . From thence his business commanded him to Youghill, in March following ... he removed from thence to Lismore, 11 miles off, " cituate upon the Black water," seat of the deceased Earl of Cork, to whom he pays a high tribute. " Into the remains of this Church of Lismore, Thursday the 3 of March 1652 I came, and did there kneel down and supplicate God Almighty not to suffer us any longer, who pretend to the most and best of piety, to carry on a war, and continue such actions as should prove so scandalous to the Protestant Religion. . . . Sometime of that Thursday afternoon I spent in that Remain of Church (p. 9); so praying, meditat 1 Some information as to other members of the family may be gleaned from J. Foster's Alumni Oxoniensis (vol. ii., Oxford, 1892, p. 589), and A. Clark's Register of the University of Oxford (see Index, vol. ii., part 4, Oxford, 1889, p. 199). The name is spelt in various ways, among them being Gorstelow and Gostelowe. There were a Richard, Thomas, and William Gostellow connected with Corpus Christi College (the college named by our Walter as that of his brother) between 1616 and 1631. The actual one whom our author describes as his elder brother must be Thomas Gorstelow, who, after being a college chorister in 1612, became a probationary Fellow of Corpus in 1620. He was born in Prescott, in the parish of Cropedy, Oxfordshire. (See Fowler, History of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1893, p. 394). Walter Gorstelow himself does not appear to have been a member of the University.</page><page sequence="9">THE READMISSION OF THE JEWS. 197 ing and reading : and could not do otherwise. Indeed, the more I prayed, the more I wept; the more I wept, the more I joyed; and from my devotions, I remember not that I ever went away with a better return : being very highly comforted, and so assur'd that God would hear and have mercie; and from thenceforth, and in that place, bless me ; giving me for consolation, that a well-guided zeal for his house, Worship and Service made great our own, and established it also. That night I went home to a little house, I then and there lodged at, and had this dream." He then narrates the dream he had, in the course of which he him? self prayed : uO Lord ! the people are now risen up, and stand in readiness to do Thy will, wouldst Thou be pleased to let them know it! I beseech thee, O Lord, give them a sign in heaven, or from heaven, of Thy good pleasure; and we will readily obey Thee." " The next day being Friday" (he continues), "a day in the week which for several years past, I have set apart (though not always spent, God be pleased to have mercie upon me and forgive me) as I ought, or should, for fasting and examination of myself: That, as I am one Fryday nearer my end, so I may in one measure or another grow fitter for it: in regard to the many mercies God Almighty hath been pleased to afford me from my Cradle hitherto : As that he hath been pleased to preserve me from the noisom pestilence, from the violence of the Wrar (where be pleased to observe, I have been committed and taken into custody three times on the Kings side, and five times on the Parliaments; yet never was in action or imploy on either part); from so many great and eminent dangers, both by sea and land; from men lying in wait particularly for my blood : and lastly, that the Lord hath not cut me off in the midst of my sins, and already given me my portion with that so sad company in Hell, from whence is no returning." This Friday he repaired to the Church of Lismore . . . Saturday he could not but return thither again . . . makes up his mind to approach the Earl of Cork and his so well-accomplished Countess . . . and presses them to rebuild that Church of Lismore. The Earl grants his request. He finishes by saying, " Thus ends all then done most happily, in nothing disappointed, which God put upon me. This happy day was Fryday, March the 11, 1652." He informs us that a short time after he fell into several sicknesses</page><page sequence="10">198 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF and diseases of that country, so that most of the following summer he passed from one malady to another. At last his condition in that and other things was very like that of Job's. . . . About Michaelmas he went to Dublin, in the company and safe conduct of that Most Honour? able Lord, the Lord of Broghill; where he stayed until near Christmas, then returned to Youghall. In setting down the dream he had at Lismore and his own inter? pretation, he remarks (p. 32): " Who can resist, when God will have it so ? He hath in store, nay, he is now distributing to you the greatest mercy in the world: which I dare not longer conceal from all the Sons of Men; but more especially from the so much belov'd of the Lord, the Seed of Abraham, the Jews. Here's the hope of Israel! as also to the Heathen, towards whom his compassions fail not, and to this our Orthodox, true Protestant Religion, for the honour of it, to the un paralel'd joy of all good mens hearts." He is continually praying, reading passages from the Bible (specially Psalms and Haggai) and dreaming. "Another time" (he observes) "one night, about the hour ten, walking at the end of Broad Str. (in which I then and now live), looking up into the heavens, and observing so great a number of stars, I called to mind the promise, made to Abraham, that his seed should be so numberless as the stars in Heaven." And he continues to relate his day-dream, and among other things declares that "who that man was to whom the Crown belonged, his Star demonstrated which appeared at Pauls Cross " (a rather interesting reference at the present time), " when there was a Sermon preached there upon the day he was born, Charles Stuart. " Thus ended all I then observed, and to my lodging I retired to the widow Marricks house in Youghall. "Some four days after, one Sunday morning (as I best remember) having lain most of that night in meditation and prayer, about day I did see, sitting at my beds foot, behinde the curtain, a Man sent of God : whilest he continued there sitting, there fell a shower of Fire, thick and in drops, like Rain, all about my beds foot. Full in my eye was the Spirit there sitting, and the fire falling down. . . . Anon the Spirit called me by my name, Walter Gostellow: I endeavoured to reply, did open my mouth, tried twice, but my tongue doubled in my mouth, and I could</page><page sequence="11">THE READMISSION OF THE JEWS. 199 not bring forth my words or speak: He called me the second time by my name, Walter Gostellow : I endeavoured the second reply, but my tongue doubled as formerly, and I could not speak. He called me the third time by my name, Walter Gostellow, to which I then answered, Here I am : he asked and said unto me, Did you see the fire come down from Heaven as a shoure of Rain ? I replied, Yes, I did : he then shook by the curtain, looked me full in the face, so I him : He wept and said unto me, you do well interpret Scripture ; clearly referring, as I believe, to this, That the choice of Kings, this of ours especially is only in God, and not at all in the people. ... By this time it pleased Almighty God to let me know, he had deputed me to go to Oliver Cromwell, and after to his Majesty that now is, Charles Stuart, Charles the Second. The imploy he would inform me of; and for the Commission itself, I must believe that, from strength to strength, He would inable me, until I came to perfect peace in Zion. And although the things to be done were great, mighty, strange and wonderful; yet for his Honour, Mercy and Names sake, he would bring them to pass, and they should be marvellous in our eyes. Thus began, and thus ended my commission of the Lord." I need scarcely remind my hearers how closely his call is modelled upon the Bible narrative of the call of the prophet Samuel. " I then bethought me of what I would say to Oliver Cronnvell, and thus resolved, that from God I would reprove him, set his sins in order before his face, and tell him he was that great deceiver, the scandal of the Protestant Religion, the dishonour of our Nation, a whited wall he was, a great and close Hypocrite, a Man of blood, and Son of Belial, and more than all this (for I never loved him), all this I resolved to say to him : but the Lord reproved me, and gave me to remember, that myself prayed in my dream, that God would be pleased to let the men of the world, who were desirous to do his Will, know it from Heaven, or in Heaven, by a sign, which I have given thee, and they would readily obey, applying themselves to walk in conformity thereunto. ''Having thus altered me, and (as before) again reproved me, letting me know, God judged not as man did; He commanded me to treat and use him kindly, the dispose of the heart being in the hand of God. So that now from former hating of him (for so I did; no man more), I now cannot do other than pray for him, (for so I should, and for all others) that God would be pleased to inable him, for the over</page><page sequence="12">200 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF coming of all his enemies, more especially his corruptions. And firmly believe I do, that the Lord will make him highly instrumental for the promote and carrying on of things of very high concernment, for his glory, to his own honour, and the astonishment of the world. For I know what apprehensions the most have of him, both at home and abroad : but God judgeth not as man doth." He was now detained in prison for some months, and laments that " May is gone " without his having been able to communicate what he had to say to the General of all the English Forces, Oliver Cromwell. " Even so," he adds, " did the Jews thus evilly persecute, despise, traduce, imprison, and not hearken unto the Prophets sent to them, although men of their own Religion." He here refers to " a book lately published by Arise Evans (a man you are unworthy of) whom you have persecuted too, as you have all God's Ministers, almost all, either by imprisonment, sequestration, or death, or otherwise of undoing them." He concludes Section iii. with the information, that " this Fry day, the 5 of August, is come to my observe this of Jeremiah, the 23 Chap, and the 28 verse : The Prophet that hath a Dream, let him tell a dream; and he that hath my word, let him speak my word faithfully ; what is the chaff to the wheat ? saith the Lord." He thereupon relates the vision, or rather series of visions, which he had on the 3rd or 4th of January 1653, in which he was made to pronounce these words, the words of the Lord of Hosts, God Almighty (p. 70): " There is an end of all the Wars in the Christian World. The Jews shall come in, also the Heathen, and shall be converted to the true Religion. The Church of Rome shall fall. The Irish shall not be transplanted/' After a little interval he spake these words :? " Proclaim Charls Stuart, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith. Charles 2nd King of the whole world. This Charls Stuart shall never die; the Lady Elizabeth Boyle shall never die; the Queen his Mother (wife to the late King) already blessed, shall never die; the now Queen of France shall never die; the King of France shall never die; his brother, the Queen's other son, shall never die; but shall all be taken up into the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, that never shall have end."</page><page sequence="13">THE READMISSION OF THE JEWS. 201 He repeats a formula in the same terms with reference to Oliver Cromwell and the Earl and Countess of Cork ; and thus having pro? nounced a benediction (-pn^ *E&gt;) upon all the grandees of the community, like the only officiant in charge, he finishes up by invoking a blessing upon his own head and upon his family in the following terms :? " Thou, Walter Gostellow shalt never die; thy three sons shall never die; thy w7ife Anne, and daughter Anne Gostellow shall never die," &amp;c. The author refers to his kinsman (cousin) Leonard Gostellow, Secretary to the Earl of Cork, who once brought him the message that the Earl and Countess and several more believed him to be mad to trouble himself and others in the manner he did; but he himself regarded such things as "clear artifices" to prevent him proclaiming in the Church what he had penned on paper. It is quite pitiful to hear him relate how Dr. Mollines, who was to have preached a special sermon on the subject so dear to his heart, was unable to do so owing to a sore throat; how some other preacher took his place ; and how, when the sermon was ended, and he asked the people to stay to listen to him, one by one dropped off until "his Con? gregation grew very thin in the end." In this connection he refers to one who married him, Mr. Shuit, officiating in Lombard Street; to a fellow-prisoner at Youghall, David Eooche, eldest son of Viscount Lord Rooche, a great admirer of the Church of Rome. He also has a dig at one Mr. Wood, preacher at Youghall, making a suggestive play upon his name :? - " His name implies he may be timber, though some suspect he is not yet fitted for the building up of the House of God." From incidental references in the course of the work, we learn that his eldest son was named Richard (p. 195), that his father, also Richard, " lived and died w here he was born, in Prescot House " in the parish of "Croppedy in Oxfordshire, some three miles from Bambury" (pp. 204, 205) ; and that his " elder brother bearing the same name, was then living in the same house." Wre have already heard that his wife and daughter were both named Anne. After narrating his own sad condition, the neglect and insults of which he was the victim, he refers to events on September 7, 1654, and prays (pp. 131, 132) :?</page><page sequence="14">202 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF " O Lord, thou has wakened me, and I will do my dut}', this shall now come in that formerly was not, and my Book shall out in print to the world concerned, if I go naked ; for thou knowest (O Lord) it had been out before now, if I had had either money to have done it, credit or goods, to have borrowed money on. At home I continue discontented, enjoy nothing, because it is not published ; fear I do, that it's not coming out time enough, the major part in Parliament will be wanting to their duty, they not yet understanding what God will have done ; were my Book but once read by those Members, for whom, with Oliver Cromwell, I first intended it, I then should fear no Votes in Parliament, contrary to God's glory and the Kings just interest with a Parliament; for divide them I cannot! " What doth the Lord now do," he continues, " myself being at a loss? Upon the 12 of September, to my unparalel comfort, Oliver Cromwell doth this work of the Lords; it is possible, too, when he intends onely to establish himself." All excitement, he writes a letter (pp. 138, 139) to Oliver Cromwell on the very next morning, advising him to part with nothing out of his own power, that might damage the Church of God or regal rule. At the same time, he informs him that he had a book ready for publication twenty days or more before the opening of Parliament?" the highest imaginable for his advantage, and effecting what God will have done "?but that all his friends had abandoned him and he could get no money to print it. A few pages further on he informs us that he resided for twenty years in Broad Street, near the church over against Gresham College, at which church the eminent Dr. Oldsworth once officiated; but, in order the better to pursue his purpose, he took lodgings near St. James's, taking every opportunity to speak to the General, but without success. At last he had a brief interview with him at Whitehall, but a fuller opportunity one Saturday in June at Hampton Court, in the presence of Sir Gilbert Pickering and others. Was it to this interview in June that reference is made in a letter not contained in the little volume before us, but in a rare sheet preserved in the British Museum in a unique collection bound together under the title of " Single Sheets," once the property of King George III. 1 The letter is so remarkable, particularly for its postscript, that I think it worth while to add it here.</page><page sequence="15">THE READMISSION OF THE JEWS. 203 " For the Lord Protector: " Sir}?I stand amazed to see, that from June last, the time I communi? cated unto you the matter of this Book, and that ever since 1 have not onely intended, but endeavoured to the utmost of my power the Printing of it, for the well disposing and conforming the Parliament, to put in practice what therein is contained : God hath so over-ruled and prevented me, that untill the very day you dissolved that Parliament, I could never perfect the Book ; that very day I did, and the next God gave me the happy opportunity of presenting it, with a Letter into your own hand, as you came from your Council: I pray God direct you and them in all their consultations for the best, I see that God's own time is the fittest, and that He onely makes choice of Instruments for the bringing about his purposes, whether to works, or happiness : Evident it is, your Council may share that with you now, which the Parliament were not fit for then: You Persons of Worth and Honour, now being of Council with the Protector, You and He also must do, as this Book directs ; God sends and affords to you what he denied, to the dissolved Parliament. " Worthy Protector and Council, read, know, and see clearly ; the Honour ablest, wisest, best and most consider ablest people of this Kingdom desire Kingly government, the Person, none but him, whose unquestionable Bight the Croivn is, Charls Stuart. " That you Sir, should bring him in, is the furthest imaginable from most mens belief, yet that is your duty, this Book will teil you, and how beloved you are of God, it will tell the people whom [sic] untill now never understood you so. " God and this Book will keep up your Honour until your King comes, and then you and yours having done most Excellent things, God and your King will give you, and them as much Honour as is requisite. " I know Gods blessing goes with the Booh, and that his Prophesie, fulfilled it must be to your perpetual Honour, security, and happiness, but the Worlds Amazement. " Sir, be pleased forthwith to read it, readily apply yourself to do as it directs, and never decline well doing all your dayes, you have both given you of God from the unworthiest of his, and humblest of your Servants. " Walte u Gostelo. " From my House in Broad Street, this 22 of January, 165^4." [The original 1655 is probably correct, though the British Museum copy has the last 5 altered into 4. Cf. dates in " Charls Stuart and Oliver Cromwel United," pp. 143, 146, and 184.]</page><page sequence="16">204 THE IlEADMISSION OF THE JEWS. " Sir, having presented the Booh and Letter to you, Oliver Cromwell Protector, and since given to every of your Council one of the same, I shall proceed ivith my utmost endeavour to possess all Christian Kings with the Book, the Jewish Rabbies, the See o/Rome, expose them to sail [sic] in the Cities of the three Kingdoms, present them to both Universities, all which being my duty, as the servant of God A Imighty, and yours " W. G." Our author practically ends his book with the words : " For thee, Oliver Cromwell, with Soldiers of Honour, and such as are of good counsell with thee, who advise the speedy remedying of all that is amiss, for such I continue to pray." It may be objected that persons like Walter Gostellow, Arise Evans, and Elnor Channel were dreamers. But, after all, do not many of the world's creatures dream their lives away, whilst some have day-dreams of the things which are to be1? Is not life itself a dream, and what we consider the realities of existence but a passing phase of time and eternity ? If but the dream be a pleasant one! If but the dream come true ! For, whatever opinion we might have of the personality of Walter Gostellow himself, one thing in connection with his name is of undoubted historic interest, and that is the remarkable letter (practically unknown) which he addressed to Menasseh Ben-Israel, the Dutch Jew, who thus received from England one further sign of encouragement, inducing him to undertake the gigantic task of endeavouring to obtain for his co? religionists the right of asylum which they were enjoying in little Holland, the permission to re-settle in the land from which they had been banished for 350 years, the larger country of Great Britain. In the light of events which took place only about a year later, viz. in the December of 1655, of such profound interest to us Jews of England especially, I trust that the recital of the dream of Walter Gostellow (be he dreamer or madman) has not proved unpleasant to my hearers during the hour they have spent with me this evening.</page></plain_text>