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'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Mart Myers (1794-1868) and her family

Stephen Massil

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Jewish Historical Studies, volume 42, 2009 'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i 794-1868) and her family STEPHEN MASSIL The occasion of my research into the life and connections of Maria Longueville Clarke, granddaughter of Naphtali Hart Myers, is the appear? ance of the latter's son Dr Joseph Hart Myers (1758-1823) as the dedicatee of Haim Bolaffey's 'Easy Grammar' of 1820,1 and from this the fact that Dr Myers's daughter Maria appears also as a subscriber to this work in a list (of more than two hundred names) that includes the name of her future husband Loftus Longueville Tottenham Clarke, MA, FRS, Barrister of Lincoln's Inn (1795?1863). This was published as my presidential lecture to the Jewish Historical Society of England (JHSE) in 2005.2 I have since delivered a further interim lecture to the JHSE on this subject whose content is extensive and still in progress, encompassing as it does the careers of her father-in-law, the Reverend Dr Thomas Brooke Clarke (i757?-i833) and of his son, her husband Longueville Clarke, with whom she went to Bengal after their marriage in 1822 and had seven children whose careers and connections bring the account down to 1929. To this end I have drafted a family tree, reproduced at the end of this paper, showing both the Myers family and its connections and that of the Clarkes. It is intended specifically to expand and correct details compiled initially by Malcolm Stern for the American Jewish Archives.3 1 H. V. Bolaffey, An easy grammar of the primcsval language, commonly called Hebrew, entitled [Orah miyshor] or, the 'straightpath' to real knowledge, fully exemplified by instructive and elegant extracts.Also, to render it complete, an appendix, showing how to read Hebrew works. . . . With notes, philological and illustrative. By H. V. Bolaffey . . . (London: printed for Hatchard and G. &amp; W. B. Whittaker, 1820) xvi, 491, [1], 16 pp, engraved frontispiece plate; 21.2 cm (8 in). Frontispiece signed 'R. Nixon. 1820', described by the author as 'my friend the Rev. ... a private artist' (p. 15). The Hebrew title is from Psalm 27:11. 2 S. W. Massil, 'Two Hebrew Grammars and the Enlightenment', Trans JHSE XLI (2007) 99-H3 3 M. Stern, First American Jewish Families: 600 Genealogies, 1654-1977 (Cincinnati, Ohio, and Waltham, Mass. 1978) esp. Table VI. 53</page><page sequence="2">Stephen Massil The following text serves as a digest of the genealogical material that underpins the tree. On the career of Naphtali Hart Myers I have taken advice from Dr Jonathan Sarna and Dr Holly Snyder and have read papers by J. R. Marcus referred to by them. While it is clear that the father of Naphtali was named Joseph, as his son also, what remains uncorroborated is the Adolphus connection referred to by Stern and drawn from Cecil Roth. Also unexplained is Naphtali's European origins, for if he had actually been born in the American colonies he would not have needed to secure deniza tion in April 1764 in New York before his return to London in July 1764. One final curious detail in Stern's tree is the reference to the name 'Thackfray' against 1712 m Naphtali's parentage. My findings (see below) put the name 'Tharkrah' almost a hundred years later and correct Stern's specific error which is to date the death of Naphtali's wife, Hester Jacob Moses, in 1764 - actually the year of the death of her father Simon Moses, and perhaps the proximate reason for the departure of the Myers family for London. (These errors need to be corrected as a formality because current practice with genealogical websites tends to the perpetuation of error for lack of authority.) For the rest, I have become absorbed by the fact that there is little to go on as to the education and life of Maria Hart Myers, and am engrossed by her fate, pathetic as it seems to be, as the great-granddaughter of a Chief Rabbi (Aaron Hart) whose family generally, despite their generations as Wardens of the Great Synagogue, became lost to the community, while their connections among the 'cousinhood' maintained some strength. In my paper on Sir John Soane and his Jewish acquaintance, on Bolaffey at Eton and the universities and on Myers and the medical fraternity, I was keen to trace the acculturation of Anglo-Jewry during the Regency, when the Gentleman's Magazine comfortably included Jews indiscriminately in its record of society before the era of Emancipation. Here in a microcosm these connections remain extensive and interesting and bring various lives to curious conclusions. Naphtali Hart Myers (1711P-88) As regards Naphtali Hart Myers, beyond the call of this genealogical note I draw attention to the question of his status, referred to by Marcus in connection with the Loyalists in the period of the Revolution and after, and in disputes over land and estates in Connecticut in his absence in 1780. Later, following Naphtali's death, Joseph Hart Myers attempted to secure dues owing on these estates as late as 1790-4. Myers (whatever his continu? ing correspondence and connections with New York and Connecticut) left 54</page><page sequence="3">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family America a full ten years before American Independence. He was first in America perhaps by 1740, but was in London in 1754 when he married Hester Moses - and her 'genteel fortune' ('Last Wednesday Mr. Naphtali Hart Myers, of New York, Merchant, was married to Miss Hetty Moses, daughter of Mr Simon Jacobus Moses, of Bury Street, Merchant; a young lady of genteel fortune').4 The fact that on his return to New York in 1755 with his bride he resided in Hanover Square, and that this was later matched in London, when after 1770 (this is the earliest reference to his residence at John Street, Crutched Friars, reported as executor to Hyman Levy, also of John Street)5 he resided in America Square, makes perhaps for fortuitous topographical parallelism. He was thus an eponymous 'American' of America Square, which was at that date the latest prime architectural development of the City of London. Joseph Hart Myers and his family continued to live there down to the 1820s. The underlying interest of the wills of Simon Moses, Naphtali Hart Myers (dated 1785, proved November 1788),6 and Joseph Hart Myers (dated 30 April 1822, with a codicil dated April 1823, proved July 1823),7 is the concern they each exhibit to secure the fortunes of their respective daughters. Naphtali in his will shows in particular how the effects of the distributions made in respect of his wife Hester by his father-in-law in her marriage settlement of 1754, allow him to ensure the transfer of the inheri? tance to his son Joseph while anticipating that his widow will be leaving substantial sums to their other children. Naphtali's will of 1785 thus confirms that his wife Hester was still living; an incidental detail of the will is the fact that he wishes to lie in the cemetery alongside the grave of his mother (a figure not mentioned by Stern or Roth and so far otherwise untraced) who must have come to London with the whole family from America in 1764, if she had not been in London all the while with Naphtali crossing the Atlantic from Europe at some earlier date. Such provisions on behalf of the daughters appear, however, to have been contentious. There are court hearings as late as 1816 and 1817 about disputes over the intentions of the will of Simon Jacobus Moses regarding his daughters Bilhah and Hester, with the repercussions arising from Hester's children Rebecca and Simeon predeceasing their mother. The heirs respectively of Rebecca and Simeon petition for inheritances allegedly from Simon Moses due to them through Hester's executors. The contrary evidence presented by Joseph Hart Myers at these hearings ('The several answers of Joseph Hart Myers, Doctor of Physic one of the defendants of 4 London Evening Post 7 March 1754. 5 Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser 24 January 1770. 6 PROBii/ii72(PCC). 7 PROBii/i673 (PCC). 55</page><page sequence="4">Stephen Massil the Bill of Complaint of Catherine Smyth late Catherine Myers by her husband and next friend John Greatrix Smyth and John Powell Matthew Myers infant under the age of twenty-one . . . complainants'8) provides incidentally the information that the elder daughter Bilhah Moses had married a gentleman called Henry Dyson on 19 September 1771 at Old Church, St Pancras, and that Hester's marriage to John Tharkrah must have occurred after the deaths of her children Rebecca and Simeon, which befell during 1803. Hester Hart Myers (1730-1812) Naphtali died in 1788. His widow, Hester Hart Myers, whose death is actu? ally referred to in Lucien Wolfs works, had married John Tharkrah by 1804 (Judith Cohen married Moses Montefiore on 12 June 1812 and she records on 17 June: 'Dr. Myers paid us a visit of congratulation. We were deprived of the pleasure of his company on account of the death of his mother Mrs Thackary who died at the age of 82'. The death 'in her 83d year, Hester, wife of J. Thackrah, esq. of Isleworth', is recorded in the Gentleman s Magazine of 1812.9 (While it is interesting to spell out that Dr Myers had been sitting shiva for his mother who had married out, it is from here one can surmise that Malcolm Stern derived his misplaced note of 'Thackfray' in the year 1712.) Hester's will is dated 1804 and was proved in August 1812.10 John Thackrah himself died in 1813: '[December ?]: At Isleworth, Middlesex, in his 8ist year, John Tharkrah, esq, of Tooley-St. Southwark, equally distinguished for his benevolence and urbanity, and for probity and honour in his extensive mercantile concerns').11 His addresses are given variously as Tooley Street, Southwark, and Ashworth, Middlesex, where he is also cited as a 'hopmaster of Isleworth' (in other words in the business of brewing). He is the brother, I presume, or some other kin, of the George Tharkrah (the spellings vary in the various docu? ments: Thackrah, Tharkrah and Stern's Thackfray) cited as executor in the will of Hester's son Simeon Hart Myers. Again, it is interesting that Hester's daughter Rebecca, in her will of March 1803, gives her address as Tooley Street, Southwark.12 (Stern puts Rebecca, the daughter of Joseph Hart Myers, in place of his sister in his table 'Myers VP.) 8 National Archives: C13/200/24; 13/215/27, and 13/244/16. 9 L. Wolf (ed.) 'Lady Montefiore's Honeymoon', Essays in Jewish History by Lucien Wolf; with a memoir, edited by Cecil Roth (London 1934) 244-5. Gentleman s Magazine LXXXII (1812) 599. 10 PROBii/i536(PCC). 11 Gentleman s Magazine LXXXIII (1812) 672. 12 PROB11/1389PCC. 56</page><page sequence="5">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family One other query remains, partly in connection with Stern's mistaken notice of Hester's death as occurring in 1764 along with that of her father, as it is also mentioned in D'Arcy Hart's genealogies of the Hamburger family. There he refers to the will of Simon Moses' second wife who died in 1765, and indicates that Naphtali's three surviving children were under the protection of 'Myer Heyman'.131 have not discovered more of the identity of Myer Heyman or why Naphtali and Hester's children needed a guardian at this point. There was a second son recorded by Stern, who had died in infancy in 1760 and was apparently named Feibusch. That these matters do not figure in current writing is a disappointment for, as I mentioned earlier, this family is descended from the Chief Rabbi Aaron Hart, ne Uri Faibusch (1675-1756), through his daughter Rebecca, mother to Bilhah and Hester Moses. Hart is a substantial figure in a recent account of the Chief Rabbis, but no details of his family and their descent are given.14 Rebecca Hart Myers (1756-1803) The records of the City of London burials give the grave of Rebecca Hart Myers as at Bunhill Fields, as photographed in 2008 by Angela Shire.15 That the headstone gives a New Testament reference indicates that Rebecca fell to the conversionists. The London Missionary Society of 1795, and its off-shoot the London Society for the Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews of 1809 (the hobby-horse of J. C. S. Frey), were however concerned for the well-being and conversion of the poor Jews of London, so that Rebecca's engagement with the Church must have come about on other grounds. Joseph Hart Myers named his first-born daughter Rebecca in honour of his late grandmother, the daughter of Rabbi Aaron Hart, but his sister similarly named was still alive, so this choice might have reflected initial family dismay at Rebecca's falling away and casts an additional light on the life of this family and the poignancy of the deaths of Joseph's two siblings in 1803. That the gravestone gives Rebecca's age as fifty-seven makes her the firstborn of Naphtali and Hester's children (a further correc? tion of the Stern files). Rebecca's will16 mentions boots bequeathed to her friend and executrix Frances Lyall; these would have been smart acces? sories of the day when women were entering into the 'pedestrianism' of the 13 R. J. D'Arcy Hart, 'The Family of Mordecai Hamburger and their Association with Madras', Miscellanies III (1937) 74-5. Will of Susannah (Susan) Moses, PCC 1765. 14 D. Taylor, The Chief Rabbis (London 2008) 100-14. 15 Website of B-J News 13 (Newsletter of the British Jewish mailing list, 20 March 2008) 6-7, edited by Sherry Landa. 16 See S. W. Massil (see n. 2) 138-9. 57</page><page sequence="6">Stephen Massil late eighteenth century and the fashion for them was growing. Frances Lyall re-appears, with the heirs of Simeon Hart Myers, in the contentions over Hester Myers's will in 1816-17. Joseph Hart Myers (1758-1823) I cite various sources for the life and career of Dr Joseph Hart Myers, born in Hanover Square, New York, in 1758. Kenneth Collins and others aver that he was the first practising Jew to receive a degree at a British university (Edinburgh in 1779), but this 'first' claim has been disputed. The claim perhaps arose from the notices of the university itself: they mention that because of his observancy his candidacy required such special conditions as Saturday absences, diet and the like. The university was also punctilious about recording his American origins: Yesterday at a meeting of the Professors, Joseph Hart Myers, a native of America, and one of the Jewish religion, was honoured with the degree of Doctor of Physic, after study here almost four years, and is the first instance upon record of one of that religion obtaining the honours of this University.17 Myers was prominent in the London medical world - but not so prominent that one can draw up any list of his middle-class patients. Reticence over the medical records of both the physicians and their patients is a feature of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, as of earlier source material. Geoffrey Green has spotted that Dr Lettsom was physician to Abraham Goldsmid, in his account of the Jews in the Royal Navy.18 I can surmise that Levi Barent Cohen was one of Dr Myers's patients given their early joint executorship of his first wife's will (see below) and the close connec? tions maintained by the family with his son Isaac. However, clearly Myers's inherited wealth and sense of public duty enabled him to offer his services to the General Dispensaries of the day and the 'Portuguese Hospital' on an honorary basis, and his 'surgery' (to use a more recent parlance) at John Street, America Square, served as one of the early inoculation stations of the Royal Jennerian Society, providing vaccination services from around 1803 onwards. His involvement in the public sphere may be judged by his participation as steward at Masonic and other events, anniversary sermons and dinners of public bodies of which he was a representative: the Royal 17 Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser Friday 2 July 1779, reporting 'an extract from a letter from Edinburgh dated June 25'. 18 G. L. Green, The Royal Navy and Anglo-Jewry, 1740-1820: Traders and Those who Served (London 1989) 80. 58</page><page sequence="7">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family Cumberland Free-Mason School (Instituted for the Maintenance and Education of the Female Children and Orphans of Indigent Masons, 18 March 1791 at St Bride's); the Lying-in Charity for Delivering Poor Married Women at their Habitations, at which he attended the anniversary sermon on 27 April 1794 at All Hallows, Lombard Street (Meyer Cohen and Samuel Whitbread also served on this occasion and in 1788 Michael Jacobs had served as a steward); anniversary dinners of the General Dispensary at the London Tavern, such as the tenth on 12 March 1789; and others. Like his father, Myers was an important figure for both the Sephardi and Ashkenazi congregations, masterminding their educational establishments and serving as Warden at the Ashkenazi Great Synagogue for many years. The mother of his children was Leah Jacobs, and they were married at the Great Synagogue in May 1792. However, he had first contracted a marriage with a widow: 'On Wednesday was married Dr Myers of John Street' to 'Mrs Salmons of Crutched Friars' on 6 April 1785, 'By the rev. Dr Schiff of the Great Synagogue, Dr J. Hart Myers, to Mrs Solomons, a widow lady',19 soon after his return from continental travel after complet? ing his medical education, but had no children by her. (Crutched Friars is the London parish to which the Minories and John Street, America Square, belong.) Stern gives her name as 'Jane', corroborated by the pathetic death notice in the Gentleman s Magazine of the following year: 'In Crutched Friars, in her thirty-fourth year, Mrs Jane Myers, wife of Dr. M. Physician to the Finsbury Dispensary. She sustained with exemplary fortitude, with calm, gentle resignation, a lingering and painful illness. Her memory will be appreciated while humanity and benevolence are commended. The distressed repine, the orphan suffers, as she was effectually the cherished friend of both.'20 I know nothing more about her, but two people of the name Solomons feature in Myers's will of 1822, perhaps relicts of this period of his life. (Their union carries some additional interest in that Joseph was at that date the son of the Warden of the Great Synagogue and had recently been appointed by the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Congregation to serve as their physician and to oversee their school.) In marrying Jane, the widow, as it appears, of 'Jacob Salomons, Merchant of George Street, Minories',21 Myers was associating himself also with the family of the leaders of the Hambro Synagogue. In her will, Jane Myers refers to the 'effects of her late husband Jacob Salomons' and names Joseph, her husband, and Levy Barent Cohen along with Eleazer Philip Salomons, 19 The Times 9 April 1785. Gentleman s Magazine LV, 6 April 1785, p. 323. 20 Gentleman's Magazine LVI (29 September 1786) 908. The reference to Dr Myers 'of the Finsbury Dispensary' helps chart his progress. 21 Will, 21 August 1783, PROB 11/1107 (PCC). 59</page><page sequence="8">Stephen Massil her brother in-law, of Bury Street, St Mary Axe, as her executors.22 The will yields further clues as to her family and social connections in that she names separately her three sisters, each married by the name Cohen (whom it is difficult to trace!); she refers to an 'Aunt Abigail Jacobs at Exeter' and possible uncles 'Alexander Alexander, the printer' and 'Benjamin Alexander'; an uncle 'Israel Wolf, residing in Ireland';23 and 'Solomon Isaacs, nephew of my late husband'; also 'Sally Wilford, my servant' and she makes gifts to both the Great and the Hambro synagogues; also sums for 'coals towards winter to be distributed to twelve poor households' (each executor to nominate four) and a sum for 'the Benefit Society called [blank]'. Joseph and his first wife lived at her home in George Street (not far from the Myers home in John Street), as attested by David Levi's subscription list in the Lingua Sacra of 1787, where he is set down as both patron and subscriber.24 (As a librarian, I am keen to pursue these references to subscription lists in the books with which my protagonists are linked. Dr Snyder indulged me with references to books given to the Redwood Library in Rhode Island by Naphtali in 1750. The candelabra that he gave to the Touro Synagogue, and those bestowed on She'arith Israel that were eventually installed in Cincinnati, also provide tangible links to the lost lives here celebrated.) This status as patron goes some way towards confirming Picciotto's reference to Myers (and Goldsmid) as mastermind? ing the publishing of Levi's works, not otherwise substantiated.25 As I have suggested, these lives were accorded passing references in the press. Occasionally larger accounts appear which help to amplify the social setting. One such brings together several of these figures and records the place of the old Great Synagogue in their lives. It was through N. H. Myers and Naphtali Franks, his fellow president, acting on behalf of the Great Synagogue, that they engaged George Dance, the City architects (father and son), in the refurbishment of the early synagogue ('Hart's School' of 1722) in 1765-6.26 The capacity of the Synagogue and its adjacent great hall can be noted in a brief account of a marriage at the Synagogue in April 1781 (in the decade prior to the building of a completely new synagogue on the 22 PROB n/1146 (PCC) proved 5 October 1786. 23 Hyman, The Jews of Ireland (Londin, Jerusalem 1972) 54. 24 D. Levi, Lingua sacra: in three parts (London, Printed by W. Justins, Albion-Buildings, Bartholomew-Close, for the author; and sold by J. Parsons; and all booksellers in town and country, 1787), subscribers Part III. 25 J. Picciotto, Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History. Revised and edited, with a prologue, notes, and an epilogue by Israel Finestein (London 1956) 243; private communication from D. Ruderman. 26 C. Epstein, 'Compromising Traditions in Eighteenth-Century London: The Architecture of the Great Synagogue, Duke's Place', in S. Kadish (ed.) Building Jerusalem: Jewish Architecture in Britain (London 1996) 54-83. 6o</page><page sequence="9">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family site by one of John Soane's younger colleagues, James Spiller, in 1788-90), widely printed in the news-sheets of the day. The account brings together another American resident in the Minories, Judah Levy, and his daughter, the bride at this occasion, Naphtali in his capacity as Treasurer of the Subscriptions for the Poor Jews and Jacob Salomons, one of the Elders of the Synagogue: April 4. At the great synagogue in Duke's Place, London, by the Rev. Mr. Tavely, the High Priest of that synagogue, Mr. Henry Noah, of Crosby square, to Miss Minka Levy, daughter of Mr. Judah Levy, an eminent American merchant, in Heydon-square, in the Minories. At twelve o'clock the bride and bride-groom, and all that were invited to the ceremony, assem? bled in Duke's Place, and walked in procession three times round it, accord? ing to their custom, in the following order: First, the High Priest, followed by the two readers of the synagogue, each holding in their hands the laws of Moses, written on parchment; then went the bride and bridegroom; after them the fathers, mothers, and other relations of both; then Mr. Jacob Salomons and Mr. Barnet Monk, the two elders of the synagogue; after them Mr. Naphtali Myers, the treasurer to the subscriptions for the poor Jews; then followed, two and two, above three hundred Jew gentlemen and ladies. After their having walked the third time round Duke's Place, they entered the synagogue, and were married according to the Jewish rites and ceremonies. Immediately after the ceremony, the whole company retired to the great hall adjoining the synagogue, where an elegant dinner was provided, consisting of four courses, and a dessert. After dinner the company entered the ball-room; and minuets were danced till seven o'clock, when country-dances began, and continued till twelve; at which time the bride and bride-groom retired and the company sat down to a cold supper. It has to be said that both the bridegroom and his father-in-law had been in and out of the bankruptcy courts. Also, Barnet Monk, 'of Nicholas Lane, Lombard Street, Exchange Broker, on returning to town from his country house at Richmond on Wednesday evening last [i.e. after Yom Tov], was stopped on Wandsworth Common ... by highwaymen'.27 Simeon Hart Myers (1765-1803) Before coming to the family of Joseph and Leah Hart Myers, I shall mention Joseph's younger brother Simeon. Described always as 'gentle? man', Simeon Hart Myers appears to have contemplated a career in the law, 27 The Scots Magazine XLIII (Edinburgh, April 1781) 222-3. London Chronicle, Saturday 14 April 1781. 6i</page><page sequence="10">Stephen Massil in that he entered Clement's Inn in 1794,28 one of the lesser Inns of Chancery in that era, but not necessarily as a step towards entering the Bar (a role not available to Jews in any case until the 1830s). Clement's Inn's pension book shows that Dr Joseph Hart Myers acted as surety for his younger brother. (The other Jewish names found in that register are those of Isaac DTsraeli [1768-1848] and John Adolphus [1768-1845], perhaps related to the Adolphus strain mentioned in Roth's genealogy for Naphtali Hart Myers, who did properly enter the law.) Simeon appears in the Fire Insurance records as still at the Inn in 1796. The extent of his training and career is not known. He made a Christian marriage to a widow, Catherine Peard, nee Winsloe (1764?-! 848), in 1796, but he earns a place in the lime? light in that his descendants survive to this day in both New Zealand and in London through his only son John Powell Matthew Myers, born in Cheltenham where Simeon was honoured locally as the tenant of'Grove Cottage' (a sale advertisement in The Times of January 1805 reads: 'so well known ... consisting of a dining and drawing-room, 24 feet by 18, boudoir, 3 best bed-rooms, 3 servants ditto, with offices of various descriptions, coach-house, stables and kitchen garden, with 6 acres or thereabouts of meadow-land, held for a term, whereof five years were unexpired, at Michaelmas last'),29 whose salubrious setting is evoked by Thomas Dibdin in his History of Cheltenham of 1803.30 Nevertheless, Simeon died in Twickenham, Middlesex, close to the Tharkrah holdings of Isleworth, as it appears, and his grave (no. 102) at the now disused Holly Road burial ground records his age in August 1803 as '38' (another revision to the Stern file) and shows his birth as occurring after Naphtali had brought the family to London and following the death in 1764 of his father-in-law, Simon Moses (as seems fitting).31 Simeon's will, proved in November 1803, indi? cates that his father-in-law the Reverend Richard Winsloe of Taunton and George Tharkrah of St Thomas's Street, Southwark, were empowered as trustees on behalf of his son and widow.32 28 C. Carr, 'The Pension Book of Clement's Inn', Seiden Society LXXVIII (i960) 300. 29 S.W. Massil (see n. 2) 138. The Times 19 January 1805. 30 T. F. Dibdin, The History of Cheltenham: and account of its environs: containing an inquiry into the discovery and properties of the mineral waters (Cheltenham 1803). 31 For Simeon's death on 13 August 1803 see Gentleman s Magazine; for his burial on 19 August see Twickenham Parish Registers (communication from the Local Studies Library, Richmond). 32 PROB11/1401 (PCC). 62</page><page sequence="11">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family John Powell Matthew Myers (1801-69) John Myers was born in Cheltenham in 1801. It appears that he died in Tours on 6 February 1869, his last address having been 28 rue de T Archeveche and one of the witnesses James Horan, an English Protestant minister, also resident in Tours.33 John had Peard half-brothers from his mother Catherine Winsloe's first marriage (she was married for a third time to a John Greatorix Smyth in 1805 at St Leonard's, Shoreditch). Myers is mentioned in the will of his grandmother Hester Tharkrah and in those of both Joseph and Leah. One can confidently assume that these inheritances, ultimately from Simon Moses and Naphtali Hart Myers, set him up for the business career that he followed successfully until the failures (for reasons as yet undisclosed) of the final decade of his life. He was married to Mary Anna nee Duncan (1798-1874) at Brighton in 1826. Of their nine children the eldest, Mary Isabella, was born in Worcester in 1827 and married in Madras in 1856, while her six brothers and two sisters were born between 1829 and 1844 in South Wales. The family home appears to have been Ivy Tower, near St Florence, Tenby. John Duncan Myers MA of St John's College, Oxford (1830-55), died there. Frederick William Myers (1833-69) has descendants in New Zealand. Fanny Stephenson Myers (1836-61) married in Bombay in 1861. Arthur Bowen Richards Myers (1838-1921) was a military physician; his youngest daughter Charity (d. 1957) married G. P. A. Fildes in 1921 and his great-granddaughter Pamela (granddaughter also of Sir Luke Fildes RA) is at home now in Putney in London (that her late husband the artist and designer Bernard Myers [1925-2007] of the RCA, was a German Jewish refugee, only complicates the recurrences of the name Myers). To return to John Powell Matthew Myers: he was involved in mining partnerships in Pembrokeshire, at Saundersfoot near Haverfordwest; he was the proprietor of the Bonville Court Colliery sunk by the Myers Mining Company in 1840 to exploit the erratic anthracite seams there, said to be the largest mine in the Pembrokeshire coalfields. He had secured patents for artificial fuel in 1853,34 and on the strength of these the firm exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1855 (Troduits de PIndustrie, Annexe East, 24: Myers and Company, Saundersfoot, near Tenby, South Wales, Anthracite coal, and manufactured fuel from the small of same - both 33 T. Cooper (ed.) Register and Magazine of Biography: a record of births, marriages, deaths, and other genealogical and personal occurrences (London 1869) L259. Communication from S. Landa. 34 Mechanics Magazine, ed. R. A. Brooman, LVIII (London 1853) z38- S. C. Van Dulkin, 'More Dyfed Inventors (1852-64)', Dyfed Family History Journal IIL9 (1991) 330-32. 63</page><page sequence="12">Stephen Massil smokeless').35 The French record of his death, cited above, notes that he was a magistrate (presumably a JP). Ivy Tower, near Tenby, survives in some form and seems to have shared the salubrious comforts of his father's Cottage in Cheltenham. Details of Myers's business-failure come through family legend and include bankruptcy, separation and disappearance into France. Black rimmed mourning letters of Mary Anna Myers of 1869 appear to corrobo? rate the announcement of his death in February 1869, although this may have more regard to the death of Frederick William in New Zealand also in that year. Mary Anna herself died in Windsor in 1874. Leah Hart Myers (1758P-1832) Joseph Hart Myers's second wife was Leah Jacobs. She was one of at least three daughters of Michael Jacobs of Mansel-Street, Goodman's-Fields, London, who features in a much-cited court case, 'Jacobs v. Goodman' of 1791, whose details and longevity I cannot begin to comprehend, but whose aftermath figured in the legal literature for a long time.36 They were married at the Great Synagogue in 1792. Leah's younger sister Katharine (1770-1829) married Phineas Moses Samuel (1770-1827) there in 1804, and their daughter Sarah Cohen (1810-79) features in the wills of both Joseph and Leah and in the family circle, knitting them into the 'cousin hood' of the Cohens and Rothschilds among the dominating networks of Anglo-Jewish families of the era. Katharine and Phineas Samuel had a second daughter Rebecca, a son John (1812-87) and another, Horatio, at least (all mentioned in the October 1832 will of Leah Hart Myers37). Sarah I come back to in due course. Besides the two daughters of Joseph and Leah's marriage there was a son, Naphtali, born in 1796, who did not survive his first year. One can hazard that they were inoculated against the smallpox, perhaps the first Jewish children in London to be vaccinated. Leah in her widowhood stayed on in America Square until about 1829 when she moved into York Terrace, Regent's Park, a couple of years before her death. 35 Catalogue of the works exhibited in the British section of the Exhibition: together with exhibitors' prospectuses . . . (London 1855) I0- See also B. De Valency, U Entente cordiale: a self interpreting guide to Paris, for the Exhibition, 1855 (London 1855) 121-2. 36 English Law Reports 282 Jacobs v. Goodman, in Exchequer, 16 Nov. 1791, 3-Bro 386, Note 2, C.C. 486, note, 2 Cox, 282, Cas. In Equity PL 221. 37 PROBn/i8o6(PCC). 64</page><page sequence="13">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family Rebecca Hart Myers (1793-1819) Rebecca, the eldest child of Joseph and Leah, was born in February 1793; she married Isaac Barent Cohen (1791-1846) in 1818, but died in 1819. What might have been her education follows in the account of her sister's life. Maria Hart Myers (1794-1868) Maria, the chief object of my studies, was born in March 1794.1 have been at pains to discover the nature and extent of the education of Maria and her sisters, which in the usual way of biographies of the period is taken to have been private. Dr Myers as a physician had himself received formal and academic education to a higher degree than any of his generation in his family; as noted earlier, he was influential in the management of the congre? gational schools for the communal poor and was involved with the famous Jews' Free School in its pre-history and at its foundation in 1821. Arrangements for the education of daughters such as his and those of Levi Barent Cohen, for instance, would have been more extensive in their range and quality (but remain as yet untraced), whereas for the next generation of such daughters there were the earliest schools for Jewish girls of the middle class run by their younger contemporaries (teachers such as Abigail Lindo, the Goldsmid sisters, Miriam Mendes, Miss Belisario and others, who became teachers in their own right38). Esther Mendes Belisario, nee Lindo (1773-1824), the wife of Abraham Mendes Belisario, opened her boarding school for Jewish girls at Wickham Place, Clapton, in 1807, where Julia Salaman (1812-1906) was educated in the 1820s. The school survived down to the 1880s and is mentioned in Malcolm Brown's 1989 article 'Jews of Hackney before 1840'. The school appears not to have subscribed to Bolaffey's 'Grammar', but is recorded as subscribing for eighteen copies of Miriam Mendes Belisario's Sabbath Evenings at Home of 1856.39 Whether the Myers girls were 'finished' there from the ages of fourteen and thirteen respectively I wait to see, and perhaps they were active enough to assist in due course. I shall continue with the brief apologia of the prodigy Emma Lyon who published her Miscellaneous Poems with great aplomb and a prestigious list 38 J. Ranston, Belisario 'Sketches of Character': A Historical Biography of a Jamaican Artist (Kingston 2008) 307-9. The Lindo Legacy (London 2000). 39 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. M. Brown, 'Jews of Hackney before 1840', Trans JHSE XXX (1989) 84. M. M. Belisario, Sabbath Evenings at Home (London 1856). 65</page><page sequence="14">Stephen Massil of subscribers in 1812.40 Her father Solomon was himself a schoolmaster,41 so she is perhaps being disingenuous in her preface: Tt will be soon be perceived that my education has been confined'.42 More extensive is the account of Judith Cohen's education as recorded by Dr Louis Loewe in 1890 in editing the Montefiore diaries: [Judith] received from her earliest childhood an excellent English education, and her studies in foreign languages were most successful. She spoke French, German, and Italian fluently, and read and translated correctly the Hebrew language of her prayers ... Nor were the accomplishments of music and draw? ing neglected ... Lady Montefiore not only appreciated the education she received, but also remembered with deep gratitude all those who had imparted instruction to her. Her friends have often been the bearers of generous pensions to gentlemen who had been her teachers when she was young, and they never heard her mention their names without expressions of gratitude.43 The failure to record the names of these 'gentlemen' is distressing. Raphael Loewe suggests that these private teachers in secular subjects could have included local Gentile clergymen such as, perhaps, the Reverend Richard Nixon, Bolaffey's friend, who ran his own school in East Smithfield.44 Hebrew instruction at this time was the purview of Moses Mocatta, of Russell Square, the uncle of Moses Montefiore. Sonia Lipman was a great proponent of Judith Cohen,45 and in her contribution to the Montefiore bicentenary volume she opened some paths for a study of the education available to Jewish sons at this time;46 but she failed to increase our knowledge of the education imparted to the daughters or its purveyors (Levy Barent Cohen's 'children were given a secular education by private tutors. Judith was taught English literature, music and singing, French, German, and Italian - the proper attainments of the accomplished young lady of the period').47 In the same volume, Helen Rosenau has some rather more stringent comments on the level of Judith's literary affectations and her appreciation of the visual arts.48 40 E. Lyon, Miscellaneous Poems (Oxford 1812). 41 See N. Cream, 'Revd. Solomon Lyon of Cambridge, 1755-1820', Trans JHSE (1999-2001) XXXVI31-70. 42 Lyon (see n. 40) viii. 43 L. Loewe, Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore (London 1890); facsimile reprint intro. R. Loewe, new index W. Schwab (London 1983) 3 and 4. 44 Private communication. 45 S. L. Lipman, 'Judith Montefiore, first Lady of Anglo-Jewry', Trans JHSE XXI (1968) 287-303. 46 S. L. Lipman, 'The Making of a Victorian Gentleman', in S. and V. D. Lipman (eds) The Century of Moses Montefiore (London 1985) 3-22; for Moses Montefiore's possible schooling see p. 7. 47 S. L. Lipman (see n. 45) 288. 48 H. Rosenau, 'Montefiore and the Visual Arts', in S. and V. D. Lipman (eds) (see n. 46) 118-19. 66</page><page sequence="15">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family For the moment it can be surmised that, like Judith and her sister, Rebecca and Maria Hart Myers received the best education to be found. That these daughters were accomplished is indicated by the Broadwood grand pianos acquired by their fathers. Maria, alone in America Square, certainly had the use also of a square piano brought in when the grand had to be returned to the factory for restringing. The Myers's Broadwood was no. 6596 of 1815. On a cursory perusal while checking Myers's engagement with Broadwood, I noticed an entry for 'Miss Lettsom' (daughter of John Coakley Lettsom [1744-1815], a leading London physician and mentor of Dr Myers) immediately before Myers's; among Jewish families those of Rothschild (at Stamford Hill), Ricardo, two Mrs Mocattas, a Miss Gompertz and a Mrs Lousada figure as owners of the new grand pianos at this period. Myers seems to have requisitioned a piano for Leah's niece Sarah Samuel at the same time as the one for his daughters.49 The point of this excursus is to give a context for the fact that at twenty eight years old in 1822 Maria remained unmarried. I suggest that she was in fact too well educated to take a husband from the Anglo-Jewish mercantile class of the day. Whereas Isaac Barent Cohen, son of Levi Barent Cohen (d. 1808) and probably the wealthiest young man in the community, could marry the elder daughter of the Warden of the Great Synagogue, others less well established or educated might not have wanted to marry her sister. There were at this point no lawyers, physicians or other professionals among the Jewish men of her own age. One can speculate on a few candi? dates: George Basevi (1794-1845) had qualified as an architect in 1818; Benjamin Disraeli (1804-81) entered Lincoln's Inn in 1822, Francis Cohen (1788-1861, who married as Palgrave in 1823) became a barrister at the Middle Temple in 1827, Francis Goldsmid (1808-78) was the first Jewish barrister at Lincoln's Inn in 1833; Barnard van Oven (1796-1860), the son of Joseph Hart Myers's surgeon friend Joshua van Oven, qualified as a physician in 1827 and there was Judah Israel Montefiore (1777-1827) who succeeded Joseph at the Portuguese Hospital in 1824. Isaac Cohen in his viduage certainly held favour with the Myers family and served as executor to both Joseph and later Leah in their wills. As mentioned, his sister Judith Cohen (1784?1862) had married Moses Montefiore in 1812; their older sister Hannah (1783-1850) had married N. M. Rothschild (1776-1836) in 1806. If Isaac might have gone on to marry Maria, he was pre-empted by her marriage in June 1822 to the barrister Loftus Longueville Clarke, the son of an Irish clergyman, the Reverend Thomas Brooke Clarke (1757? 1833), at St Andrews, Holborn (this church had no ostensible connection with, for instance, Lincoln's Inn, but was convenient for Isaac D'Israeli, still at Theobald's Road when he broke with Bevis Marks, to send his 49 Surrey History Centre, Broadwood archives. S. W. Massil (see n. 2) 139 n. 134. 67</page><page sequence="16">Stephen Massil Plate i Loftus Longueville Tottenham Clarke (i 795-1863). Image from a collection by C. Grant, Lithographic sketches of the public characters of Calcutta (Calcutta: W. Thacker &amp; Co, [1850]) 29(b), First published in 1838. (Courtesy British Library Board. All Rights Reserved [shelfmark: W4769(29(b)].) 68</page><page sequence="17">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family children there for baptism, at the hands of'Mr. Thimbleby', in 1817).50 The newly wedded pair left England for Bengal where Clarke became an advocate at the Supreme Court in Calcutta in a notable career that lasted until his death in Rangoon in 1863. They had seven children between 1823 and 1834, four of whom survived to adulthood, as set out in the attached family tree. From the naming of her children - Maria Rebecca (1824-1906), Charles Myers (1826-1904), Joseph Cuthbert (1827-57) and the infant Thomas of 1830, named after Longueville Clarke's father - Maria appears to have respected family pieties; the last born, in 1834, Tempe, was instead named after another lady of Bengal society, Tempe Sophia Palmer, nee Law (1806-33), ana* was soon remembered in three Calcutta baptisms in the next couple of years. Just as Maria's education is unknowable, her presence amid the European society of Bengal, where she is referred to if at all as 'the Lady of Longueville Clarke', is barely traced - like that of most European women of that era. Longueville Clarke, resident of Esplanade Row, opposite the Maidan, enjoyed a public life and by contrast is cited in retrospect as a leader of the 'non-Official' section of European society of the time and a leading figure in the Presidency. Records for Maria show that she made several visits back to England: in 1827 in the company of the widow of the Bishop of Calcutta, whose maid apparently took care of her infant son, Charles Myers, sick with measles on the journey. It was presumably on this visit that she brought Leah 'the long red India shawl' mentioned in her will as being 'admired' by Sarah Samuel and bequeathed to her in 1832, Kashmir shawls being a fash? ionable luxury at that date. She went again in 1832 before her mother's death, in 1836 and again in 1841, and seems to have left Bengal for good, perhaps by 1844, accompanied by her youngest daughter Tempe, sustained by her inheritance and by funds in trust from her husband. Maria appears in the records in France in 1847 (as a subscriber to an English grammar book - needed no doubt for Tempe's education - whose editor, Gerald Murray, canvassed French and English residents of Paris for support) and in 1859 (when Matthew Arnold, writing his diary at the Grand Hotel de Lyon, dined with 'Mrs Longueville Clarke and her daughter' on 26 May 1859) and i860 as the hostess of a bal anglais in Paris at which the Persian ambassador was a guest, and again at her death. Maria and her daughter were received at Court by Queen Victoria in 1852 and 1855 and appear to have resided in Eaton Square, Belgravia, 'in the season'. Of her sons, Captain Joseph Cuthbert Myers died in the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Myers, who changed his name to De Longueville, brought his family to England in 1870. His German-born widow died in 1920, his daughter Josephine, the widow of Captain John 50 W. F. Moneypenny, The Life of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl ofBeaconsfield (London 1910) I: 23. 69</page><page sequence="18">Stephen Massil Knox Ruttledge of the Dragoons, died in Chalk Farm, north London, in 1929, as proprietress of the London Institution for Starving Cats and Dogs, while his son Henry Brooke De Longueville is not traced after 1908. Maria Rebecca, widowed in 1850, came to Europe and married Hans Bey (who died in 1898) from Hamburg around 1855; they settled in Jersey but had no children. Tempe married Robert Brown Forsyth Brown (1834-84), a Scottish military surgeon, in England in 1862 and, childless and widowed in Kensington, London, is also not traced after 1908. Maria herself died in Paris on 15 November 1868, recorded as at the Grand Hotel by the Opera, the grandest hotel in Europe at that date, where she was resident. She had formerly identified herself as a resident at the Grand Hotel in Pau in the Basse-Pyrenees, one of the hivernants britan niques of the era when Pau had long been favoured as a winter health-resort, thanks to the efforts of Dr Alexander Taylor (1800-79), tne author of a work on the healthy climate of the Pyrenees, which precipitated the gather? ing influx of health-tourists, particularly the British over the next fifty years and more.51 On the same day James de Rothschild (born in 1792) died, the youngest brother of Nathan Rothschild, her cousin Sarah's brother-in-law. The Baron is buried in the Jewish section of the Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris. There is pathos in the fact that Maria's will was witnessed in Pau by this same Dr Alexander Taylor and an English gentleman, Mark B. Whyte (born in 1818) of the Carlton Club and the Royal Geographical Society. I have no other evidence to suggest that Maria suffered from bronchial or pulmonary conditions, but again the codicil in 1868 is witnessed by Wm. J. Shorthase, the English chemist at 23 Place Vendome in Paris and his colleague William Field. As to what might have been the cause of her departure from India, leaving husband and family behind, I have perhaps a slight idea: the climate and her health (but she had survived the births of seven babies), some dissatisfaction with her husband's business ventures and the circumstances of her daughter Maria Rebecca's impending marriage to one of his business associates, Alexander Garrioch Mackenzie (1810-50) - Maria Rebecca is not mentioned in Maria's will (see below). Or perhaps there were marital infidelities, but I have none to spell out from published sources and no scandals have emerged on any other score. Evidence of Longueville Clarke's frame of mind shows in the fact that when prevailed on to take the chair at a major public meeting of the Reform League in Calcutta in 1857 (after the Mutiny in which his son Joseph had died in a well-publicized episode) he confessed to having been less involved in public affairs of late. In his will, proved in 1863, he left nothing to any of the family named so far, but all to a five-year-old child, Josephine Edith 51 T. Cooper (ed.) Calendar of the Grants of Probate and Letters of Administration in the Principle Registry, 1869 (London 1869) 66. 70</page><page sequence="19">'The Lady of Longueville Clarke': Maria Hart Myers (i794-1868) and her family Longueville Clarke, born in 1858 to his executrix, Kathleen Rose Clementine Stallard, of both of whom I know nothing. Where Maria is buried I have yet to learn. In her will she named as her executors her son Charles Myers, of the 101st Fusiliers, then in barracks at Walmer, Kent; John Hare of Bristol (mayor in 1861), her cousin Sarah, and John Sutherland Law. There are Indian connections to these names: John Hare (1813-97), a successful businessman from the famous paint-firm of Bristol (with patents and exhibition medals from 1851 and Paris in 1855), had married Jane Strachey (1823-86) in Naples in 1842. She was English born, but her father Edward Strachey had left the Indian Civil Service in 1822, leaving his brothers and cousins behind: for instance, Lytton Strachey's mother Jane Maria, nee Grant, had been born off-shore from Cape Town, aboard the Earl of Hardwick under Captain Henning in 1840. John Sutherland Law could be one of two Indian Civil Servants (albeit of the Bombay Presidency) of the same name, both amateur botanists and plant collectors - one lived 1796-1872 and the other 1810-85.1 have traced the latter: he was a star pupil at Haileybury in 1826-8, the son of James Law of Portland Place, London, and Cannon Hill, Berkshire, and thus a cousin of Tempe Sophia Palmer. He left India in 1854, was elected a Fellow of the Linnaean Society in 1856 and a member of both the Athenaeum and the Oriental clubs; his name is remembered in the genus Lavii launi. He was resident from 1872 at South Lodge, Enfield Chase, where he cultivated a prize-winning garden and he made bequests of Sanskrit books and funds to the then new Indian Institution at Oxford at his death. Maria's will records substantial bequests to her son Charles Myers, jewellery and fashionable clothes and accessories to her daughter Tempe and granddaughter Josephine, memorials to 'my dear father' and disposal of her books (not otherwise identified). The jewellery includes 'a diamond brooch with an Eagle the gift of the Emperor of Russia to the Reverend Dr Clarke' (her father-in-law, received by him in 1814 when the Emperor visited London in the wake of the defeat of Napoleon and bequeathed by the vicar to his son in 1833). The will omits to mention her elder daughter, Maria Rebecca. It refers to her cousin Sarah Cohen (nee Samuel), the bene? ficiary of her mother Leah's will in 1832, as one of her executors, but makes no specific bequest to her. The reference suggests that the cousins had been in communication over the decades, for Maria's brother-in-law Isaac Cohen had gone on to marry Sarah Samuel in 1827. Their first-born daughter Juliana (1831-77) in 1850 married Mayer Amschel Rothschild (who died in 1874), the son of Hannah and Nathan Rothschild. Sarah outlived Isaac by more than thirty years and died in 1879, by which time her granddaughter, Juliana's daughter, Hannah Primrose, Lady Rosebery (1851-90), had become reputedly the wealthiest woman in England. 7i</page><page sequence="20">so OO SO OO "O .5 ?I f tilt ? J I o S c * I! ? 4= ?: 0! &gt; r SS so &lt; 5 ? 25 it, r o s-" ? o ffl ? O co U ? &lt; a ~5 Vi O l OO Os 3 _ U cd O SO' jb *n Os o ?0 ? T 22 .2 - ? ^ m cS &lt;?&gt; ?2 3U ft .&lt;2a3l 1 '? M ^ x ^ S3 S3 ~ O SB = o 3 SSJ el O ? v ? ? ?$ ? CO w s _ &lt;sj N 4&gt; 00 4&gt; ? 3 -|&lt;5f ? w ^ xj-S * S I ^"S S 5 &lt; H &lt; ?5 CO a fo Jo. *ss .S I ^1 S O &lt; Q 72</page><page sequence="21">3 ^ V? CO ^ or) .3 &gt;" u ? S H 2 OS? 'S S 4&gt; JE ? s o Q &lt; G &lt; C 00s vO OO T &lt; II 00 IE O CD a 2 "I P 00 ^ B OS CQ N SC o o SQ o u 73</page></plain_text>