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Levi Barent Cohen and some of his Descendants: Presidential Address

Lord Justice Cohen

<plain_text><page sequence="1">Levi Barent Cohen and some of his descendants1 By The Right Hon. Lord Justice Cohen When I was informed by Mr. Hyamson that your Society had done me the honour of inviting me to become its President for the ensuing year I greatly appre? ciated the compliment you paid me, but when he added that the first and most important duty of the President was to deliver a presidential address of some length, I must confess that I felt some qualms about accepting the office. I had read history at Oxford, but I had not pursued my studies of history when I came down from the University. I had read Mr. Roth's interesting book, but I had never dug deep into Jewish history and must confess that I had found Gratz's great work too indigestible for my taste. The one subject on which I had some qualifications to speak, Jews and the English Law, had so recently been largely covered by Professor Goodhart that I wondered into what field I could usefully stray. I then remembered that there was one great English lawyer of the Jewish faith to whom Professor Goodhart had not referred, the late Right Hon. Arthur Cohen, Q,.C. ; a record of his life is to be found in his daughter's memoir which had always seemed to me a delightful portrait of a really great man, but that memoir had been printed for private circulation among members of his family and friends and I thought I might properly devote part of my address to the salient features of his life. From Arthur Cohen my mind naturally turned to other members of our family and I thought that I might take as the subject of my address " Levi Barent Cohen and some of his Descendants ". Levi Barent Cohen was born in 1747, not 1740 as stated in the pedigree in Miss Lucy Cohen's memoir of her father. The correct date is established by two pieces of evidence unearthed by Mr. Ernest Cohen ; first a memorial ring which contains the inscription " Obit March 1808, Act 61 " ; and second his will, the original of which was in Hebrew but which according to the translation at Somerset House was a will made in 1807 " in the 60th year of my life ". He was born in Amsterdam. His family had been prominent for several generations in the life of the Netherlands. His cousin Benjamin Cohen was a prosperous tobacco merchant in Amersfoort where the provincial States of Utrecht then met. Benjamin Cohen placed his house at the disposal of the States as a residence for the Stadtholder William V while he attended a meeting of the States in 1787. The Stadtholder's next visit to Benjamin Cohen was in less happy circumstances. The Stadtholder was staying at Soestdijk when a plot to capture him was discovered. It all but succeeded but the Stadtholder escaped to Amersfoort and took refuge for five days in Benjamin Cohen's house. To commemorate this visit the Stadtholder presented Benjamin Cohen with his life-sized portrait which Benjamin Cohen gave to the Municipality of Amersfoort when he moved to Amsterdam. Two brothers of Benjamin Cohen also built stately stone houses in Amersfoort, one of which before the recent war was the Town Hall and the other the Roman Catholic Convent School for Girls. I am glad to say that I am informed on reliable authority that Amersfoort suffered little damage in the war. I have been unable to trace the exact year in which Levi Barent Cohen came to England. It was certainly before 1778 when he was established in business at 5 Castle Street, Bevis Marks, and had a private house at No. 8 Bury Street. He later 1 Presidential Address delivered before the Jewish Historical Society of England, 3rd November, 1947 ii</page><page sequence="2">12 LEV! BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS lived at No. 11 Angel Court, and also owned 12 Angel Court, where his son Solomon lived. His connection with those houses illustrates one of the legal disabilities under which even in this enlightened country Jews lay at that time. Although he had come to England as I have said, before 1778, he was not endenizened until 1800. Under the patent he and his heirs were entitled to hold and enjoy lands freely and quietly as the King's liege subjects born within his kingdom of Great Britain might do, and he was entitled to devise the same. He died in 1808. It might have been thought that his children would inherit his Angel Court property either as his heirs or under his will. He had, however, not validly disposed of them by his will and a special commission of Escheats decided that as his children were all born before he was endenizened, he had died without leaving any heir capable of inheriting. I should add that, whether by bounty of the Crown or as tenant, which I do not know, his widow continued to reside at No. 11 Angel Court, until her death some ten years later. His domestic life illustrates another point of some legal interest. After the death of his first wife he married his deceased wife's sister. When I first read of this fact I thought I had discovered a bar sinister in the escutcheon of my more distant relations, but a little research showed I was wrong for although none of us here present could have married his deceased wife's sister until the passing of the Deceased Wife's Sister's Marriage Act, 1907, it was only after the coming into force of the Marriage Act, 1835, that a marriage with a deceased wife's sister became illegal. Until that date, such marriages were voidable not void. Levi Barent Cohen prospered, so Mr. Lucien Wolf tells us, exceedingly in his business. He was the link between the two great financial dynasties which succeeded each other on the London money market. George Goldsmid had married his cousin. When the first Rothschild came to England, he came with an introduction to Levi Barent Cohen and lived for a short time in his house. In 1806 he later married Levi's daughter Hannah. Levi Barent Cohen was prominent in the communal life of the community. At that time all the synagogues were situated in or about the City of London and all the Jews lived in the vicinity. Levi Barent Cohen served all the offices in succession in the Great Synagogue and in 1794 was the Presiding Warden, an office which was subsequently held at intervals by his descendants to the fourth generation. He was one of the founders and first president of the Bread, Meat, and Coal Charity, the oldest of the Askhenazi charities and the active lieutenant of his family connexions, Benjamin and Abraham Goldsmid, in the foundation of the Jew's Hospital, later the Jews Hospital and Orphan Asylum and now the Jewish Orphanage. He took no part in the political or municipal life of the country. It was not then possible for a Jew so to do, but he was actuated by a strong sense of the duty to serve the Community and transmitted this sense of duty to his descendants who were given the opportunity of putting his principles into practice in a wider sphere. His descendants are legion. Writing in 1902 an introduction to Lady Montefiore's Honeymoon?an unpublished Diary, Lucien Wolf said?" As a merchant and a communal worker Levi Barent Cohen was perhaps not exceptionally remarkable, but as an ancestor he is one of the most interesting figures in Anglo-Jewish history. No name in our communal records stands at the head of so distinguished a pedigree. Almost all the leading names of our later history figure among his posterity or among the husbands and wives of his descendants ". He then proceeds to give a rough list of</page><page sequence="3">LEVI BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 13 the chief names which up to that date figured in Levi Barent Cohen's posterity. I will not weary you with that list, but when I tell you that the paragraphs which contain it occupied nearly two pages of the brochure you will understand why I propose to limit my address to some only of his descendants. I intend to start with the second generation as it was not until the second generation that the public life of this country was fully opened to its citizens of the Jewish faith, to confine myself to descendants who bore his surname and to take one representative only from each generation down to and including the fourth generation. From the second generation I take the Right Hon. Arthur Cohen, Q,.C, not because he was a member of the profession to which I have the honour to belong and was my sponsor when I was called to the Bar, but because I believe that his career and his character present an example which all of us would wish our children to follow whatever be the profession or business which they may adopt. Arthur Cohen was the younger son of Benjamin Cohen and Justine daughter of Joseph Elias Montefiore and sister of Sir Moses Montefiore. He was born in 1829 and much of his earlier education was received in Germany from a private tutor and from a local gymnasium in Frankfurt. Like many other distinguished lawyers he early displayed mathematical ability. It is recorded that at the age of twelve or thirteen he was travelling alone and was engrossed in a book when a gentleman in the same carriage asked what book he was reading. The gentleman was astounded to be told that it was Newton's Principia. At the age of seventeen Arthur Cohen returned to England and began his studies at University College, London, but his family were anxious that he should go to Cambridge. His religion was, however, then an obstacle. He could not be admitted to Trinity, but his uncle, Sir Moses Montefiore, approached the Prince Consort who was then the Chancellor of the University and who secured his admission to Magdalene as a Fellow Commoner on ist November, 1849. In due course he qualified for a degree, being placed as fifth wrangler. He was not, however, able to take his degree until 1858 owing to the Test Acts. He did not devote his whole time at the University to study ; he was President of the Union in 1853 and it is recorded that his uncle Baron Lionel de Rothschild, indignant that he had not obtained the honour of being senior wrangler, said?" He has given too much time to light literature and rowing." I venture to think that this criticism was not justified and that Arthur Cohen's character and subsequent career would have suffered had he immersed himself entirely in higher mathematics. On leaving Cambridge Cohen took chambers at 6 King's Bench Walk, Temple. He read with the well-known pleader Mr. Dodgson and was called to the Bar in 1857. He seems rapidly to have acquired a large practice, for his wife, whom he had married in i860, writes in 1863?" Arthur is very busy still and expects to make a grand speech in the Admiralty Court. He is so full of work that I fear he will not go to the dinner the members of his circuit are giving to the new Judge, Shee." His practice was largely commercial, but his services were in demand wherever profound knowledge of the law was the important factor. He was also a student of international law and it was in this field that came the piece of work which really brought him before the general public. In 1872 he was asked by the Attorney General, Sir Roundell Palmer, afterwards the Earl of Seiborne, L.C., to go to Geneva as his junior counsel in the Alabama case. When that case came to an end, he was nearing the close of his career as junior</page><page sequence="4">14 LEVI BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS counsel as he became a Queen's Counsel in 1874. Before he did so he received from Chief Baron Kelly two posts which have since been abolished. He was appointed first, Postman, and then Tubman in the Court of Exchequer. Neither of these posts carried any duties or had any association with the ideas which the terms would convey to a lay mind. The Postman had precedence in motions except in Crown business and the name was derived from the post, the measure of length in excise cases, beside which the Postman took his stand. The Tubman's place was beside the tub used as a measure of capacity in excise cases, and he had precedence over all except the Postman in business other than Crown business. As a leader he rapidly attained and for many years retained the pre-eminence which he had held as a Junior and by 1880 it was generally expected that he would be promoted to the judicial bench as soon as opportunity offered. He had just entered Parliament for the borough of Southwark, defeating Sir Edward Clarke. In February, 1881, the expected offer came from the Lord Chancellor, Lord Selborne, but it was withdrawn as the Liberal Party feared an election in the borough owing to its instability in party politics. Sir William Harcourt, whom he had consulted as to whether he should accept, had told him that if he should decide to refuse the judgeship in order to devote himself for the time being to politics, he could always be certain of another at a later date. That he ought to receive a renewal of the offer was certainly the view of his colleagues at the bar and of Judges on the Bench, but the assurance was not realized and the omission led to the witticism of Matthew, L.J., who said?" What can Cohen expect of Herschell except a Passover." In the result he continued to practise at the Bar until shortly before his death in 1914 and the only recognition of his service which he received was at the hands of his political opponents when in 1905 he was appointed a Privy Councillor. The letters of congratulation he received on that occasion, some of which are printed on pages 165-9 ?f Miss Cohen's memoir, indicate what pleasure this recognition gave to members of his profession irrespective of party affiliation. His work was not confined to the field of private law. He was, as I have said, Junior Counsel in the Alabama case. As leading Counsel he was one of the represen? tatives of H.M.G. in the Venezuelan Arbitration in 1903. He also appeared as Counsel in the Jameson Raid Enquiry. I have referred to two honorific posts that he held ; but there are other appoint? ments which testify to the respect he commanded in the legal profession. He was Judge of the Cinque Ports Admiralty Court from 1875 until he resigned in 1914 when he was succeeded by Sir Frederick Pollock. In offering him the appointment, Lord Granville wrote?" the office is not one of great labour and has only a nominal value, but there is one appeal from it; it is an old office of some dignity." A short statement of its jurisdiction is to be found in the Encyclopedia Britannica where it is stated that the Jurisdiction of the Court is in theory concurrent with that of the King's Court of Admiralty, and that cases of collisions have been tried in it but of late mainly salvage cases. It is interesting to note that the Court still functioned while Arthur Cohen was its Judge, for instance in The Maine, reported in L.R. 7 P.D. 203, a case of salvage, but there has been no full sitting of the Court since Arthur Cohen retired. The " one appeal " referred to by Lord Granville is to the Judicial Com? mittee of the Privy Council. While at the Bar Arthur Cohen had the distinction of being retained for a number of important companies. He was standing Counsel to the Alliance Assurance</page><page sequence="5">LEVI BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 15 Company which had been founded by his uncle, Sir Moses Montefiore. He was also standing Counsel to the India Office, but the events which probably gave him the greatest pleasure were his appointment as standing Counsel to his old University of Cambridge in 1879 and his election as an Honorary Fellow of his college in 1883. What were the qualities which earned for Arthur Cohen his outstanding position at the Bar ? He had the natural advantage of remarkable good looks. He was a man of commanding height with a noble brow and finely moulded features, which expressed kindness, generosity, and a certain sensitiveness. But his success was due in the main to qualities of the mind. One of these was his power of concentrating on the subject before him. Miss Lucy Cohen gives a tragi-comic illustration of this aspect of his character. On one occasion he was to go in for a mathematical prize, but became so ingrossed in his studies that he forgot the right day of the examination and turned up a day late. But perhaps the best indication of his qualities is to be found in some of the letters his families received after his death. Thus Lord Loreburn wrote??" He knew law scientifically and in his arguments treated it scientifically, not merely as an advocate but as a real master of his subject. And though he always did his bounden duty to present his client's case fully and fairly to the Court, he never took a false point. His success at the Bar is a proof, if any were needed, that a man can do justice to his clients and at the same time do justice to himself at the English Bar." Lord Bryce wrote?" He was one of the few practising barristers of his time who was a jurist as well as a lawyer, and when the British Academy was being founded every one felt that he must be invited to join it as an eminent represen? tative of legal science." Finally to quote from the tribute paid to him by his great friend Professor Dicey in the Law Quarterly Review of January, 1915?" Cohen's reputation stands, and will continue to stand, far above those of many contemporaries and juniors who were more successful in attaining judicial distinction. One must go back for a parallel to names almost prehistoric to our younger lawyers. Cohen was the peer of Sergeant Maynard and Plowden, or, in a branch of the law remote from his own, the great conveyancers of the early nineteenth century. . . . Not that Cohen was merely or even chiefly book-learned ; far from it. There was no man at the bar whose judgment was sounder, or whose opinion was more respected on practical grounds. . . . No man ever spent more intellectual power upon the mastery of legal principles and of their close interconnection. The end which he prepared to himself was to make sure of understanding what was the true answer to the ques? tions raised by any case laid before him. But he looked at law rather from a logical than an historical point of view." One other quality must be mentioned. He was the least jealous of men. Pro? fessor Dicey tells us of " his great generosity in recognizing any merit he saw in the work of other men and especially of younger men and unknown men ". With these qualities it is not surprising that he gained the affection as well as the respect of the whole legal profession. He was never much of an author in the ordinary sense, but it is worth placing on record that with his son Sir Benjamin Cohen, K.C., he was the author of the article on the Law of Insurance contained in Lord Halsbury's " Laws of England ", Vol. XVIII. Arthur Cohen entered Parliament, as I have said, in 1880 as Liberal Member for the Borough of Southwark. He had studied greatly the art of public speaking and his notebook contains some of the principles he approved. One of them might well be</page><page sequence="6">16 LEVI BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS borne in mind by every advocate addressing a Court?" Study plainness of language, shortness of sentences, distinctness of articulation, test and question your arguments beforehand." He remained a M.P. until 1887. He never attained in that field the distinction that had befallen him at the Bar. Lord Bryce wrote?" The House of Commons was less congenial to him, as indeed most persons of a scientific cast of mind find it a bad place for the investigation of truth. He was, however, keenly interested in politics, and reflected much upon the principle both of foreign policy and of domestic legis? lation. On the few occasions when he spoke on questions raising those principles he was listened to with great respect." I do not know whether he ever spoke on problems of education, but if he did his views on the subject would have been approved by those who favoured the raising of the school-leaving age to fifteen or more. To his daughter who was anxious to remain at home for a time and help her mother instead of returning to school, he wrote?" Your argument that school education is not everything and that it is more important to be useful than to learn is fallacious. . . . The real fallacy that underlies your argument is your measuring what is temporary by what is permanent; what you now learn both in knowledge and by discipline may tend to make you perma? nently useful, in the higher sense of the word, to yourself and many people by forming your character and mind, and this benefit is not to be compared with the use you may be for a few weeks." He retired from Parliament in 1887, but his interest in politics never flagged and his services were often in demand when Royal Commissions or Committees or questions partly political and partly legal were to be set up. In 1873 ne na&lt;^ served on the Royal Commission to investigate the question of overloading of ships which had been raised by Plimsoll's book Our Seamen. Another important commission on which he served was the Royal Commission on Trades Disputes and Trade Combina? tions which made its report in 1906. Of this report Professor Dicey said?" It became necessary to explain the legitimacy of the action taken by the English Courts in the enforcement, by the recent judgments, of the duty laid by the law on Trade Unions to pay damages for the Torts committed by other agents of such Unions, and also to explain the existence among many trade unionists of the natural though erroneous notion that the Courts had imposed upon workmen employed in con? ducting a strike, new and oppressive obligations. No one can doubt that the per? formance of this difficult task is to be ascribed in the main at any rate to Arthur Cohen." After explaining how admirably he had discharged this task Professor Dicey continued?Cohen's contribution to this report illustrates a trait more important that his power, considerable though it was, of giving clear expression to principles of law, namely his statesmanlike equity towards the claims both of work? men and of employers." I turn to the Jewish aspect of his life and work. He was brought up in accordance with the principles and practice of orthodox Judaism. Though he was not in later life an observant Jew, he remained a believer in traditional Judaism. In 1897 he wrote to his daughter?" I sometimes think that when I retire from my profession I may do something for Judaism, but it will be on lines very different from those of Claude Montefiore, for I am convinced that Judaism will never be the future religion of a monotheism which is to supplant Christianity. It is essentially a religion for a particular race ; deprive it of this characteristic and of its historic garment, you</page><page sequence="7">LEV! BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 17 make it cool, lifeless, and insipid." He did not, however, await his retirement to render practical service to his community. The most important post he held was President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, an office which he retained for fifteen years. I pass to the Third Generation. Lionel Louis Cohen was born in 1832. He was the second surviving son of Louis Cohen, the founder of the Stock Exchange firm of Louis Cohen and Sons. Lionel Louis Cohen occupied an outstanding position in Jewish communal life and on the Stock Exchange and there can be little doubt that had his life not been cut short soon after he entered parliament he would have achieved great distinction in that field notwithstanding the comparatively advanced age at which he entered it. Unfortunately we have no book comparable to the memoir of Arthur Cohen by his daughter to throw light on Lionel Cohen's younger days or on his home life. An In Memoriam volume was printed after his death but it contains only the various notices which were published in the general and communal press after his death. His son Leonard preserved some of his correspondence, but it was unclassified and I have to confess that in the stress of war much of it has disappeared. None the less, particularly in relation to his communal activities, we have so much material available that it is possible to understand why on his death the Jewish Chronicle wrote? " To give even an outline of such a man's life is not an easy task. His activity was as far-seeking as his energy was untiring?his mental grasp was as sure and ready as his zeal was unsullied and his motives pure." The two outstanding landmarks of his work in the communal field were the Jewish Board of Guardians and the United Synagogue. The Board of Guardians was founded in 1859 when Lionel Cohen was but 27 years of age. He himself always denied that he was entitled to be described as its Father. That title, he said, belonged to Ephraim Alex, its first president. None the less as the Jewish Chronicle said?" The task of giving it birth, the burden of nursing it through its anxious infancy, tending it in its young days of trial and difficulty and perfecting its constitution, was his work as one of the Founders and the first honorary secretary." Those of you who see the Board as it now is with its large invested funds, its numerous committees, its convalescent homes and almshouses must have difficulty in realizing the problems with which its founders were faced. Laurie Magnus in the history of its first fifty years wrote that?" Prior to the foundation of the Board the system of relieving the needs of the Jewish Poor could be hardly dignified by the name of a system at all. It is scarcely remembered to-day how towards the end of the period when rich and poor lived together in the East End of London, charity was administered by means of doles distributed through the paid officials of the Syna? gogue." This system, or rather the lack of it, had a number of defects?(i) it assisted in creating pauperism, (ii) it did not adequately relieve poverty or cover those poor who were not associated with any synagogue, (iii) it did not sufficiently investigate the merits of the applicants and (iv) it failed to attend to their wants with the necessary promptitude. It was to remedy these defects that the Board was founded and its success in achieving its object was largely due to Lionel Cohen. He was untiring in his labours for the Board. Magnus reported that from its foundation, until 1867, all its minutes were recorded in Lionel Cohen's own hand and he carried on a voluminous correspondence with other leading workers and supporters at a time when efficient secretarial help such as we now take for granted was not, as a rule, available. He succeeded Alex as President of the Board in 1869 and he retained that office until his death in 1887. Some idea of the development which the Board</page><page sequence="8">18 LEVI BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS achieved under his guidance may be gathered from the fact that in its first year its only fixed income was ?440 furnished by the three synagogues who joined in its formation. Perhaps the best tribute to his work for the Board is to be found in its report for the year of his death, where it is stated that?" the ethics of the Board as to the treatment of the poor might in a great measure, be assigned to him for their origin ; the policy of the institution has been determined and shaped by the aid of his marvellous administrative ability, his guiding principle having been to centralize, where dictated by economy and expediency, and to co-operate with kindred societies for the purpose of checking and suppressing mendicity and indiscriminate charity, and to found such an institution as to prevent the idle partaking of the charity intended for the unfortunate." Changed social conditions have altered the work of the Board in the sixty years that have elapsed since Lionel Cohen's death, but the support accorded to the Board is a tribute to the soundness of the lines on which it was built up and recent reports have shown its adherence to the principle of centralization and of co-operation with other charities. The alteration in the work of the Board would not have surprised Lionel Cohen, for in the report of 1883 I find the prophecy?" If in past years the work of the Board has been rightly directed, the character of the aid dispensed should undergo even more transformation in the next quarter of a century than in the past. Larger expenditure may be demanded, but at least a great proportion of it will be used for purposes other than that of ordinary casual relief." To have founded the Jewish Board of Guardians would have been enough for most men, but Lionel Louis Cohen made as big a contribution to the religious, as he had previously made to the philanthropic life of the community. In 1870 the United Synagogue was founded and the leading synagogues were raised, to quote again the Jewish Chronicle, " from the position of incongruous atoms to that of a united body." He was one of its first Vice-Presidents, he shaped its constitution and until his death was the moving spirit in all its work. His synagogal activities were not confined to the central body. He took a prominent part in founding the East London Synagogue, but his closest connection was with the Central Synagogue. His association with that synagogue was commemorated by a memorial window and its gratitude to him expressed by the inclusion of a special prayer in the memorial prayers read on the Day of Atonement. The building which he helped so much to erect has been destroyed by enemy action, but I hope that when building restrictions are relaxed, a worthy successor may take its place and that his descendants will be permitted to co-operate in perpetuating his memory in the institution he loved so well. In his business life Cohen was as prominent as in communal affairs. The firm of Louis Cohen and Sons had been founded by his father, but it was to him that the firm owed the pre-eminent place which it held in the City. His business activities were not confined to his firm's affairs. In 1870 he became one of the managers of the Stock Exchange, and with his colleagues superintended the rebuilding of the structure in which it was housed. Perhaps the greatest service he rendered to that institution was in connection with the Royal Commission on the Stock Exchange in the year 1870. He was one of the members selected to give evidence on behalf of the Stock Exchange and was indeed their principal witness. A recognized expert on finance Cohen was a member of the Royal Commission on Depression of Trade. He wrote a pamphlet on Indian railway finance and the Jewish Chronicle records that</page><page sequence="9">LEVI BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 19 " his project for consolidating the administration of the railway debt was in several respects adopted I turn to his political activities. He had been invited to stand for Parliament in 1874. He refused to do so as he felt that at that time the Board of Guardians and the United Synagogue still required all his spare time, but he took the leading part in fighting an election for one of the Conservative candidates for the City of London, who was prevented by illness from taking any part in the contest. In 1885 he was invited to stand for North Paddington ; he accepted the invitation and at the same time he retired from business. He was successful and he retained the seat in 1886 ; but his premature death limited his parliamentary life to one year and seven months. None the less, the Jewish Chronicle's notice of his life records that he made a distinct mark in the House of Commons in his first session and that his criticisms of the financial proposals of the Government were of much value owing to his unsurpassed knowledge of financial questions. His colleague in the representation of Paddington was Lord Randolph Churchill. He evidently worked in close co-operation with Lord Randolph, for among Lionel Cohen's papers was found a copy of a letter which he wrote to the then Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, after Lord Randolph's surprise resignation of the Chancellorship of the Exchequer. In it he said that he had had the opportunity of discussing the forthcoming budget with Lord Randolph and would be glad to render any assistance he could to whomever might be appointed as Lord Randolph's successor. One episode in connection with his political activities is worth noting. He had addressed a meeting in St. George's in the East in support of the candidature of his friend Mr. Ritchie. In the course of his speech he made some observations which aroused the ire of Sergeant Simon and led him to attack Lionel Cohen in the columns of the Jewish Chronicle. In the course of his reply Lionel Cohen made some observa? tions which are, I think, as applicable now as they were in 1885?" I have abstained from referring to any special bonds of connection between me and my brethren which might be supposed to give me a special hold on their sympathies. ... I then told my brethren?and I repeat it now?that they possess the franchise as Englishmen, and not as Jews, and it was their duty as Englishmen to act up to the trust committed to them." With so many preoccupations in communal and public life it might be thought that Lionel Cohen would have no time for family life. Such an impression would be far from the truth. He took a deep interest in his sons' education. He required regular reports thereon and such reports were submitted to him in writing. I never saw them during my father's lifetime, but among his papers was a book containing daily reports on my father and his brother Edward. As my father is my selected representative of the fourth generation of the descendants of Levi Barent Cohen, some extracts from that book may be of interest although they reflect perhaps the limitations of the Victorian pedagogue rather than the faults of the pupils. " Leonard Cohen a very bad boy?didn't pay the slightest attention to the lessons and tried to give as much trouble as possible. He also used very ungentle manly expressions. He must be fined a penny a day." " Leonard knows his Hebrew very well but only learnt 8 out of 17 lessons. The dose of physic alone precluded my poor little patients from executing their work, but my young students have gone through their discipline very satisfactorily."</page><page sequence="10">20 LEVI BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS " My darling little volunteers deserve a good dinner to-day for working very bravely ; only a little whistling interrupted us at the commencement of one lesson which was essayed by our Master Leonard." Leonard's subsequent career showed that these delinquencies left no permanent mark on his character or scholarship. Leonard Cohen completed his education at King's College School and on leaving school joined the family firm. Like his father before him he gained the confidence of his confreres on the Stock Exchange and became a member of its Committee. There is a story told of him in his business career which illustrates one of the distinguishing features of his character. At a time when there was something of a crisis in the foreign market one of his uncles who was somewhat excitable came into the office and found Leonard sitting at his desk reading a newspaper. The uncle exploded, " Don't you know there's a crisis on ? Why aren't you doing something ? " Leonard replied, " I find it better to keep cool, Sir." History does not record the effect of this remark on the uncle, but the story got about and when Leonard next entered the House, a group of his friends formed a circle around him and chanted, " he finds it better to keep cool." This story, as I have said, illustrates one of his outstanding characteristics. He always kept a cool head and never allowed his judgment to be affected by the excitement of the moment. He used to tell my mother that if she wrote a strongly expressed letter, she should keep it unposted overnight and see next morning whether it represented her considered judgment. My father retired from the firm in 1900 and devoted the remaining 38 years of his life mainly to public work. He had gained a high reputation as a financial authority and it was for this reason that on his retirement he was appointed a director of three Indian railways. He retained these directorships (except in one case where the Company was taken over by the Government) until his death when each of the Companies placed on record that during this period of over 31 years he had devoted himself wholeheartedly to the interests of the Company and his great financial ability was always at the disposal of the Board. He had been invited to become Chairman but wisely refused to do so, as he felt that the Chairman should have some technical knowledge and should be familiar with the country where the railway operated. On his retirement from business Leonard Cohen became President of the Jewish Board of Guardians in succession to his uncle, Sir Benjamin, and he remained President for nearly 21 years, a longer period than any other President to date ; longer indeed than he had intended as he only carried on for the last few years because Mr. (later Sir) Arthur Stiebel whom he considered most suitable as a successor had joined the forces and been grievously wounded My father had served a strenuous apprenticeship. He started as a sub-auditor, and then served in turn on the Loan Committee, the Emigration Committee, the Fixed Allowance Committee, and the General and Relief Committee. His tenure of the office of President was marked by a number of crises, the most important of which were perhaps the Russian persecu? tions and the introduction of the first Aliens Bill which contained many serious restrictions of the right of asylum in this country. He took these in his stride, but perhaps the greatest contribution he made to the Board was that under his guidance the character of the assistance given by the Board changed. Mr. Benjamin whose long service to the Board makes him particularly qualified to speak writes?" Up to the time Sir Leonard became Chairman the assistance given by the Board was of</page><page sequence="11">LEV! BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 21 a palliative nature only, properly styled 4 Temporary Assistance ' or relief for imme? diate distress. Sir Leonard's view was that assistance should be given in such a way as to remove the cause of distress and so, under his guidance, the Board embarked on a campaign to improve the health and housing of the Board's clientele." Health visitors were appointed : delicate children were sent to approved families in the country and at his suggestion Samuel Lewis was induced to devote the legacy he intended to leave to the Board to the convalescent home which now bears his name. Sir Leonard was most insistent that cases should be dealt with promptly. One of his adages quoted by Mr. Benjamin was, " Better deal wrongly than slowly with a case." He had no patience with technicalities and Mr. Benjamin records that on one occasion, when some member of the Board objected to the obvious solution of a problem on the ground that excellent as was the solution it was against the Board's constitution, Sir Leonard retorted?" Good heavens ! what are we here for but to commit judicious breaches of the Constitution." His annual addresses to the con? tributors constituted a mine of information on the work of the Board and provided ample food for thought as to its future. If not salted with as much humour as those of his cousin, Miss Hannah Cohen, they always held his audience and formed the basis of interesting discussions which followed on them. Mention of Miss Hannah Cohen reminds me that it was in the first year of Sir Leonard's Presidency that a lady was for the first time elected a member of the Board on the motion appropriately enough of Sir Benjamin Cohen, Miss Cohen's father. Sir Leonard's other main activity in Jewish Communal affairs was in connection with the Jewish Colonization Association, which had been founded by Baron Maurice de Hirsch and endowed with several million pounds in order to establish colonies to which Jewish victims of persecution might emigrate. It was governed by a council which in those days contained representatives of the Jewish Communities of Great Britain, France, Germany, and Belgium. Sir Leonard succeeded his uncle Alfred and among his colleagues at different times were Claude Montefiore, Leonard Montefiore, and Sir Osmond D'Avigdor Goldsmid from Great Britain, Reinach from France, Blau from Germany, and Philippson from Belgium. Sir Leonard was Vice-President during the Presidency of Philippson and succeeded him as President. Mr. Leonard Montefiore has kindly furnished me with a note on his work for the Jewish Colonization Association from which I take the following extracts. " Among the important charities that owe an immense debt to Leonard Cohen is the Jewish Colonization Association. It is due to his foresight and sound judgment that some portion at least of the original capital remains intact and has survived the ravages of the world wars. For years he and Franz Phillippson, the Belgian banker, controlled and directed the J.C.A.'s investments. Philippson has the reputation of having the best financial brain in North-West Europe but he leaned heavily on Cohen's advice and opinion. Cohen at the J.C.A. was something of an autocrat, but a wise and understanding autocrat who knew how on occasion to yield gracefully. As years went on he developed foibles that endeared him to his colleagues?whimsi? calities and oddities. He would travel to Paris to the meetings regardless of wind or weather sometimes leaving his less courageous colleages in London. ' If the boat goes I go 5 he used to say. He was, it must be admitted, an excellent sailor and used to chaff those of us who used to totter down the gangway having suffered all the horrors of seasickness. " In any society one felt he was a somebody, an impressive figure. I have heard</page><page sequence="12">22 LEV! BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS it said that half a louis d'or presented by Milord Cohen was worth a whole one conferred by anyone else. There was a gracious dignity about the whole proceeding. " As chairman of an international body like the J.C.A. where French, Cerman, and English were all spoken, he displayed patience but not undue forbearance. The all too lengthy and eloquent speaker was firmly guided back to relevancy. He never shirked responsibility and fulfilled what may be regarded as a chairman's primary duty, namely, to give a lead. He inspired a sense of confidence and we his colleagues on the J.C.A. Council felt that if we followed Cohen's advice we should probably be doing the wisest and most sensible thing. Moreover his industry was great. He read all the papers and on any question the chairman knew the relevant facts. He was a fine administrator endowed with a keen powerful intellect. He was not an orator and was constitutionally averse to enthusiasm. Surtout point de zele. On the other hand no trouble was too great, no detail was too insignificant, no precaution was omitted when it came to questions of administration." Mr. Montefiore's note shows that though my father was wont to say, " the ideal committee is a committee of one," he in fact knew the value of colleagues and the proper method of getting the best out of them. He did not confine his philanthropic activities to communal work. His first major task in a wider field was in connection with the unemployed in the years 1905-9. He was one of the members of the London Unemployed Fund and afterwards of the Central Unemployed body nominated by the President of the Local Government Board, another nominated member being Mr. Lockwood, an inspector of that Board. He and Mr. Lockwood undertook the task of visiting regularly a temporary working colony which was established by the fund at Letchworth Garden City. They were often accompanied by Mr. Maynard who was secretary of the Fund and then Clerk to the Central Unemployed Body. It was this association which led to Sir Leonard becoming connected with King Edward's Hospital Fund. In 1906 Mr. Maynard became secretary of the King's fund and impressed by what he had seen of Sir Leonard's work for the unemployed, he induced him to undertake work for the King's Fund. He started as a visitor in 1909 and became a member of the Distribution Committee in 1911. In 1922 he retired from that Committee and became Chairman of the then newly established Hospital Economy Committee. He remained Chairman until 1935 when he resigned as he found that at the age of 77 the work imposed too great a strain on him. In 1925 he became one of the Honorary Secre? taries and retained that office until his death. An Honorary Secretary of the King's Fund holds no mere ministerial office. As such he is a member of all the Committees including the Management Committee and it would, I think, be true to say that the Honorary Secretaries are the cement which hold the whole edifice together and have an influence far beyond that which the style of their office might appear to connote. As Chairman of the Hospital Economy Committee he was responsible for the interpreta? tion and improvement of the Revised Uniform system of Hospital Accounts, the adop? tion and observance of which was a condition of grants. His work for the Fund was recognized by his appointment as K.C.V.O., and letters I received from his colleagues after his death show how well deserved this honour was. Time forbids many quotations, but I cannot resist citing a sentence from a letter from the late Warren Low, " His wisdom, sympathy, and genial humour were of the greatest value to his colleagues." Such is a brief account of Sir Leonard's principal activities, but perhaps one of his most valuable services was the inspiration and guidance he gave to young men</page><page sequence="13">LEVI BARENT COHEN AND SOME OF HIS DESCENDANTS 23 willing to devote themselves to the service of others. Otto Schiff writes?" He was one of the wisest and soundest men whom I met in all my life and if I have achieved success in my social welfare work, it is very largely, if not solely, due to the fact that I had the great privilege to work under him and learn from him when I was very young and he was President of the Board. He fired me with enthusiasm and at the same time brought me up on sound lines.55 Others have written in similar vein and if I quote only Otto Schiff, it is because no social worker could have had a pupil of whom he had more reason to feel proud. It is always difficult for a son to talk or write about his father. As a father he had much in common with Arthur Cohen. Of Arthur Cohen, Miss Lucy Cohen writes?" We were rather overawed by him, though he hardly ever found fault with us. . . . The more serious failings were left to my mother to cope with. She would laughingly say ' If ever the children don't please you, you always talk of them to me as your children 5. ... It would have been impossible for him to have told us tales or to have played with us, but he would commission our mother to buy us presents. A favourite way with him to lead us in the paths of righteousness was to offer us rewards, never to threaten us with punishments. I suppose he was one of the kindest men that ever lived.55 I pass from quotation to add that if my father was somewhat remote from us as small children, he took a keen and increasing interest in us as we grew older. His advice was always at our disposal and was always sound. Though he left me entirely free to choose my own career, nothing was too much trouble to see that I had every opportunity of fitting myself for it. But more valuable than my prejudiced testimony, are the tributes that were paid to him by hundreds of friends and colleagues after his death. From some of these I have already quoted. I would venture to cite a few further extracts. One of his oldest friends writes?" We used to discuss all manner of things and I considered his judgment the soundest and most unprejudiced that I ever heard. He had a splendid character and a splendid brain and it was by these qualities that in every undertaking with which he was associated he won an unrivalled leadership.55 From a prominent member of the Jewish Community?" He did as much as anyone to make the Community respected and I would wish no finer epitaph.55 From another leading Jew who had been associated with him in connection with the work of the Jewish Colonization Association?" Having had the privilege of co-operating for many years with your father I am able to appreciate his admirable clear-mindedness, the rectitude of his judgement, and his magnificent sense of duty.55 As a last epitaph let me quote from a letter written to him by Claude Montefiore on the occasion of his 75th birthday?" Bless you. What a lot of good you have done in the world and how capable you are.55 With this epitaph I reach the end of my review of Levi Barent Cohen and some of his descendants who are no more. I hope that it may be of some general interest as I venture to think that the story of Levi Barent Cohen and his descendants, not only those I have mentioned but of many others whom time has compelled me to pass over in silence, has some bearing on questions of present interest to the Anglo Jewish Community. The lesson that I would draw from that story is that assimilation, as it is loosely called, is not a danger to the future of Judaism but on the contrary that close association of Jews with their fellow-citizens of other faiths enriches Anglo Jewish life and enables Jews to make a greater contribution to the life of the country of which they are citizens and of the world at large.</page><page sequence="14">J" Ezechiel (Escgiel) of Amersfoort (d. ante 1746) m. Marritje (Meerle), d. of Abraham Levi Victoria (Italiaander) (d. 1746). Jonas(1698-1780) m. (1) Sara, da. of Benjamin Italiaander, (2) Esther, da. of Simon Butenheim. Several other sons and daughters. Gaatje (Ghailes) m? (I743) Joseph Meyer Goldsmit. 4 Rebecca (1738-1808) m. (1763) George (Gershom) son of Aaron Goldsmid (1741-1812). 4 Other children. d Albert Assur (b. &amp; d. 1825). Louisa (b. &amp; d. 1826). Henry Louis (1827-1893) m. (1861) Ellen, da. of Hananel de Castro 1832-1924 s.p. George Louis Adelaide Lionel Louis (M.P.) (b. &amp; d. 1829). (1830-1895) m. (1832-1887) m. (1856) (1851) (Sir) Joseph Esther, da. of Jacob Sebag (Montefiore) Henry Moses (Merton (1822-1903). family) (1832-1894). I I Joseph Edward (Sir)_ Leonard Lionel, K.C.V.O. Floretta Marianne Frank Lionel Walter Samuel (b. Harold Her (b. 1865) m. 1870) m. (1903) Albert Alfre (1896) Bertha, da. Lucy Margaret, da. (1871-1894). (1870-1 of Simon Waley of Henry Cobb Waley (d. 1942) (1872-1930). I _ (1858-1938) m. (1885) Eliza Henrietta, da. of Sigismund Schloss (1864-1935). (b. 1861) m. (1880) Henry Edward Beddington (1850-1926). Lionel (Rt. Hon. Lord Cohen Irene (1891-1933) m. Col. Constance Beatrice Harold of Walmer) (b. 1888) m. Thos. H. Sebag Montefiore, Esther Hendelah (b. Albert 1918) Adelaide, da. of Sir D.S.O., M.C. (b. 1887). (b. 1898). 1899) m. (1922) (b. 1901). Isidore Spielman, C.M.G. Albert Isaac Polack. _ I Elizabeth Adelaide m. (1) (1940) Capt. Arthur Pearce Serocold (killed in action, 1942), (2) (1946) Hon. Peter Montifiore Samuel, M.C. Leonard Harold (Timothy) (b. 1922) m. (1950) Eleanor, da. of Philip Henriques. Jonathan Lionel (b. 1951.) Hugh Lionel (b. 1925). Richard Lionel (b. 1907) m. M. Deas. 1 James (b. 1942). Mary (b. 1911) m. D. Lucas.</page><page sequence="15">A THE COHEN FAMILY Benjamin Cohen (fl. ca. 1660). tel (Escgiel) of Amersfoort ante 1746) m. Marritje rle), d. of Abraham Levi ria (Italiaander) (d. 1746). min da. Several other sons and daughters. Other 3) children. of Joseph (1774-1838) (m. 1796) Marian] of Elias Joachim (1768-1840) Barent (b. 1798 d. in infancy) Louis (1799-1882) m. (1824) Rebecca Floretta, da. of Assur Keyser (1807-1859). Frances (Sheina) Anna (1801-1868) m. (Gererdel) (1820) Louis Lucas (1802-1891). (1791-1851). Jeannette (1803-1867) m. (1804 (ist wife) (1836) (1825) (Sir) (17 David Salomons (Bart., M.P.) (1797 1873) s.p. Adelaide Lionel Louis (M.P.) Julia 30-1895) m. (1832-1887) m. (1856) (1834-1905) m. :) (Sir) Joseph Esther, da. of Jacob (1858) Henry (Montefiore) Henry Moses (Merton Jessel 1821-1870) 822-1903). family) (1832-1894). j Frances (b. &amp; d. 1835. Alfred Louis (1836-1903) m. (1869) Louise Marie Sophie, da. of Joseph Javal of Paris (1847-1902). Henrietta (1838-1876) m. (1855) Assur Henry Moses (1830-1918). I Joseph ] (b. &amp; i839: Walter Samuel (b. Harold 1870) m. (1903) Albert Lucy Margaret, da. (1871-1894). of Henry Cobb (d. 1942) Henry Margaret Alfred Louise (b. &amp; (1870-1895). d. 1871). Harold (b. Albert 522) (b. 1901). Susan Louise (Lily) (b. 1873) George Alfred (1874-1942) Caroline (b. 1875) m* O895) Major Harry m. (1905) Gertrude Hannah, (1897) James Hei Barned Lewis-Barned da. of Grenville Myer (b. Solomon. (i860- ). 1878). I i I _ Richard Lionel (b. 1907) m. M. Deas. James (b. 1942). Mary (b. 1911) m. D. Lucas. Oliver Henry Lionel (1904). Ruth Louisa. (Sir) Andrew Benjamin, (K.C.M.G., O.B.E.) (b. 1909) m. Mrs. Helen Donington. Richard (b. 1950). I I I Gladys John Esther Katharine m. Robert Walter Elizabeth Floretta m. Hunter (1909-1910). (b. &amp; d. (1938) Arthur Codrington. 1912). James Hunt. j Luc m. (ic Leonz Solorr Fait 1</page><page sequence="16">A &gt;HEN FAMILY lohen (fl. ca. 1660). Isaac I Selig Barent (Bernard) of Amsterdam and Amersfoort (b. ca. 1710). Hyman Cohen Wessels. Solomon Levi Barent (1747-1808) (d. ante 1808) (Amsterdam) (London) m. (1) I Fanny, da. of Joseph 5 daughters. Diamantschleifer, (2) Lydia, da. of Joseph Diamantschleifer. I I by first wife (for children by sc Solomon H. Cohen Wea m* (*797) Fanny, da. of] Joseph (1774-1838) (m. 1796) Marianne, da. of Elias Joachim (1768-1840) Solomon (1776-1864) m. (1802) Hannah, da. of Moses Samuel (1776-1871). Fanny m. (1797) Solomon Hyman Cohen Wessels a) Anna 1. (Gererdel) as (1802-1891) Jeannette (1803-1867) m. (ist wife) (1825) (Sir) David Salomons (Bart., M.P.) (1797 1873) s.p. Harriet (1804-1879) m? (1836) John Wagg (1793-1878). Barent Abraham (1806-8) (1808-1879). Emily (1809-1841) m. (1835) Solomon Isaac Joseph (New York) (1799-1866). 1 Levi (Lewis Barent) (1812-1826). Hannah (1816-1898 (1845) Benjamin M&lt; (Merton) (1813-18I Louisa (1850-1931) Sir Benjamin L. Co (Bart., M.P.). Henrietta (1838-1876) m. Joseph Louis 369) (1855) Assur Henry Moses (b. &amp; d. hie, (1830-1918). 1839). al j 2). Samuel Louis (1840-1841). David Louis (1842-3). Ellen (1843-1919) m. (1862) (Sir) Samuel Montagu (Bart., M.P.) (ist Baron Swaythling) (1832-1911). I (Sir) Benjamin Louis (Bart., M.P.) (1844-1909) m. (1870) Louisa Emily, da. of Benjamin Moses Merton (1850-1931). Is 18 *ge Alfred (1874-1942) 905) Gertrude Hannah, of Grenville Myer (b. 1878). Caroline (b. 1875) m (1897) James Henry Solomon. 1 (Sir) Herbert Benjamin (2nd Bart.), Hannah Floretta, O.B.E. (b. 1874) m. (1907) Hannah O.B.E. Mildred (Nina), da. of Henry (1875-1946). Behrens. Arthu: Mertc (b. 187 Esther lizabeth b. &amp; d. 1912). I Gladys Lucy Katharine m. Robert m. (1939) Floretta m. Hunter Leonard (1938) Arthur Codrington. Solomon James Hunt. j Falk. Elizabeth Marjorie m. (1930) Ellis James Castello, M.C. (b. 1897). y I Nigel Benjamin (1908 1930 James Arthur Waley (b. 1898). Stephen Behrens (1911 1943) Col. Jacob Waley Cohen, C.M.G., C.B.E., D.S.O. (1874-1948) m. (1) (1897) Katha? rine, da. of Rt. Hon. Arthur Cohen, K.C. (1875-1924). (2) (1934) Mrs. Evelyn Grabowsky-Atherstone. Sir Robert Waley Cohen, K.B.E. (b. 1877)m.(1904) Alice Violet, da. of Henry Edward Beddington (1881-1935). Ian Nathanial Waley (b. &amp; d. 1900). Emmeline. Nora. I Col. Charles Cohen, CM. 1879) m. (1 Ethel Alice, Hermann Kisci s.p. Bernard Nathaniel Waley (b. 1914) m. Joyce, da. of Lord Nathan of Churt. I Henrietta Flore (1937) Oliver I Sebag-Montef 1</page><page sequence="17">c nard) of I Amersfoort 710). 747-1808) Hyman Cohen Wessels. ndon) m. (1) | &gt;f Joseph Solomon H. Cohen Wessels 2) Lydia, da. of m. (1797) Fanny, da. of Levi Berent Cohen ntschleifer. I by first wife (for children by second wife see Table B) 3-1864) m* Fanny m. (1797) Solomon da. of Moses Hyman Cohen Wessels 76-1871). 1 Levi Hannah (1816-1898) m. Joshua (Lewis Barent) (1845) Benjamin Moses (b. &amp; d. (1812-1826). (Merton) (1813-1881) 1818). Louisa (1850-1931) m. Sir Benjamin L. Cohen (Bart., M.P.). -1919) m. Samuel irt., M.P.) vaythling) 9") (Sir) Benjamin Louis Isaac (Bart., M.P.) (1844-1909) (1844 m. (1870) Louisa Emily, i860), da. of Benjamin Moses Merton (1850-1931). Nathanial Louis (1846- Edward 1913) m. (1873) Julia Louis Matilda, da. of Jacob Waley (b. &amp; d. (1853-1917). 1848). min (2nd Bart.), Hannah Floretta, , (1907) Hannah O.B.E. da. of Henry (1875-1946). Arthur Ernest Merton Merton (b. 1876). (b. 1877). b Waley ?.M.G., D.S.O. 48) m. Katha Rt. Hon. Len, K.C. 924) rs. Evelyn therstone. 1 Sir Robert Waley Cohen, K.B.E. (b. 1877) m. (1904) Alice Violet, da. of Henry Edward Beddington (1881-1935). Col. Charles Waley Cohen, C.M.G. (b. 1879) m. (1909) Ethel Alice, da. of Hermann Kisch, C.S.I., s.p. I Henrietta Waley (1875-1914). I Margaret Waley (b. &amp; d. 188 0 Dorothea Waley (b. 1882) m. (1910) Dr. Charles Singer (b. 1876). Matilda Waley (1885-1945) m. (1908) Francis George Joseph (1881-1944). 4 meline. Bernard Nathaniel Tora. Waley (b. 1914) m. Joyce, da. of Lord Nathan of Churt. Henrietta Floretta m. (1937) Oliver R. M. Sebag-Montefiore. 1 Matthew Henry Waley (b. 1916). m. (2) 1950.</page><page sequence="18">Ezechiel (Escgiel) of Amersfoort (d. ante 1746) m. Marritje (Meerle), d. of Abraham Levi Victoria (Italiaander) (d. 1746). Jonas (1698-1780) m. (1) Sara, da. of Benjamin Italiaander, (2) Esther, da. of Simon Butenheim. Several other sons and daughters. Gaatje (Ghailes) m. (*743) Joseph Meyer Goldsmit. 1 Rebecca (1738-1808) m. (1763) George (Gershom) son of Aaron Goldsmid (1741-1812). i Other children. d.; Albert Assur Louisa Henry Louis George Louis Adelaide Lionel Louis (M.P.) (b. &amp; d. 1825). (b- &amp; d- 1826)- (1827-1893) m. (b. &amp; d. 1829). (1830-1895) m. (1832-1887) m. (1856) (1861) Ellen, da. (l$5l) (Sir) Joseph Esther, da. of Jacob of Hananel de Sebag (Montefiore) Henry Moses (Merton Castro 1832-1924 (1822-1903). family) (1832-1894). s.p. I I (1 ( J* Edward Joseph (Sir) Leonard Lionel, K.C.V.O. Floretta Marianne Frank Lionel Walter Samuel (b. Harold ~~" " ~~ (b. 1865) m. 1870) m. (1903) Albert (1896) Bertha, da. Lucy Margaret, da. (1871-1894). of Simon Waley of Henry Cobb Waley (d. 1942) (1872-1930). I_ (1858-1938) m. (1885) Eliza Henrietta, da. of Sigismund Schloss (1864-1935). (b. 1861) m. (1880) Henry Edward Beddington (1850-1926). Henr Alfred (1870-18 I Lionel (Rt. Hon. Lord Cohen Irene (1891-1933) m. Col. Constance Beatrice of Walmer) (b. 1888) m. Thos. H. Sebag Montefiore, Esther Hendelah (b. 1918) Adelaide, da. of Sir D.S.O., M.C. (b. 1887). (b. 1898). 1899) m. (1922) Isidore Spielman, C.M.G. Albert Isaac I Polack. _ I Harold Albert (b. 1901). Elizabeth Adelaide m. (1) (1940) Capt. Arthur Pearce Serocold (killed in action, 1942), (2) (1946) Hon. Peter Montifiore Samuel, M.C. Leonard Harold (Timothy) (b. 1922) m. (1950) Eleanor, da. of Philip Henriques. Jonathan Lionel (b. 1951.) Hugh Lionel (b. 1925) licha Richard Lionel (b. 1907) m. M. Deas. James (b. 1942). Mary (b. 1911) m. D. Lucas. ( Sarah (b. 1947). Nicholas (b. 1950) These</page><page sequence="19">XXXXJ X i. XXVXXXJ X Benjamin Cohen (fl. ca. 1660). el (Escgiel) of Amersfoort ante 1746) m. Marritje rle), d. of Abraham Levi ia (Italiaander) (d. 1746). Several min other sons da. and daughters. Other j) children. of Joseph (1774-1838) (m. 1796) Mariam of Elias Joachim (1768-1840) Barent (b. 1798 d. in infancy) Louis (1799-1882) m. (1824) Rebecca Floretta, da. of Assur Keyser (1807-1859). Frances (Sheina) Anna (1801-1868) m. (Gererdel) (1820) Louis Lucas (1802-1891). (1791-1851). Jeannette (1803-1867) m. (1804 (1 st wife) (1836) (1825) (Sir) (17 David Salomons (Bart., M.P.) (1797 1873) s.p. Adelaide Lionel Louis (M.P.) $0-1895) m. (1832-1887) m. (1856) ) (Sir) Joseph Esther, da. of Jacob (Montefiore) Henry Moses (Merton 822-1903). family) (1832-1894). \ I Julia Frances Alfred Louis Henrietta (1838-1876) m. (1834-1905) m. (b. &amp; d. 1835. (1836-1903) m. (1869) (1855) Assur Henry Moses (1858) Henry Louise Marie Sophie, (1830-1918). Jessel 1821-1870). da. of Joseph Javal \ I of Paris (1847-1902). Joseph I (b. &amp; 1839] Walter Samuel (b. Harold 1870) m. (1903) Albert Lucy Margaret, da. (1871-1894). of Henry Cobb (d. 1942) )22) IC Harold Albert (b. 1901). Henry Margaret Susan Louise (Lily) (b. 1873) George Alfred (1874-1942) Caroline (b. 1875) Alfred Louise (b. &amp; m. (1895) Major Harry m. (1905) Gertrude Hannah, (1897) James Hei (1870-1895). d. 1871). Barned Lewis-Barned da. of Grenville Myer (b. Solomon. (i860- ). 1878). I I I_ _, _1 Richard Lionel (b. 1907) m. M. Deas. James (b. 1942). Mary (b. 1911) m. D. Lucas. Oliver Henry Lionel (1904). Ruth Louisa. (Sir) Andrew Benjamin, (K.C.M.G., O.B.E.) (b. 1909) m. Mrs. Helen Donington. Richard (b. 1950). I John Walter (1909-1910). I I # Gladys Esther Katharine m. Robert Elizabeth Floretta m. Hunter (b. &amp; d. (1938) Arthur Codrington. 1912). James Hunt. j Luc m. (ig Leom Solom Falk 1 These tables have been based to a large extent on information furnished by the late Sir Thomas Colyer-I</page><page sequence="20">t nun x" r\ivj.xj_ x lohen (fl. ca. 1660). Isaac I Selig Barent (Bernard) of Amsterdam and Amersfoort (b. ca. 1710). Solomon (d. ante 1808) 5 daughters. I (0 Levi Barent (1747-1808) (Amsterdam) (London) m. Fanny, da. of Joseph Diamantschleifer, (2) Lydia, da. of Joseph Diamantschleifer. I I by first wife (for children by s Hyman Cohen Wessels. Solomon H. Cohen Wes m. (1797) Fanny, da. of Joseph (1774-1838) (m. 1796) Marianne, da. of Elias Joachim (1768-1840) Solomon (1776-1864) m. (1802) Hannah, da. of Moses Samuel (1776-1871). Fanny m. (1797) Solomon Hyman Cohen Wessels a) Anna 1. (Gererdel) as (1802-1891) Jeannette (1803-1867) m. (ist wife) (1825) (Sir) David Salomons (Bart., M.P.) (1797 1873) s.p. Harriet (1804-1879) m. (1836) John Wagg (1793-1878). y Barent (1806-8) Abraham (1808-1879). Emily (1809-1841) m. (1835) Solomon Isaac Joseph (New York) (1799-1866). 4 Levi (Lewis Barent) (1812-1826). Hannah (1816-189* (1845) Benjamin M (Merton) (1813-18 Louisa (1850-1931] Sir Benjamin L. Cc (Bart., M.P.). *69) hie, al 2). Henrietta (1838-1876) m. (1855) Assur Henry Moses (1830-1918). I Joseph Louis (b. &amp; d. 1839). *ge Alfred (1874-1942) 905) Gertrude Hannah, of Grenville Myer (b. i878). Caroline (b. 1875) m. (1897) James Henry Solomon. 1 Samuel Louis (1840-1841). David Louis (1842-3). Ellen (1843-1919) m. (1862) (Sir) Samuel Montagu (Bart., M.P.) (ist Baron Swaythling) (1832-1911). y (Sir) Benjamin Louis (Bart., M.P.) (1844-1909) m. (1870) Louisa Emily, da. of Benjamin Moses Merton (1850-1931). h (1 i? (Sir) Herbert Benjamin (2nd Bart.), Hannah Floretta, Arthu O.B.E. (b. 1874) m. (1907) Hannah O.B.E. Mert&lt; Mildred (Nina), da. of Henry (1875-1946). (b. 18* Behrens. 1 1 Esther lizabeth b. &amp; d. 1912). I Gladys Lucy Katharine m. Robert m. (1939) Floretta m. Hunter Leonard (1938) Arthur Codrington. Solomon James Hunt. j Falk, y 1 Elizabeth Marjorie m. (1930) Ellis James Castello, M.C. (b. 1897). y Nigel Benjamin (1908 1930 James Arthur Waley (b. 1898). Stephen Behrens (1911 1943) Col. Jacob Waley Cohen, C.M.G., C.B.E., D.S.O. (1874-1948) m. (1) (1897) Katha? rine, da. of Rt. Hon. Arthur Cohen, K.C. (1875-1924). (2) (1934) Mrs. Evelyn Grabowsky-Atherstone. 1 Sir Robert Waley Cohen, K.B.E. (b. 1877)m. (1904) Alice Violet, da. of Henry Edward Beddington (1881-1935). Col. Charles Cohen, CM 1879) m. ( Ethel Alice, Hermann Kisc s.p. Ian Nathanial Waley (b. &amp; d. 1900). Emmeline. Nora. on furnished by the late Sir Thomas Colyer-Fergusson, Bart., and Mr. Ronald d'Arcy Hart.?A. M. H. Bernard Nathaniel Waley (b. 1914) m. Joyce, da. of Lord Nathan of Churt. I I Henrietta Flore (1937) Oliver . Sebag-Monte 4</page><page sequence="21">lard) of Amersfoort 7io). 747-1808) Hyman Cohen Wessels. idon) m. (1) I f Joseph Solomon H. Cohen Wessels ?) Lydia, da. of m. (1797) Fanny, da. of Levi Berent Cohen itschleifer. _I by first wife (for children by second wife see Table B) -1864) m. Fanny m. (1797) Solomon da. of Moses Hyman Cohen Wessels '6-1871). I Levi Hannah (1816-1898) m. Joshua (Lewis Barent) (1845) Benjamin Moses (b. &amp; d. (1812-1826). (Merton) (1813-1881) 1818). Louisa (1850-1931) m. Sir Benjamin L. Cohen (Bart., M.P.). 1919) m. Samuel rt., M.P.) raythling) (Sir) Benjamin Louis Isaac (Bart., M.P.) (1844-1909) (1844 m. (1870) Louisa Emily, i860), da. of Benjamin Moses Merton (1850-1931). Nathanial Louis (1846- Edward 1913) m. (1873) Julia Louis Matilda, da. of Jacob Waley (b. &amp; d. (1853-1917). 1848). min (2nd Bart.), Hannah Floretta, (1907) Hannah O.B.E. da. of Henry (1875-1946). Arthur Ernest Merton Merton (b. 1876). (b. 1877). ) Waley .M.G., ).S.O. l8) m. k Katha *t. Hon. en,K.C. 924). s. Evelyn :herstone. Sir Robert Waley Cohen, K.B.E. (b. 1877) m. (1904) Alice Violet, da. of Henry Edward Beddington (1881-1935). Col. Charles Waley Cohen, C.M.G. (b. 1879) m. (1909) Ethel Alice, da. of Hermann Kisch, C.S.I., s.p. I. Henrietta Waley (1875-1914). I Margaret Waley (b. &amp; d. 1881). Dorothea Waley (b. 1882) m. (1910) Dr. Charles Singer (b. 1876). Matilda Waley (1885-1945) m. (1908) Francis George Joseph (1881-1944). 4 neline. Bernard Nathaniel Henrietta Floretta m. Matthew Henry ora. Waley (b. 1914) m. (1937) Oliver R. M. Waley (b. 1916). Joyce, da. of Lord Sebag-Montefiore. m. (2) 1950. Nathan of Churt. j 1 . M.H.</page><page sequence="22">B THE DESCENDANTS OF LEVI BARENT COHEN (For children by first wife see Levi Barent Cohen m. (2) Lydia Diamantschleifer (1751 -1818). Barent (1780-1807) (unm.). Esther (1782-1859) m. (1803) Samuel Moses Samuel (brother of Baron de Samuel) (1773-1873), I Hannah (1783-1850) m. (1806) Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836). 1 Judith (1784-1862) m. (1812) (Sir) Moses Montefiore (Bart.) (1784-1885) (s.p.). Benjamin (1789-1867) m. (1819) Justina, da. of Joseph Elias Montefiore (1800-1873) Isaac (1791-1846) m. (1) (1818) Rebecca da. of Dr. Joseph Hart Myers (1793-1819) (2) (1827) Sarah, da. of Phineas Samuel (1810-1879). Hyman (b. &amp; d. 1793] John (1828-1836). Juliana (1831-1877). m.(1850) Baron Mayer Amschel de Rothschild (1818-1874). Lucy (1820-1838). Justina Rachel (1822-1854) m. (1843) Sampson Lucas Behrens. (1816-1876) 4 Hannah (1823-1891) m; (1841) Ippolito Leonino. (d. i877) Lionel Benjamin (1826-1890), m. (1) (1849) Henrietta Rachel, da. of Joseph Salomons (1827-1859) (2) (i860) Bertha, da. of Philip J. Salomons (1841-1917). Florence Justina (1857-1920) m. (1) (1876) Abraham de Mattos Mocatta. (1855-1891) (2) (1892) Rt. Hon. Sir David Brynmor Jones, K.C., M.P. (1852-1921) s.p. Nathaniel (1827-1911) m. (i860) Rebecca, da. of Philip Lucas (1839-1890). (Rt. Hon.) Art! (1829-1914) r Emmeline, Henry Mi&lt; (1843-1&amp; Justina ' Rachel (1864-1889) m. (1888) (ist wife) John Felix Waley (b. 1862) Philip Arthur (1866-1937). Marguerite Abigail (1871-1942) (m. 1890) (Sir) Benjamin Arthur Cohen, K.C. Ethel (b.&amp;d. 1869). Lucy (1861-1951). (Sir) Benjamin Arthur (K.C.) (1862-1942) m. (1890) Marguerite Abigail, da. of Nathaniel Cohen. Margaret (b. 1864) m. (1895) Sir Theodore Morison, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., C.B.E. (1863-1936). William Herbert (1866-1914). Mary Freda m. (1914) (2nd wife) Sir Thomas Colyer-Fergusson (Bart.) (1865-1951). Katharine (1875-1924) m. (1897) Col. Jacob ( Waley Cohen C.M.G., C.B.E., ? D.S.O. I Margery Emmeline m. (1926) Charles Clifton Roberts |d. 1935). Charles Benjamin (b. 1894) m. Winifred Dorothy, da. of W. Ernest Lord. Anne. I Son (b. 1924). Arthur Neville (b. 1898) m. (1927) Judith, da. of Capt. S. W. Luard. 1 3 sons. John ?rtl Levisseu (b. 191*</page><page sequence="23">B [E DESCENDANTS OF LEVI BARENT COHEN (For children by first wife see Table A) Levi Barent Cohen m. (2) Lydia Diamantschleifer (1751 -1818). Hannah (1783-1850) m. (1806) Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836). y Hannah (1823-1891) m; (1841) Ippolito Leonino. (d. .877) y Judith (1784-1862) m. (1812) (Sir) Moses Montefiore (Bart.) (1784-1885) (s.p.). Benjamin (1789-1867) m. (1819) Justina, da. of Joseph Elias Montefiore (1800-1873) Isaac (1791-1846) m. (1) (1818) Rebecca da. of Dr. Joseph Hart Myers (1793-1819) (2) (1827) Sarah, da. of Phineas Samuel (1810-1879). Hyman (b. &amp; d. 1793) Jessie (1795-1869) m.(i8i6) Meyer Davidson (d. 1846). I Adeline (1799-1877) m. (1817) John Helberl (1785-1861). I John (1828-1836). Juliana (1831-1877). m.(1850) Baron Mayer Amschel de Rothschild (1818-1874). Anna Louisa (1835-1902). Lucy (1839-1906). Lionel Benjamin (1826-1890), m. (1) (1849) Henrietta Rachel, da. of Joseph Salomons (1827-1859) (2) (i860) Bertha, da. of Philip J. Salomons (1841-1917). Florence Justina (1857-1920) m. (1) (1876) Abraham de Mattos Mocatta. (1855-1891) (2) (1892) Rt. Hon. Sir David Brynmor Jones, K.C., M.P. (1852-1921) s.p. Nathaniel (1827-1911) m. (i860) Rebecca, da. of Philip Lucas (1839-1890). (Rt. Hon.) Arthur (K.C.) (1829-1914) m. (i860) Emmeline, da. of Henry Micholls (1843-1888). Justina Rachel (1864-1889) m. (1888) (ist wife) John Felix Waley (b. 1862) Philip Arthur (1866-1937). Marguerite Abigail (1871-1942) (m. 1890) (Sir) Benjamin Arthur Cohen, K.C. Ethel (b.&amp;d. 1869). Elsie Juliana (1872-1875).. Margaret (b. 1864) m. (1895) Sir Theodore Morison, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., C.B.E. (1863-1936). y William Herbert (1866-1914). enjamin (b. l. Winifred f, da. of est Lord. Son (b. 1924). Arthur Neville (b. 1898) m. (1927) Judith, da. of Capt. S. W. Luard. 1 3 sons. Mary Freda m. (1914) (2nd wife) Sir Thomas Colyer-Fergusson (Bart.) (1865-1951). Katharine (1875-1924) m. (1897) Col. Jacob Waley Cohen C.M.G., C.B.E., D.S.O. \ Harry Montefiore (1877-1946) m. (1912) Elsa, da. of Moritz Levisseur, of Bloemfontein Winifred Emmeline m. (1905) Col. Bernard Arnold Barrington Butler C.M.G., D.S.O. (1878-1918). y John Arthur Levisseur (b. 1915) Josephine Lucy Brunette m- (i937) Malcolm Baird.</page></plain_text>